Remove vestiges of good standing, clean draft up for publication already...
authorcharles
Mon, 22 Dec 2014 01:04:42 +0300
changeset 133 3c4bc56ce16b
parent 132 c42095c2375d
child 134 d36958ef9d49
Remove vestiges of good standing, clean draft up for publication already...
cover.html
--- a/cover.html	Sun Dec 21 22:27:47 2014 +0300
+++ b/cover.html	Mon Dec 22 01:04:42 2014 +0300
@@ -1,9 +1,9 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="content-type">
    <meta name="keywords" content="W3C, World Wide Web, Web, WWW, Consortium, process, Team, Recommendation, Advisory Committee, Advisory Board, Working Group, Coordination Group, Interest Group, W3C Activity, Workshop, Symposium, charter, Activity Proposal, Working Draft, Process Document, Candidate Recommendation, Director, Proposed Recommendation, Last Call, Submission request">
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/base.css">
    <title>World Wide Web Consortium Process Document</title>
    <style type="text/css">
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     table { margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto }
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</style> <!--[if lt IE 9]><script src='undefined://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]-->
  </head>
  <body>
    <div class="head"><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img alt="W3C" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home"
          height="48"
          width="72"></a>
      <h1>W3C Draft Process Document</h1>
      <h2 class="notoc">20 December 2014 Editor's Draft</h2>
      <dl>
        <dt>Latest Editor's version:</dt>
        <dd> <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/raw-file/default/cover.html">https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/raw-file/default/cover.html</a></dd>
        <dt>Latest operative version:</dt>
        <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/">http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/</a></dd>
        <dt>Previous operative version:</dt>
        <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/">14 October
            2005 Process</a></dd>
        <dt>Editor:</dt>
        <dd>Charles McCathie Nevile, <a style="color:black" href="http://yandex.com"><span
              style="color: red;">Y</span>andex</a>—<a
            style="color:black"
            href="http://yandex.ru"><span
              style="color: red;">Я</span>ндекс</a></dd>
        <dt>Previous editor:</dt>
        <dd>Ian Jacobs, <a href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C</a></dd>
      </dl>
      <p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a>
        © 1996-2014 <a href="/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup>
        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>),
+<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="content-type">
    <meta name="keywords" content="W3C, World Wide Web, Web, WWW, Consortium, process, Team, Recommendation, Advisory Committee, Advisory Board, Working Group, Coordination Group, Interest Group, W3C Activity, Workshop, Symposium, charter, Activity Proposal, Working Draft, Process Document, Candidate Recommendation, Director, Proposed Recommendation, Last Call, Submission request">
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/base.css">
    <title>World Wide Web Consortium Process Document</title>
    <style type="text/css">
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  </head>
  <body>
    <div class="head"><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img alt="W3C" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home"
          height="48"
          width="72"></a>
      <h1>W3C Draft Process Document</h1>
      <h2 class="notoc">21 December 2014 Editor's Draft</h2>
      <dl>
        <dt>Latest Editor's version:</dt>
        <dd> <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/raw-file/default/cover.html">https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/raw-file/default/cover.html</a></dd>
        <dt>Latest operative version:</dt>
        <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/">http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/</a></dd>
        <dt>Previous operative version:</dt>
        <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/">14 October
            2005 Process</a></dd>
        <dt>Editor:</dt>
        <dd>Charles McCathie Nevile, <a style="color:black" href="http://yandex.com"><span
              style="color: red;">Y</span>andex</a>—<a
            style="color:black"
            href="http://yandex.ru"><span
              style="color: red;">Я</span>ндекс</a></dd>
        <dt>Previous editor:</dt>
        <dd>Ian Jacobs, <a href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C</a></dd>
      </dl>
      <p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a>
        © 1996-2014 <a href="/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup>
        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>),
         All Rights Reserved. W3C <a href="/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
        <a href="/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a>, <a
          rel="Copyright"
          href="/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document
           use</a> and <a rel="Copyright" href="/Consortium/Legal/copyright-software">software
           licensing</a> rules apply. Your interactions with this site are in
        accordance with our <a href="/Consortium/Legal/privacy-statement#Public">public</a>
        and <a href="/Consortium/Legal/privacy-statement#Members">Member</a>
        privacy statements.</p>
      <hr></div>
    <h2 class="notoc"><a id="abstract">Abstract</a></h2>
    <p>The mission of the World Wide Web Consortium (<abbr>W3C</abbr>) is to
      lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common
      protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability. The
      W3C Process Document describes the organizational structure of the W3C and
      the processes related to the responsibilities and functions they exercise
      to enable W3C to accomplish its mission. This document does not describe
      the internal workings of the Team or W3C's public communication
      mechanisms.</p>
    <p>For more information about the W3C mission and the history of W3C, please
      refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/">About W3C</a> [<a href="#ref-mission">PUB15</a>].</p>
    <h2 class="notoc"><a id="status">Status of this Document</a></h2>
    <p>W3C, including all existing chartered groups, follows the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/">most
-        recent operative Process Document</a> announced to the Membership.</p>
    <p>This is the 16 December 2014 Editor's draft for the proposed next version
      of the W3C Process Document. This document is based on the 30 September
      review draft, itself based on the 1 August 2014 Process, developed between
      the <a href="/2002/ab/">W3C Advisory Board</a> and the <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/">Revising
-        W3C Process Community Group</a> and adopted as the currently operative
      Process. </p>
    <p>In <em>this draft</em>, A <a href="#changes">change history</a>
      (compared to the 2014 Process Document) forms part of the draft.</p>
    <p>During the rest of 2014 the document will be developed in preparation for
      adopting a revised process in 2015.</p>
    <p>Public comment is invited on the draft. Please send comments about this
      document to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/">Revising
        W3C Process Community Group</a> (<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-w3process/">Mailing
+        recent operative Process Document</a> announced to the Membership.</p>
    <p>This is the 21 December 2014 Editor's draft for the proposed next version
      of the W3C Process Document. This document is based on the 30 September
      review draft, itself based on the 1 August 2014 Process, developed between
      the <a href="/2002/ab/">W3C Advisory Board</a> and the <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/">Revising
+        W3C Process Community Group</a> and adopted as the currently operative
      Process. </p>
    <p>In <em>this draft</em>, Coordination Groups have been removed (<a href="https://www.w3.org/community/w3process/track/issues/129">Issue-129</a>),
      along with some vestigial aspects of the Good Standing rules. A <a href="#changes">change
        history</a> (compared to the 2014 Process Document) forms part of the
      draft.</p>
    <p>During the rest of 2014 the document will be developed in preparation for
      adopting a revised process in 2015.</p>
    <p>Public comment is invited on the draft. Please send comments about this
      document to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/">Revising
        W3C Process Community Group</a> (<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-w3process/">Mailing
         list archive</a>, publicly available) or to [email protected] (<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/process-issues">Member-only
         archive</a>). A <a href="https://www.w3.org/community/w3process/track/">Public
         Issue Tracker</a> and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/">detailed
        changelogs</a> are available online. </p>
    <h2 class="notoc"><a id="pp">Relation of Process Document to Patent Policy</a></h2>
    <p>W3C Members' attention is called to the fact that provisions of the
      Process Document are binding on Members per the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
@@ -21,7 +21,8 @@
             Architecture Group (TAG)</a>, to help resolve Consortium-wide
          technical issues; and the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board (AB)</a>, to
          help resolve Consortium-wide non-technical issues, and to manage the <a
            href="#GAProcess">evolution
             of the W3C process</a>, and</li>
        <li>describe other interactions between the <a href="#Members">Members</a>
          (as represented by the <a href="#AC">W3C Advisory Committee</a>), the
          Team, and the general public.</li>
      </ol>
      <h2>2 <a id="Organization">Members, Advisory Committee, Team, Advisory
          Board, Technical Architecture Group</a></h2>
      <p>W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its full potential. W3C <a href="#Members">Member</a>
        organizations provide resources to this end, and the W3C <a href="#Team">Team</a>
        provides the technical leadership and organization to coordinate the
        effort.</p>
      <h3>2.1 <a id="Members">Members</a></h3>
      <p>W3C Members are primarily represented in W3C processes as follows:</p>
      <ol>
        <li>The <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a> is composed of one
          representative from each Member organization (refer to the <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a>
          list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/ACList">current Advisory
            Committee representatives</a> [<a href="#ref-current-ac">MEM1</a>]).
          The Advisory Committee:
          <ul>
            <li>reviews plans for W3C at each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory
                Committee meeting</a>;</li>
            <li>reviews formal proposals from the W3C Director: <a href="#CharterReview">Charter
                 Proposals</a>, <a href="#RecsPR">Proposed Recommendations</a>,
              and <a href="#GAProcess">Proposed Process Documents</a>.</li>
            <li>elects the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a> participants other
              than the Advisory Board Chair.</li>
            <li>elects 5 of the 9 participants on the <a href="#TAG">Technical
                Architecture Group</a>.</li>
          </ul>
          Advisory Committee representatives have <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a>
          powers for some processes described in this document.</li>
        <li>Representatives of Member organizations participate in <a href="#GAGeneral">Working
-            Groups and Interest Groups</a> and author and review <a href="#Reports">technical
            reports</a>.</li>
      </ol>
      <p><a id="MemberSubscription">W3C membership</a> is open to all entities,
        as described in "<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/join">How to Join
          W3C</a>" [<a href="#ref-join-w3c">PUB5</a>]; (refer to the public list
        of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Member/List">current W3C
          Members</a> [<a href="#ref-current-mem">PUB8</a>]). Organizations
        subscribe according to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
+            Groups and Interest Groups</a> and author and review <a href="#Reports">technical
+            reports</a>.</li>
      </ol>
      <p><a id="MemberSubscription">W3C membership</a> is open to all entities,
        as described in "<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/join">How to Join
          W3C</a>" [<a href="#ref-join-w3c">PUB5</a>]; (refer to the public list
        of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Member/List">current W3C
          Members</a> [<a href="#ref-current-mem">PUB8</a>]). Organizations
        subscribe according to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
           Agreement</a> [<a href="#ref-member-agreement">PUB6</a>]. The <a href="#Team">Team</a>
        <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> ensure that Member participation
        agreements remain <a href="#Team-only">Team-only</a> and that no Member
        receives preferential treatment within W3C.</p>
      <p><a id="IndividualParticipation">W3C does not have a class of membership
          tailored to, or priced for individuals</a>. However, an individual <span
          class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        join W3C as an Affiliate Member. In this case the same restrictions
        pertaining to <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a> apply when
        the individual also <a href="#member-rep">represents</a> another W3C
        Member.</p>
      <h4>2.1.1 <a id="MemberBenefits">Rights of Members</a></h4>
      <p>Each Member organization enjoys the following rights and benefits:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>A seat on the <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>;</li>
        <li>Access to <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a> information;</li>
        <li>The <a href="#Submission">Member Submission</a> process;</li>
        <li>Use of the W3C Member logo on promotional material and to publicize
          the Member's participation in W3C. For more information, please refer
          to the Member logo usage policy described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New
 Member
             Orientation</a> [<a href="#ref-new-member">MEM4</a>].</li>
      </ul>
      <p>Furthermore, representatives of Member organizations participate in W3C
        as follows:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>In <a href="#GAGeneral">Working Groups and Interest Groups</a>.</li>
        <li>In <a href="#GAEvents">Workshops and Symposia</a>;</li>
        <li>On the Team, as <a href="#fellows">W3C Fellows</a>.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>In the case (described in paragraph 5g of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
@@ -35,8 +36,7 @@
           year</span> in advance.</p>
      <p>More information about <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Meeting/">Advisory
 Committee
           meetings</a> [<a href="#ref-ac-meetings">MEM5</a>] is available at the
        Member Web site.</p>
      <h3>2.2 <a id="Team">The W3C Team</a></h3>
      <p>The Team consists of the <a id="def-Director">Director</a>, <a id="def-W3CChair">CEO</a>,
        W3C paid staff, unpaid interns, and W3C Fellows. <a id="fellows">W3C
          Fellows</a> are Member employees working as part of the Team; see the
        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Recruitment/Fellows">W3C Fellows
          Program</a> [<a href="#ref-fellows">PUB32</a>]. The Team provides
        technical leadership about Web technologies, organizes and manages W3C
        activities to reach goals within practical constraints (such as
        resources available), and communicates with the Members and the public
        about the Web and W3C technologies.</p>
      <p>The Director and CEO <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> delegate
        responsibility (generally to other individuals in the Team) for any of
        their roles described in this document.</p>
      <p>The Director is the lead technical architect at W3C. His
        responsibilities are identified throughout this document in relevant
        places, but include assessing <a href="#def-Consensus" id="DirectorDecision">consensus</a>
        within W3C for architectural choices, publication of <a href="#Reports">technical
-          reports</a>, and new activities. The Director appoints group <a href="#GeneralChairs">Chairs</a>
        and has the role of "tie-breaker" for questions of <a href="#good-standing">Good
-          Standing</a> in a Working Group or <a href="#WGAppeals">appeal of a
          Working Group decision</a>. The Director is generally Chair of the <a
          href="#TAG">TAG</a>.</p>
      <p>The CEO leads Member relations, and <a href="#Liaisons">liaisons</a>
        with other organizations, governments, and the public.</p>
      <p>The <a id="def-COO">Chief Operating Officer</a> (<abbr>COO</abbr>)
        leads the operation of W3C as an organization: a collection of people, <a
          href="#hosts">Host
+          reports</a>, and new activities. The Director appoints group <a href="#GeneralChairs">Chairs</a>
        and has the role of "tie-breaker" for <a href="#WGAppeals">appeal of a
          Working Group decision</a>. The Director is generally Chair of the <a
          href="#TAG">TAG</a>.</p>
      <p>The CEO leads Member relations, and <a href="#Liaisons">liaisons</a>
        with other organizations, governments, and the public.</p>
      <p>The <a id="def-COO">Chief Operating Officer</a> (<abbr>COO</abbr>)
        leads the operation of W3C as an organization: a collection of people, <a
          href="#hosts">Host
           institutions</a>, and processes.</p>
      <p>Team administrative information such as Team salaries, detailed
        budgeting, and other business decisions are <a href="#Team-only">Team-only</a>,
        subject to oversight by the Host institutions.</p>
      <p><strong>Note:</strong> W3C is not currently incorporated. For legal
        contracts, W3C is represented by three <a id="hosts">"Host"
          institutions</a>: the European Research Consortium for Informatics and
        Mathematics (<abbr>ERCIM</abbr>), Keio University, and the Massachusetts
        Institute of Technology (<abbr>MIT</abbr>). Within W3C, the Host
        institutions are governed by joint sponsorship contracts; the Hosts
        themselves are not W3C Members.</p>
      <h4>2.2.1 <a id="TeamSubmission">Team Submissions</a></h4>
      <p>Team members <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> request that the
        Director publish information at the W3C Web site. At the Director's
        discretion, these documents are published as "Team Submissions". These
        documents are analogous to <a href="#Submission">Member Submissions</a>
        (e.g., in <a href="#SubmissionScope">expected scope</a>). However,
        there is no additional Team comment. The <a href="#DocumentStatus">document
           status section</a> of a Team Submission indicates the level of Team
        consensus about the published material.</p>
      <p>Team Submissions are <strong>not</strong> part of the <a href="#Reports">technical
           report development process</a>.</p>
      <p>The list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/">published Team
          Submissions</a> [<a href="#ref-team-submission-list">PUB16</a>] is
        available at the W3C Web site.</p>
      <h3>2.3 <a id="AB">Advisory Board (AB)</a></h3>
      <p>Created in March 1998, the Advisory Board provides ongoing guidance to
        the Team on issues of strategy, management, legal matters, process, and
        conflict resolution. The Advisory Board also serves the Members by
        tracking issues raised between Advisory Committee meetings, soliciting
        Member comments on such issues, and proposing actions to resolve these
        issues. The Advisory Board manages the <a href="#GAProcess">evolution
          of the Process Document</a>. The Advisory Board hears appeals of <a href="#SubmissionNo">Member
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
           home page</a> [<a href="#ref-ab-home">PUB30</a>].</p>
      <h4>2.3.1 <a id="ABParticipation">Advisory Board Participation</a></h4>
      <p>The Advisory Board consists of nine elected participants and a Chair.
        The Team appoints the Chair of the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>,
        who is generally the <a href="#def-W3CChair">CEO</a>.</p>
      <p>The remaining nine Advisory Board participants are elected by the W3C
        Advisory Committee following the <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">AB/TAG
          nomination and election process</a>.</p>
      <p>With the exception of the Chair, the terms of all Advisory Board
        participants are for <span class="time-interval">two years</span>.
        Terms are staggered so that each year, either four or five terms expire.
        If an individual is elected to fill an incomplete term, that
        individual's term ends at the normal expiration date of that term.
        Regular Advisory Board terms begin on 1 July and end on 30 June.</p>
      <h3>2.4 <a id="TAG">Technical Architecture Group (TAG)</a></h3>
      <p>Created in February 2001, the mission of the TAG is stewardship of the
        Web architecture. There are three aspects to this mission:</p>
      <ol>
        <li>to document and build consensus around principles of Web
          architecture and to interpret and clarify these principles when
          necessary;</li>
        <li>to resolve issues involving general Web architecture brought to the
          TAG;</li>
        <li>to help coordinate cross-technology architecture developments inside
          and outside W3C.</li>
      </ol>
      <p>The TAG hears appeals of <a href="#SubmissionNo">Member Submission
          requests</a> that are rejected for reasons related to Web
        architecture; see also the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>.</p>
      <p>The TAG's scope is limited to technical issues about Web architecture.
        The TAG <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</span> consider
        administrative, process, or organizational policy issues of W3C, which
        are generally addressed by the W3C Advisory Committee, Advisory Board,
        and Team. Please refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/07/19-tag">TAG
           charter</a> [<a href="#ref-tag-charter">PUB25</a>] for more
        information about the background and scope of the TAG, and the expected
        qualifications of TAG participants.</p>
      <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> make available two mailing
        lists for the TAG:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>a public discussion (not just input) list for issues of Web
          architecture. The TAG will conduct its public business on this list.</li>
        <li>a <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a> list for discussions
          within the TAG and for requests to the TAG that, for whatever reason,
          cannot be made on the public list.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>The TAG <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> also request the creation of
        additional topic-specific, public mailing lists. For some TAG
        discussions (e.g., an appeal of a <a href="#SubmissionNo">rejected
          Member Submission request</a>), the TAG <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        use a list that will be <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a>.</p>
      <p>The TAG <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> send a summary of each of
        its <a href="#GeneralMeetings">meetings</a> to the Advisory Committee
        and other group Chairs. The TAG <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        also report on its activities at each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory
          Committee meeting</a>.</p>
      <p>When the TAG votes to resolve an issue, each TAG participant (whether
        appointed, elected, or the Chair) has one vote; see also the section on
        <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/07/19-tag#Voting">voting in the TAG
          charter</a> [<a href="#ref-tag-charter">PUB25</a>] and the general
        section on <a href="#Votes">votes</a> in this Process Document.</p>
      <p>Details about the TAG (e.g., the list of TAG participants, mailing list
        information, and summaries of TAG meetings) are available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/">TAG
           home page</a> [<a href="#ref-tag-home">PUB26</a>].</p>
      <h4>2.4.1 <a id="tag-participation">Technical Architecture Group
          Participation</a></h4>
      <p>The TAG consists of eight elected or appointed participants and a
        Chair. The Team appoints the Chair of the TAG, who is generally the <a
          href="#def-Director">Director</a>.</p>
      <p>Three TAG participants are appointed by the Director. Appointees are <span
          class="rfc2119">NOT
-          REQUIRED</span> to be on the W3C Team. The Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        appoint <a href="#fellows">W3C Fellows</a> to the TAG.</p>
      <p>The remaining five TAG participants are elected by the W3C Advisory
        Committee following the <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">AB/TAG nomination
          and election process</a>.</p>
      <p>With the exception of the Chair, the terms of all TAG participants are
        for <span class="time-interval">two years</span>. Terms are staggered
        so that each year, either two or three elected terms, and either one or
        two appointed terms expire. If an individual is appointed or elected to
        fill an incomplete term, that individual's term ends at the normal
        expiration date of that term. Regular TAG terms begin on 1 February and
        end on 31 January.</p>
      <h3>2.5 <a id="AB-TAG-participation">Advisory Board and Technical
          Architecture Group Participation</a></h3>
      <p>Advisory Board and TAG participants have a special role within W3C:
        they are elected by the Membership and appointed by the Director with
        the expectation that they will use their best judgment to find the best
        solutions for the Web, not just for any particular network, technology,
        vendor, or user. Advisory Board and TAG participants are expected to
        participate regularly and fully. <a href="#good-standing">Good Standing</a>
        rules as defined for Working Group participants also apply to Advisory
        Board and TAG participants. Advisory Board and TAG participants <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        attend <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory Committee meetings</a>.</p>
      <p>An individual participates on the Advisory Board or TAG from the moment
        the individual's term begins until the term ends or the seat is <a href="#AB-TAG-vacated">vacated</a>.
        Although Advisory Board and TAG participants do not advocate for the
        commercial interests of their employers, their participation does carry
        the responsibilities associated with Member representation, Invited
        Expert status, or Team representation (as described in the section on
        the <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">AB/TAG nomination and election process</a>).
+          REQUIRED</span> to be on the W3C Team. The Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        appoint <a href="#fellows">W3C Fellows</a> to the TAG.</p>
      <p>The remaining five TAG participants are elected by the W3C Advisory
        Committee following the <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">AB/TAG nomination
          and election process</a>.</p>
      <p>With the exception of the Chair, the terms of all TAG participants are
        for <span class="time-interval">two years</span>. Terms are staggered
        so that each year, either two or three elected terms, and either one or
        two appointed terms expire. If an individual is appointed or elected to
        fill an incomplete term, that individual's term ends at the normal
        expiration date of that term. Regular TAG terms begin on 1 February and
        end on 31 January.</p>
      <h3>2.5 <a id="AB-TAG-participation">Advisory Board and Technical
          Architecture Group Participation</a></h3>
      <p>Advisory Board and TAG participants have a special role within W3C:
        they are elected by the Membership and appointed by the Director with
        the expectation that they will use their best judgment to find the best
        solutions for the Web, not just for any particular network, technology,
        vendor, or user. Advisory Board and TAG participants are expected to
        participate regularly and fully. Advisory Board and TAG participants <span
          class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        attend <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory Committee meetings</a>.</p>
      <p>An individual participates on the Advisory Board or TAG from the moment
        the individual's term begins until the term ends or the seat is <a href="#AB-TAG-vacated">vacated</a>.
        Although Advisory Board and TAG participants do not advocate for the
        commercial interests of their employers, their participation does carry
        the responsibilities associated with Member representation, Invited
        Expert status, or Team representation (as described in the section on
        the <a href="#AB-TAG-elections">AB/TAG nomination and election process</a>).
         See also the licensing obligations on TAG participants in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Obligations">section
           3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
          Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>], and the
        claim exclusion process of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Exclusion">section
           4</a>.</p>
      <h4>2.5.1 <a id="AB-TAG-constraints">Advisory Board and Technical
          Architecture Group Participation Constraints</a></h4>
      <p>Given the few seats available on the Advisory Board and the TAG, and in
        order to ensure that the diversity of W3C Members is represented:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>A Member organization is permitted at most one participant on the
          TAG except when having more than one participant is caused by a change
          of affiliation of an existing participant. At the completion of the
          next regularly scheduled election for the TAG, the Member organization
          MUST have returned to having at most one participant.</li>
        <li>A Member organization is permitted at most one participant on the
          AB.</li>
        <li>An individual <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> participate on
          both the TAG and the AB.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>If, for whatever reason, these constraints are not satisfied (e.g.,
        because an AB participant changes jobs), one participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        cease AB participation until the situation has been resolved. If after <span
          class="time-interval">30
@@ -54,8 +54,7 @@
           Members</a>) <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> vote for as many
        candidates as there are available seats; see the section on <a href="#ACVotes">Advisory
           Committee votes</a>. Once the deadline for votes has passed, the Team
        announces the results to the Advisory Committee. The candidates with the
        most votes are elected to the available seats. In case of a tie where
        there are more apparent winners than available seats (e.g., three
        candidates receive 10 votes each for two seats), the <a href="#random">verifiable
           random selection procedure</a> described below will be used to fill
        the available seats.</p>
      <p id="short-term">The shortest term is assigned to the elected individual
        who received the fewest votes, the next shortest to the elected
        individual who received the next fewest, and so on. In the case of a tie
        among those eligible for a short term, the <a href="#random">verifiable
          random selection procedure</a> described below will be used to assign
        the short term.</p>
      <p>Refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/10/election-howto">How to
          Organize an Advisory Board or TAG election</a> [<a href="#ref-election-howto">MEM15</a>]
        for more details.</p>
      <h5>2.5.2.1 <a id="random">Verifiable Random Selection Procedure</a></h5>
      <p>When it is necessary to use a verifiable random selection process
        (e.g., in an AB or TAG election, to "draw straws" in case of a tie or to
        fill a short term), W3C uses the random and verifiable procedure defined
        in <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2777.txt">RFC 2777</a> [<a href="#ref-RFC2777">RFC2777</a>].
-        The procedure orders an input list of names (listed in alphabetical
        order by family name unless otherwise specified) into a "result order."</p>
      <p>W3C applies this procedure as follows:</p>
      <ol>
        <li>When N people have tied for M (less than N) seats. In this case,
          only the names of the N individuals who tied are provided as input to
          the procedure. The M seats are assigned in result order.</li>
        <li>After all elected individuals have been identified, when N people
          are eligible for M (less than N) short terms. In this case, only the
          names of those N individuals are provided as input to the procedure.
          The short terms are assigned in result order.</li>
      </ol>
      <h4>2.5.3 <a id="AB-TAG-vacated">Advisory Board and Technical
          Architecture Group Vacated Seats</a></h4>
      <p>An Advisory Board or TAG participant's seat is vacated when either of
        the following occurs:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>the participant <a href="#resignation">resigns</a>, or</li>
        <li>the Chair asks the participant to <a href="#resignation">resign</a>,
          for example because the participant has failed to remain in <a href="#good-standing">Good
-            Standing</a>.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>When an Advisory Board or TAG participant changes affiliations, as long
        as <a href="#AB-TAG-constraints">Advisory Board and TAG participation
          constraints</a> are respected, the individual <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        continue to participate until the next regularly scheduled election for
        that group. Otherwise, the seat is vacated.</p>
      <p>Vacated seats are filled according to this schedule:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>When an appointed TAG seat is vacated, the Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
          re-appoint someone immediately, but no later than the next regularly
          scheduled election.</li>
        <li>When an elected seat on either the AB or TAG is vacated, the seat is
          filled at the next regularly scheduled election for the group unless
          the group Chair requests that W3C hold an election before then (for
          instance, due to the group's workload). The group Chair <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD
+        The procedure orders an input list of names (listed in alphabetical
        order by family name unless otherwise specified) into a "result order."</p>
      <p>W3C applies this procedure as follows:</p>
      <ol>
        <li>When N people have tied for M (less than N) seats. In this case,
          only the names of the N individuals who tied are provided as input to
          the procedure. The M seats are assigned in result order.</li>
        <li>After all elected individuals have been identified, when N people
          are eligible for M (less than N) short terms. In this case, only the
          names of those N individuals are provided as input to the procedure.
          The short terms are assigned in result order.</li>
      </ol>
      <h4>2.5.3 <a id="AB-TAG-vacated">Advisory Board and Technical
          Architecture Group Vacated Seats</a></h4>
      <p>An Advisory Board or TAG participant's seat is vacated when either of
        the following occurs:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>the participant <a href="#resignation">resigns</a>, or</li>
        <li>the Chair asks the participant to <a href="#resignation">resign</a>.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>When an Advisory Board or TAG participant changes affiliations, as long
        as <a href="#AB-TAG-constraints">Advisory Board and TAG participation
          constraints</a> are respected, the individual <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        continue to participate until the next regularly scheduled election for
        that group. Otherwise, the seat is vacated.</p>
      <p>Vacated seats are filled according to this schedule:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>When an appointed TAG seat is vacated, the Director <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
          re-appoint someone immediately, but no later than the next regularly
          scheduled election.</li>
        <li>When an elected seat on either the AB or TAG is vacated, the seat is
          filled at the next regularly scheduled election for the group unless
          the group Chair requests that W3C hold an election before then (for
          instance, due to the group's workload). The group Chair <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD
             NOT</span> request an exceptional election if the next regularly
          scheduled election is fewer than three months away.</li>
      </ul>
      <h2>3 <a id="Policies">General Policies for W3C Groups</a></h2>
      <p>This section describes general policies for W3C groups regarding
        participation, meeting requirements, and decision-making. These policies
        apply to <a id="participant">participants</a> in the following groups:
        <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>, <a href="#ABParticipation">Advisory
           Board</a>, <a href="#tag-participation">TAG</a>, <a href="#wgparticipant">Working
           Groups</a>, and <a href="#igparticipant">Interest Groups</a>.</p>
      <h3>3.1 <a id="ParticipationCriteria">Individual Participation Criteria</a></h3>
      <p>There are three qualities an individual is expected to demonstrate in
        order to participate in W3C:</p>
      <ol>
        <li>Technical competence in one's role</li>
        <li>The ability to act fairly</li>
        <li>Social competence in one's role</li>
      </ol>
      <p>Advisory Committee representatives who nominate individuals from their
        organization for participation in W3C activities are responsible for
        assessing and attesting to the qualities of those nominees.</p>
      <p>See also the participation requirements described in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Disclosure">section
@@ -63,19 +62,16 @@
           Team conflict of interest policy</a> [<a href="#ref-coi">PUB23</a>].</p>
      <h4>3.1.2 <a id="member-rep">Individuals Representing a Member
          Organization</a></h4>
      <p>Generally, individuals representing a Member in an official capacity
        within W3C are employees of the Member organization. However, an
        Advisory Committee representative <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        designate a non-employee to represent the Member. Non-employee Member
        representatives <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> disclose relevant
        affiliations to the Team and to any group in which the individual
        participates.</p>
      <p>In exceptional circumstances (e.g., situations that might jeopardize
        the progress of a group or create a <a href="#coi">conflict of interest</a>),
         the <a href="#def-Director">Director</a> <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        decline to allow an individual designated by an Advisory Committee
        representative to participate in a group.</p>
      <p>A group charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> limit the number of
        individuals representing a W3C Member (or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related
           Members</a>).</p>
      <h3>3.2 <a id="GeneralMeetings">Meetings</a></h3>
      <p>W3C groups (including the <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory Committee</a>,
        <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>, <a href="#TAG">TAG</a>, and <a href="#GroupsWG">Working
-          Groups</a>) <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> observe the meeting
        requirements in this section.</p>
      <p>W3C distinguishes two types of meetings:</p>
      <ol>
        <li>A <a id="ftf-meeting">face-to-face meeting</a> is one where most of
          the attendees are expected to participate in the same physical
          location.</li>
        <li>A <a id="distributed-meeting">distributed meeting</a> is one where
          most of the attendees are expected to participate from remote
          locations (e.g., by telephone, video conferencing, or <abbr title="Internet Relay Chat">IRC</abbr>).</li>
      </ol>
      <p>A Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> invite an individual with a
        particular expertise to attend a meeting on an exceptional basis. This
        person is a meeting guest, not a group <a href="#participant">participant</a>.
        Meeting guests do not have <a href="#Votes">voting rights</a>. It is
        the responsibility of the Chair to ensure that all meeting guests
        respect the chartered <a href="#confidentiality-levels">level of
          confidentiality</a> and other group requirements.</p>
      <p>Meeting announcements <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> be sent to
        all appropriate group mailing lists, i.e., those most relevant to the
        anticipated meeting participants.</p>
      <p>The following table lists requirements for organizing a meeting:</p>
      <table border="1">
        <tbody>
          <tr>
            <th><br>
            </th>
            <th>Face-to-face meetings</th>
            <th>Distributed meetings</th>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Meeting announcement (before)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">eight weeks<sup>*</sup></span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">one week<sup>*</sup></span></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Agenda available (before)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">two weeks</span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span> (or longer if a
              meeting is scheduled after a weekend or holiday)</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Participation confirmed (before)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">three days</span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Action items available (after)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">three days</span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Minutes available (after)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">two weeks</span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">48 hours</span></td>
          </tr>
        </tbody>
      </table>
      <p><sup>*</sup> To allow proper planning (e.g., travel arrangements), the
        Chair is responsible for giving sufficient advance notice about the date
        and location of a meeting. Shorter notice for a meeting is allowed
        provided that there are no objections from group participants.</p>
      <h3>3.3 <a id="Consensus">Consensus</a></h3>
      <p>Consensus is a core value of W3C. To promote consensus, the W3C process
        requires Chairs to ensure that groups consider all legitimate views and
        objections, and endeavor to resolve them, whether these views and
        objections are expressed by the active participants of the group or by
        others (e.g., another W3C group, a group in another organization, or the
        general public). Decisions <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be made
        during meetings (<a href="#ftf-meeting">face-to-face</a> or <a href="#distributed-meeting">distributed</a>)
        as well as through email. <strong>Note:</strong> The Director, CEO, and
        COO have the role of assessing consensus within the Advisory Committee.</p>
      <p>The following terms are used in this document to describe the level of
        support for a decision among a set of eligible individuals:</p>
      <ol>
        <li><a id="def-Consensus">Consensus</a>: A substantial number of
          individuals in the set support the decision and nobody in the set
          registers a <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>.
          Individuals in the set may abstain. Abstention is either an explicit
          expression of no opinion or silence by an individual in the set. <a id="def-Unanimity">Unanimity</a>
          is the particular case of consensus where all individuals in the set
          support the decision (i.e., no individual in the set abstains).</li>
        <li><a id="def-Dissent">Dissent</a>: At least one individual in the set
          registers a <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>.</li>
      </ol>
      <p>By default, the set of individuals eligible to participate in a
        decision is the set of group participants in <a href="#good-standing">Good
-          Standing</a>. The Process Document does not require a quorum for
        decisions (i.e., the minimal number of eligible participants required to
        be present before the Chair can call a question). A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        include a quorum requirement for consensus decisions.</p>
      <p>Where unanimity is not possible, a group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        strive to make consensus decisions where there is significant support
        and few abstentions. The Process Document does not require a particular
        percentage of eligible participants to agree to a motion in order for a
        decision to be made. To avoid decisions where there is widespread
        apathy, (i.e., little support and many abstentions), groups <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        set minimum thresholds of active support before a decision can be
        recorded. The appropriate percentage <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        vary depending on the size of the group and the nature of the decision.
        A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include threshold
        requirements for consensus decisions. For instance, a charter might
        require a supermajority of eligible participants (i.e., some established
        percentage above 50%) to support certain types of consensus decisions.</p>
      <h4>3.3.1 <a id="managing-dissent">Managing Dissent</a></h4>
      <p>In some cases, even after careful consideration of all points of view,
        a group might find itself unable to reach consensus. The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        record a decision where there is dissent (i.e., there is at least one <a
          href="#FormalObjection">Formal
+          Groups</a>) <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> observe the meeting
        requirements in this section.</p>
      <p>W3C distinguishes two types of meetings:</p>
      <ol>
        <li>A <a id="ftf-meeting">face-to-face meeting</a> is one where most of
          the attendees are expected to participate in the same physical
          location.</li>
        <li>A <a id="distributed-meeting">distributed meeting</a> is one where
          most of the attendees are expected to participate from remote
          locations (e.g., by telephone, video conferencing, or <abbr title="Internet Relay Chat">IRC</abbr>).</li>
      </ol>
      <p>A Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> invite an individual with a
        particular expertise to attend a meeting on an exceptional basis. This
        person is a meeting guest, not a group <a href="#participant">participant</a>.
        Meeting guests do not have <a href="#Votes">voting rights</a>. It is
        the responsibility of the Chair to ensure that all meeting guests
        respect the chartered <a href="#confidentiality-levels">level of
          confidentiality</a> and other group requirements.</p>
      <p>Meeting announcements <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> be sent to
        all appropriate group mailing lists, i.e., those most relevant to the
        anticipated meeting participants.</p>
      <p>The following table lists requirements for organizing a meeting:</p>
      <table border="1">
        <tbody>
          <tr>
            <th><br>
            </th>
            <th>Face-to-face meetings</th>
            <th>Distributed meetings</th>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Meeting announcement (before)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">eight weeks<sup>*</sup></span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">one week<sup>*</sup></span></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Agenda available (before)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">two weeks</span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span> (or longer if a
              meeting is scheduled after a weekend or holiday)</td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Participation confirmed (before)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">three days</span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Action items available (after)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">three days</span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">24 hours</span></td>
          </tr>
          <tr>
            <th>Minutes available (after)</th>
            <td><span class="time-interval">two weeks</span></td>
            <td><span class="time-interval">48 hours</span></td>
          </tr>
        </tbody>
      </table>
      <p><sup>*</sup> To allow proper planning (e.g., travel arrangements), the
        Chair is responsible for giving sufficient advance notice about the date
        and location of a meeting. Shorter notice for a meeting is allowed
        provided that there are no objections from group participants.</p>
      <h3>3.3 <a id="Consensus">Consensus</a></h3>
      <p>Consensus is a core value of W3C. To promote consensus, the W3C process
        requires Chairs to ensure that groups consider all legitimate views and
        objections, and endeavor to resolve them, whether these views and
        objections are expressed by the active participants of the group or by
        others (e.g., another W3C group, a group in another organization, or the
        general public). Decisions <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be made
        during meetings (<a href="#ftf-meeting">face-to-face</a> or <a href="#distributed-meeting">distributed</a>)
        as well as through email. <strong>Note:</strong> The Director, CEO, and
        COO have the role of assessing consensus within the Advisory Committee.</p>
      <p>The following terms are used in this document to describe the level of
        support for a decision among a set of eligible individuals:</p>
      <ol>
        <li><a id="def-Consensus">Consensus</a>: A substantial number of
          individuals in the set support the decision and nobody in the set
          registers a <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>.
          Individuals in the set may abstain. Abstention is either an explicit
          expression of no opinion or silence by an individual in the set. <a id="def-Unanimity">Unanimity</a>
          is the particular case of consensus where all individuals in the set
          support the decision (i.e., no individual in the set abstains).</li>
        <li><a id="def-Dissent">Dissent</a>: At least one individual in the set
          registers a <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>.</li>
      </ol>
      <p>By default, the set of individuals eligible to participate in a
        decision is the set of group participants. The Process Document does not
        require a quorum for decisions (i.e., the minimal number of eligible
        participants required to be present before the Chair can call a
        question). A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include a quorum
        requirement for consensus decisions.</p>
      <p>Where unanimity is not possible, a group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        strive to make consensus decisions where there is significant support
        and few abstentions. The Process Document does not require a particular
        percentage of eligible participants to agree to a motion in order for a
        decision to be made. To avoid decisions where there is widespread
        apathy, (i.e., little support and many abstentions), groups <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        set minimum thresholds of active support before a decision can be
        recorded. The appropriate percentage <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        vary depending on the size of the group and the nature of the decision.
        A charter <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> include threshold
        requirements for consensus decisions. For instance, a charter might
        require a supermajority of eligible participants (i.e., some established
        percentage above 50%) to support certain types of consensus decisions.</p>
      <h4>3.3.1 <a id="managing-dissent">Managing Dissent</a></h4>
      <p>In some cases, even after careful consideration of all points of view,
        a group might find itself unable to reach consensus. The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        record a decision where there is dissent (i.e., there is at least one <a
          href="#FormalObjection">Formal
           Objection</a>) so that the group may make progress (for example, to
        produce a deliverable in a timely manner). Dissenters cannot stop a
        group's work simply by saying that they cannot live with a decision.
        When the Chair believes that the Group has duly considered the
        legitimate concerns of dissenters as far as is possible and reasonable,
        the group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> move on.</p>
      <p>Groups <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> favor proposals that create
        the weakest objections. This is preferred over proposals that are
        supported by a large majority but that cause strong objections from a
        few people. As part of making a decision where there is dissent, the
        Chair is expected to be aware of which participants work for the same
        (or <a href="#MemberRelated">related</a>) Member organizations and
        weigh their input accordingly.</p>
      <h4>3.3.2 <a id="WGArchiveMinorityViews">Recording and Reporting Formal
          Objections</a></h4>
      <p>In the W3C process, an individual may register a Formal Objection to a
        decision. A <a id="FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a> to a group
        decision is one that the reviewer requests that the Director consider as
        part of evaluating the related decision (e.g., in response to a <a href="#rec-advance">request
-          to advance</a> a technical report). <strong>Note:</strong> In this
        document, the term "Formal Objection" is used to emphasize this process
        implication: Formal Objections receive Director consideration. The word
        "objection" used alone has ordinary English connotations.</p>
      <p>An individual who registers a Formal Objection <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        cite technical arguments and propose changes that would remove the
        Formal Objection; these proposals <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be
        vague or incomplete. Formal Objections that do not provide substantive
        arguments or rationale are unlikely to receive serious consideration by
        the Director.</p>
      <p>A record of each Formal Objection <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be
        <a href="#confidentiality-change">publicly available</a>. A Call for
        Review (of a document) to the Advisory Committee <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        identify any Formal Objections.</p>
      <h4>3.3.3 <a id="formal-address">Formally Addressing an Issue</a></h4>
      <p>In the context of this document, a group has formally addressed an
        issue when it has sent a public, substantive response to the reviewer
        who raised the issue. A substantive response is expected to include
        rationale for decisions (e.g., a technical explanation, a pointer to
        charter scope, or a pointer to a requirements document). The adequacy of
        a response is measured against what a W3C reviewer would generally
        consider to be technically sound. If a group believes that a reviewer's
        comments result from a misunderstanding, the group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        seek clarification before reaching a decision.</p>
      <p>As a courtesy, both Chairs and reviewers <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        set expectations for the schedule of responses and acknowledgments. The
        group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> reply to a reviewer's initial
        comments in a timely manner. The group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        set a time limit for acknowledgment by a reviewer of the group's
        substantive response; a reviewer cannot block a group's progress. It is
        common for a reviewer to require a week or more to acknowledge and
        comment on a substantive response. The group's responsibility to respond
        to reviewers does not end once a reasonable amount of time has elapsed.
        However, reviewers <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> realize that
        their comments will carry less weight if not sent to the group in a
        timely manner.</p>
      <p>Substantive responses <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> be recorded.
        The group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> maintain an accurate
        summary of all substantive issues and responses to them (e.g., in the
        form of an issues list with links to mailing list archives).</p>
      <h4>3.3.4 <a id="WGChairReopen">Reopening a Decision When Presented With
          New Information</a></h4>
      <p>The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> reopen a decision when
        presented with new information, including:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>additional technical information,</li>
        <li>comments by email from participants who were unable to attend a
          scheduled meeting,</li>
        <li>comments by email from meeting attendees who chose not to speak out
          during a meeting (e.g., so they could confer later with colleagues or
          for cultural reasons).</li>
      </ul>
      <p>The Chair <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> record that a decision
        has been reopened, and <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> do so upon
        request from a group participant.</p>
      <h3>3.4 <a id="Votes">Votes</a></h3>
      <p>A group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> only conduct a vote to
        resolve a <em>substantive issue</em> after the Chair has determined
        that all available means of <a href="#Consensus">reaching consensus</a>
        through technical discussion and compromise have failed, and that a vote
        is necessary to break a deadlock. In this case the Chair <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        record (e.g., in the minutes of the meeting or in an archived email
        message):</p>
      <ul>
        <li>an explanation of the issue being voted on;</li>
        <li>the decision to conduct a vote (e.g., a simple majority vote) to
          resolve the issue;</li>
        <li>the outcome of the vote;</li>
        <li>any Formal Objections.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>In order to vote to resolve a substantive issue, an individual <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        be a group <a href="#participant">participant</a> in <a href="#good-standing">Good
-          Standing</a>. Each organization represented in the group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        have at most one vote, even when the organization is represented by
        several participants in the group (including Invited Experts). For the
        purposes of voting:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>A Member or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a>
          is considered a single organization.</li>
        <li>The <a href="#Team">Team</a> is considered an organization.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>Unless the charter states otherwise, <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited
+          to advance</a> a technical report). <strong>Note:</strong> In this
        document, the term "Formal Objection" is used to emphasize this process
        implication: Formal Objections receive Director consideration. The word
        "objection" used alone has ordinary English connotations.</p>
      <p>An individual who registers a Formal Objection <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        cite technical arguments and propose changes that would remove the
        Formal Objection; these proposals <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> be
        vague or incomplete. Formal Objections that do not provide substantive
        arguments or rationale are unlikely to receive serious consideration by
        the Director.</p>
      <p>A record of each Formal Objection <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be
        <a href="#confidentiality-change">publicly available</a>. A Call for
        Review (of a document) to the Advisory Committee <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        identify any Formal Objections.</p>
      <h4>3.3.3 <a id="formal-address">Formally Addressing an Issue</a></h4>
      <p>In the context of this document, a group has formally addressed an
        issue when it has sent a public, substantive response to the reviewer
        who raised the issue. A substantive response is expected to include
        rationale for decisions (e.g., a technical explanation, a pointer to
        charter scope, or a pointer to a requirements document). The adequacy of
        a response is measured against what a W3C reviewer would generally
        consider to be technically sound. If a group believes that a reviewer's
        comments result from a misunderstanding, the group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        seek clarification before reaching a decision.</p>
      <p>As a courtesy, both Chairs and reviewers <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        set expectations for the schedule of responses and acknowledgments. The
        group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> reply to a reviewer's initial
        comments in a timely manner. The group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        set a time limit for acknowledgment by a reviewer of the group's
        substantive response; a reviewer cannot block a group's progress. It is
        common for a reviewer to require a week or more to acknowledge and
        comment on a substantive response. The group's responsibility to respond
        to reviewers does not end once a reasonable amount of time has elapsed.
        However, reviewers <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> realize that
        their comments will carry less weight if not sent to the group in a
        timely manner.</p>
      <p>Substantive responses <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> be recorded.
        The group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> maintain an accurate
        summary of all substantive issues and responses to them (e.g., in the
        form of an issues list with links to mailing list archives).</p>
      <h4>3.3.4 <a id="WGChairReopen">Reopening a Decision When Presented With
          New Information</a></h4>
      <p>The Chair <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> reopen a decision when
        presented with new information, including:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>additional technical information,</li>
        <li>comments by email from participants who were unable to attend a
          scheduled meeting,</li>
        <li>comments by email from meeting attendees who chose not to speak out
          during a meeting (e.g., so they could confer later with colleagues or
          for cultural reasons).</li>
      </ul>
      <p>The Chair <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> record that a decision
        has been reopened, and <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> do so upon
        request from a group participant.</p>
      <h3>3.4 <a id="Votes">Votes</a></h3>
      <p>A group <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> only conduct a vote to
        resolve a <em>substantive issue</em> after the Chair has determined
        that all available means of <a href="#Consensus">reaching consensus</a>
        through technical discussion and compromise have failed, and that a vote
        is necessary to break a deadlock. In this case the Chair <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        record (e.g., in the minutes of the meeting or in an archived email
        message):</p>
      <ul>
        <li>an explanation of the issue being voted on;</li>
        <li>the decision to conduct a vote (e.g., a simple majority vote) to
          resolve the issue;</li>
        <li>the outcome of the vote;</li>
        <li>any Formal Objections.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>In order to vote to resolve a substantive issue, an individual <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        be a group <a href="#participant">participant</a>. Each organization
        represented in the group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> have at most
        one vote, even when the organization is represented by several
        participants in the group (including Invited Experts). For the purposes
        of voting:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>A Member or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a>
          is considered a single organization.</li>
        <li>The <a href="#Team">Team</a> is considered an organization.</li>
      </ul>
      <p>Unless the charter states otherwise, <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited
           Experts</a> <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> vote.</p>
      <p>If a participant is unable to attend a vote, that individual <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
        authorize anyone at the meeting to act as a <a id="proxy">proxy</a>.
        The absent participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> inform the
        Chair in writing who is acting as proxy, with written instructions on
        the use of the proxy. For a Working Group or Interest Group, see the
        related requirements regarding an individual who attends a meeting as a
        <a href="#mtg-substitute">substitute</a> for a participant.</p>
      <p>A group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> vote for other purposes than
        to resolve a substantive issue. For instance, the Chair often conducts a
        "straw poll" vote as a means of determining whether there is consensus
        about a potential decision.</p>
      <p>A group <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> also vote to make a process
        decision. For example, it is appropriate to decide by simple majority
        whether to hold a meeting in San Francisco or San Jose (there's not much
        difference geographically). When simple majority votes are used to
        decide minor issues, the minority are <span class="rfc2119">NOT
          REQUIRED</span> to state the reasons for their dissent, and the group
        is <span class="rfc2119">NOT REQUIRED</span> to record individual
        votes.</p>
      <p>A group charter <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> include formal
        voting procedures (e.g., quorum or threshold requirements) for making
        decisions about substantive issues.</p>
      <p>Procedures for <a href="#ACVotes">Advisory Committee votes</a> are
        described separately.</p>
      <h3>3.5 <a id="WGAppeals">Appeal of a Chair's Decision</a></h3>
      <p>Groups resolve issues through dialog. Individuals who disagree strongly
        with a decision <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> register with the
        Chair any <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objections</a> (e.g., to a
        decision made as the result of a <a href="#Votes">vote</a>).</p>
      <p>When group participants believe that their concerns are not being duly
        considered by the group, they <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> ask the
        <a href="#def-Director">Director</a> (for representatives of a Member
        organization, via their Advisory Committee representative) to confirm or
        deny the decision. The participants <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
        also make their requests known to the <a href="#TeamContact">Team
          Contact</a>. The Team Contact <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        inform the Director when a group participant has raised concerns about
        due process.</p>
      <p>Any requests to the Director to confirm a decision <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
        include a summary of the issue (whether technical or procedural),
        decision, and rationale for the objection. All counter-arguments,
        rationales, and decisions <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be
        recorded.</p>
      <p>Procedures for <a href="#ACAppeal">Advisory Committee appeals</a> are
        described separately.</p>
      <h3>3.6 <a id="resignation">Resignation from a Group</a></h3>
      <p>A W3C Member or Invited Expert <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> resign
        from a group. The Team will establish administrative procedures for
        resignation. See section 4.2. of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
 Patent
           Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>] for information
        about obligations remaining after resignation from certain groups.</p>
      <section id="chapterDissemination">
        <h2>4 <a id="dissemination">Dissemination Policies</a></h2>
        <p>The Team is responsible for managing communication within W3C and
          with the general public (e.g., news services, press releases, managing
          the Web site and access privileges, and managing calendars). Members <span
            class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
          solicit review by the Team prior to issuing press releases about their
          work within W3C.</p>
        <p>The Team makes every effort to ensure the persistence and
          availability of the following public information:</p>
        <ul>
          <li><a href="#Reports">W3C technical reports</a> whose publication has
            been approved by the Director. Per the Membership Agreement, W3C
            technical reports (and software) are available free of charge to the
            general public; (refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">W3C
               Document License</a> [<a href="#ref-doc-license">PUB18</a>]).</li>
          <li>A <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/mission">mission
              statement</a> [<a href="#ref-mission">PUB15</a>] that explains the
            purpose and mission of W3C, the key benefits for Members, and the
            organizational structure of W3C.</li>
          <li>Legal documents, including the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/Member-Agreement">Membership
               Agreement</a> [<a href="#ref-member-agreement">PUB6</a>]) and
            documentation of any legal commitments W3C has with other entities.</li>
          <li>The Process Document.</li>
          <li>Public results of W3C activities and <a href="#GAEvents">Workshops</a>.</li>
        </ul>
        <p>To keep the Members abreast of W3C meetings, Workshops, and review
          deadlines, the Team provides them with a regular (e.g., weekly) news
          service and maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Eventscal">calendar</a>
          [<a href="#ref-calendar">MEM3</a>] of official W3C events. Members are
          encouraged to send schedule and event information to the Team for
          inclusion on this calendar.</p>
        <h3>4.1 <a id="confidentiality-levels">Confidentiality Levels</a></h3>
        <p>There are three principal levels of access to W3C information (on the
          W3C Web site, in W3C meetings, etc.): public, Member-only, and
          Team-only.</p>
        <p>While much information made available by W3C is public, <a id="Member-only">"Member-only"
             information</a> is available to authorized parties only, including
          representatives of Member organizations, <a href="#invited-expert-wg">Invited
-            Experts</a>, the Advisory Board, the TAG, and the Team. For example,
          the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a> of some Working Groups may
          specify a Member-only confidentiality level for group proceedings.</p>
        <p><a id="Team-only">"Team-only" information</a> is available to the
          Team and other authorized parties.</p>
        <p>Those authorized to access Member-only and Team-only information:</p>
        <ul>
          <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> treat the information as
            confidential within W3C,</li>
          <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> use reasonable efforts to
            maintain the proper level confidentiality, and</li>
          <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> release this information to
            the general public or press.</li>
        </ul>
        <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> provide mechanisms to
          protect the confidentiality of Member-only information and ensure that
          authorized parties have proper access to this information. Documents <span
            class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
          clearly indicate whether they require Member-only confidentiality.
          Individuals uncertain of the confidentiality level of a piece of
          information <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> contact the Team.</p>
        <p>Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
          authorize Member-only access to <a href="#member-rep">Member
            representatives</a> and other individuals employed by the Member who
          are considered appropriate recipients. For instance, it is the
          responsibility of the Advisory Committee representative and other
          employees and official representatives of the organization to ensure
          that Member-only news announcements are distributed for internal use
          only within their organization. Information about Member mailing lists
          is available in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New
            Member Orientation</a>.</p>
        <h4>4.1.1 <a id="confidentiality-change">Changing Confidentiality Level</a></h4>
        <p>As a benefit of membership, W3C provides some Team-only and
          Member-only channels for certain types of communication. For example,
          Advisory Committee representatives can send <a href="#ACReview">reviews</a>
          to a Team-only channel. However, for W3C processes with a significant
          public component, such as the technical report development process, it
          is also important for information that affects decision-making to be
          publicly available. The Team <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> need to
          communicate Team-only information to a Working Group or the public.
          Similarly, a Working Group whose proceedings are Member-only <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
          make public information pertinent to the technical report development
          process.</p>
        <p>This document clearly indicates which information <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
          be available to Members or the public, even though that information
          was initially communicated on Team-only or Member-only channels. Only
          the Team and parties authorized by the Team change the level of
          confidentiality of this information. When doing so:</p>
        <ol>
          <li>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> use a version of the
            information that was expressly provided by the author for the new
            confidentiality level. In Calls for Review and other similar
            messages, the Team <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> remind
            recipients to provide such alternatives.</li>
          <li>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> attribute the
            version for the new confidentiality level to the author without the
            author's consent.</li>
          <li>If the author has not conveyed to the Team a version that is
            suitable for another confidentiality level, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
            make available a version that reasonably communicates what is
            required, while respecting the original level of confidentiality,
            and without attribution to the original author.</li>
        </ol>
      </section>
      <section id="ChapterGroups">
        <h2>6 <a id="GAGeneral">Working Groups and Interest Groups</a></h2>
        <p><a id="GAGroups">This document defines three types of groups:</a></p>
        <ol>
          <li><a href="#GroupsWG">Working Groups.</a> Working Groups typically
            produce deliverables (e.g., <a href="#rec-advance">Recommendation
              Track technical reports</a>, software, test suites, and reviews of
            the deliverables of other groups). There are <a href="#good-standing">Good
-              Standing</a> requirements for Working Group participation as well
            as additional participation requirements described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
+            Experts</a>, the Advisory Board, the TAG, and the Team. For example,
          the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a> of some Working Groups may
          specify a Member-only confidentiality level for group proceedings.</p>
        <p><a id="Team-only">"Team-only" information</a> is available to the
          Team and other authorized parties.</p>
        <p>Those authorized to access Member-only and Team-only information:</p>
        <ul>
          <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> treat the information as
            confidential within W3C,</li>
          <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> use reasonable efforts to
            maintain the proper level confidentiality, and</li>
          <li><span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> release this information to
            the general public or press.</li>
        </ul>
        <p>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> provide mechanisms to
          protect the confidentiality of Member-only information and ensure that
          authorized parties have proper access to this information. Documents <span
            class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span>
          clearly indicate whether they require Member-only confidentiality.
          Individuals uncertain of the confidentiality level of a piece of
          information <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> contact the Team.</p>
        <p>Advisory Committee representatives <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
          authorize Member-only access to <a href="#member-rep">Member
            representatives</a> and other individuals employed by the Member who
          are considered appropriate recipients. For instance, it is the
          responsibility of the Advisory Committee representative and other
          employees and official representatives of the organization to ensure
          that Member-only news announcements are distributed for internal use
          only within their organization. Information about Member mailing lists
          is available in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New
            Member Orientation</a>.</p>
        <h4>4.1.1 <a id="confidentiality-change">Changing Confidentiality Level</a></h4>
        <p>As a benefit of membership, W3C provides some Team-only and
          Member-only channels for certain types of communication. For example,
          Advisory Committee representatives can send <a href="#ACReview">reviews</a>
          to a Team-only channel. However, for W3C processes with a significant
          public component, such as the technical report development process, it
          is also important for information that affects decision-making to be
          publicly available. The Team <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> need to
          communicate Team-only information to a Working Group or the public.
          Similarly, a Working Group whose proceedings are Member-only <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
          make public information pertinent to the technical report development
          process.</p>
        <p>This document clearly indicates which information <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
          be available to Members or the public, even though that information
          was initially communicated on Team-only or Member-only channels. Only
          the Team and parties authorized by the Team change the level of
          confidentiality of this information. When doing so:</p>
        <ol>
          <li>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> use a version of the
            information that was expressly provided by the author for the new
            confidentiality level. In Calls for Review and other similar
            messages, the Team <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> remind
            recipients to provide such alternatives.</li>
          <li>The Team <span class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</span> attribute the
            version for the new confidentiality level to the author without the
            author's consent.</li>
          <li>If the author has not conveyed to the Team a version that is
            suitable for another confidentiality level, the Team <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
            make available a version that reasonably communicates what is
            required, while respecting the original level of confidentiality,
            and without attribution to the original author.</li>
        </ol>
      </section>
      <section id="ChapterGroups">
        <h2>6 <a id="GAGeneral">Working Groups and Interest Groups</a></h2>
        <p><a id="GAGroups">This document defines three types of groups:</a></p>
        <ol>
          <li><a href="#GroupsWG">Working Groups.</a> Working Groups typically
            produce deliverables (e.g., <a href="#rec-advance">Recommendation
              Track technical reports</a>, software, test suites, and reviews of
            the deliverables of other groups). There are additional
            participation requirements described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
               Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</li>
          <li><a href="#GroupsIG">Interest Groups.</a> The primary goal of an
            Interest Group is to bring together people who wish to evaluate
            potential Web technologies and policies. An Interest Group is a
            forum for the exchange of ideas.</li>
        </ol>
        <p>Interest Groups do not publish <a href="#RecsW3C">Recommendation
            Track technical reports</a>; see information about <a href="#WGNote">maturity
             levels for Interest Groups</a>.</p>
        <h3>6.1 <a id="ReqsAllGroups">Requirements for All Working and Interest
            Groups</a></h3>
        <p>Each group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> have a charter.
          Requirements for the charter depend on the group type. All group
          charters <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> be public (even if other
          proceedings of the group are <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a>).
          Existing charters that are not yet public <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
          be made public when next revised or extended (with attention to <a href="#confidentiality-change">changing
             confidentiality level</a>).</p>
        <p>Each group <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> have a <a id="GeneralChairs">Chair</a>
          (or co-Chairs) to coordinate the group's tasks. The Director appoints
          (and re-appoints) Chairs for all groups. The Chair is a <a href="#member-rep">Member
@@ -95,7 +91,7 @@
             requirement is mailing list subscription</a>, <a id="public-participant-ig">public
             participants</a>.</p>
        <p>Except where noted in this document or in a group charter, all
          participants share the same rights and responsibilities in a group;
          see also the <a href="#ParticipationCriteria">individual
            participation criteria</a>.</p>
        <p>A participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> represent at most
          one organization in a Working Group or Interest Group.</p>
        <p>An individual <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> become a Working or
          Interest Group participant at any time during the group's existence.
          See also relevant requirements in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-join">section
             4.3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
-            Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
        <p>On an exceptional basis, a Working or Interest Group participant <span
            class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
          designate a <a id="mtg-substitute">substitute</a> to attend a <a href="#GeneralMeetings">meeting</a>
          and <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> inform the Chair. The
          substitute <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> act on behalf of the
          participant, including for <a href="#Votes">votes</a>. For the
          substitute to vote, the participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
          inform the Chair in writing in advance. As a courtesy to the group, if
          the substitute is not well-versed in the group's discussions, the
          regular participant <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> authorize
          another participant to act as <a href="#proxy">proxy</a> for votes.
          For the purposes of <a href="#good-standing">Good Standing</a>, the
          regular representative and the substitute are considered the same
          participant.</p>
        <p>To allow rapid progress, Working Groups are intended to be small
          (typically fewer than 15 people) and composed of experts in the area
          defined by the charter. In principle, Interest Groups have no limit on
          the number of participants. When a Working Group grows too large to be
          effective, W3C <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> split it into an
          Interest Group (a discussion forum) and a much smaller Working Group
          (a core group of highly dedicated participants).</p>
        <p>See also the licensing obligations on Working Group participants in <a
            href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Obligations">section
+            Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p>
        <p>On an exceptional basis, a Working or Interest Group participant <span
            class="rfc2119">MAY</span>
          designate a <a id="mtg-substitute">substitute</a> to attend a <a href="#GeneralMeetings">meeting</a>
          and <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> inform the Chair. The
          substitute <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> act on behalf of the
          participant, including for <a href="#Votes">votes</a>. For the
          substitute to vote, the participant <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span>
          inform the Chair in writing in advance. As a courtesy to the group, if
          the substitute is not well-versed in the group's discussions, the
          regular participant <span class="rfc2119">SHOULD</span> authorize
          another participant to act as <a href="#proxy">proxy</a> for votes.</p>
        <p>To allow rapid progress, Working Groups are intended to be small
          (typically fewer than 15 people) and composed of experts in the area
          defined by the charter. In principle, Interest Groups have no limit on
          the number of participants. When a Working Group grows too large to be
          effective, W3C <span class="rfc2119">MAY</span> split it into an
          Interest Group (a discussion forum) and a much smaller Working Group
          (a core group of highly dedicated participants).</p>
        <p>See also the licensing obligations on Working Group participants in <a
            href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Obligations">section
             3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
             Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#ref-patentpolicy">PUB33</a>], and the
          patent claim exclusion process of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy#sec-Exclusion">section
             4</a>.</p>
        <h5>6.2.1.1 <a id="member-rep-wg">Member Representative</a> in a
          Working Group</h5>
        <p>An individual is a Member representative in a Working Group if all of
          the following conditions are satisfied:</p>
        <ul>
          <li>the Advisory Committee representative of the Member in question
            has designated the individual as a Working Group participant, and</li>
          <li>the individual qualifies for <a href="#member-rep">Member
              representation</a>.</li>
        </ul>
        <p><a id="member-rep-info">To designate an individual as a Member
            representative in a Working Group</a>, an Advisory Committee
          representative <span class="rfc2119">MUST</span> provide the Chair
          and Team Contact with all of the following information, in addition to
          any other information required by the <a href="#cfp">Call for
            Participation</a> and charter (including the participation
          requirements of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy">W3C
@@ -216,4 +212,4 @@
               Notice and License</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-translations"><b>[PUB20]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Translation/">Translations
               of W3C technical reports</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-pub-mailing-lists"><b>[PUB21]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Mail/">Public W3C mailing lists</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-coi"><b>[PUB23]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/06-conflictpolicy">Conflict
              of Interest Policy for W3C Team Members Engaged in Outside
              Professional Activities</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-tag-charter"><b>[PUB25]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/07/19-tag">Technical
              Architecture Group (TAG) Charter</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-tag-home"><b>[PUB26]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/">The TAG home page</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-rec-tips"><b>[PUB27]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/05/rec-tips">Tips for Getting
              to Recommendation Faster</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-liaison-list"><b>[PUB28]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/11/StdLiaison">W3C liaisons
              with other organizations</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-ab-home"><b>[PUB30]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/ab/">The Advisory Board home
              page</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-pubrules"><b>[PUB31]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/pubrules">Publication Rules</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-fellows"><b>[PUB32]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Recruitment/Fellows">W3C
              Fellows Program</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-patentpolicy"><b>[PUB33]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5
              Feb 2004 version of the W3C Patent Policy</a></cite>. The <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy/">latest
             version of the W3C Patent Policy</a> is available at
          http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy/.</dd>
        <dt><a id="in-place-tr-mod">[PUB35]</a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2003/01/republishing/">In-place
              modification of W3C Technical Reports</a></cite></dd>
      </dl>
      <h3>13.2 <a id="member-refs">Member-only Resources</a></h3>
      <p>The following <a href="#Member-only">Member-only</a> information is
        available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C Web site</a>.</p>
      <dl>
        <dt><a id="ref-current-ac"><b>[MEM1]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/ACList">Current Advisory
              Committee representatives</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-mailing-lists"><b>[MEM2]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Mail/">Group mailing lists</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-calendar"><b>[MEM3]</b></a></dt>
        <dd>The <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Eventscal">calendar of
              all scheduled official W3C events</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-new-member"><b>[MEM4]</b></a></dt>
        <dd>The <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New Member
              Orientation</a></cite>, which includes an introduction to W3C
          processes from a practical standpoint, including relevant email
          addresses.</dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-ac-meetings"><b>[MEM5]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Meeting/">Advisory Committee
              meetings</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-member-web"><b>[MEM6]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/">Member Web site</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-member-sub"><b>[MEM8]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/submission">How to send a
              Submission request</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-guide"><b>[MEM9]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/">The Art of Consensus</a></cite>,
          a guidebook for W3C Working Group Chairs and other collaborators</dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-discipline-gl"><b>[MEM14]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/09/discipline">Guidelines for
              Disciplinary Action</a></cite></dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-election-howto"><b>[MEM15]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/10/election-howto">How to
              Organize an Advisory Board or TAG election</a></cite></dd>
      </dl>
      <h3>13.3 <a id="other-refs">Other References</a></h3>
      <dl>
        <dt><a id="ref-RFC2119"><b>[RFC2119]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">"Key words for
              use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels"</a></cite>, S.
          Bradner, March 1997.</dd>
        <dt><a id="ref-RFC2777"><b>[RFC2777]</b></a></dt>
        <dd><cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2777.txt">"Publicly
              Verifiable Nomcom Random Selection"</a></cite>, D. Eastlake 3rd,
          February 2000.</dd>
      </dl>
      <h2>14 <a id="acks">Acknowledgments</a></h2>
      <p>The following individuals have contributed to this proposal for a
        revised Process: Daniel Appelquist (Telefonica), Art Barstow (Nokia),
        Robin Berjon (W3C), Judy Brewer (W3C), Marcos Caceres (Mozilla), Wayne
        Carr (Intel), Michael Champion (W3C), Mark Crawford (SAP), Karl Dubost
        (Mozilla), Fantasai (unaffiliated), Virginie Galindo (Gemalto), Daniel
        Glazman (Disruptive Innovations), Eduardo Gutentag (unaffiiliated), Brad
        Hill (Facebook), Cullen Jennings (Cisco), Jeff Jaffe (W3C), Brain
        Kardell (JQuery), Peter Linss (HP), Nigel Megitt (BBC), Olle Olsson
        (SICS), Natasha Rooney (GSMA), Sam Ruby (IBM), David Singer (Apple),
        Henri Sivonen (Mozilla), Josh Soref (Blackberry), Anne van Kesteren
        (Mozilla), Léonie Watson (The Paciello Group), Mike West (Google), Chris
        Wilson (Google), Steve Zilles (Adobe).</p>
      <p>The following individuals contributed to the development of earlier
        versions of the Process: Jean-François Abramatic (IBM, and previously
        ILOG and W3C), Dan Appelquist (Telefonica), Art Barstow (Nokia), Ann
        Bassetti (The Boeing Company), Jim Bell (HP), Robin Berjon (W3C), Tim
        Berners-Lee (W3C), Klaus Birkenbihl (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft), Don
        Brutzman (Web3D), Carl Cargill (Netscape, Sun Microsystems), Wayne Carr
        (Intel), Marcos Cáceres (Mozilla), Michael Champion (Microsoft), Paul
        Cotton (Microsoft), Mark Crawford (SAP), Tantek Çelik (Mozilla), Don
        Deutsch (Oracle), David Fallside (IBM), Fantasai (Mozilla), Wendy Fong
        (Hewlett-Packard), Virginie Galindo (Gemalto), Daniel Glazman
        (Disruptive Innovations), Paul Grosso (Arbortext), Eduardo Gutentag (Sun
        Microsystems), Joe Hall (CDT), Ivan Herman (W3C), Ian Hickson (Google),
        Steve Holbrook (IBM), Renato Iannella (IPR Systems), Ian Jacobs (W3C),
        Jeff Jaffe (W3C), Cullen Jennings (Cisco), Sally Khudairi (W3C), John
        Klensin (MCI), Tim Krauskopf (Spyglass), Kari Laihonen (Ericsson), Ken
        Laskey (MITRE), Ora Lassila (Nokia), Håkon Wium Lie (Opera Software),
        Chris Lilley (W3C), Bede McCall (MITRE), Giri Mandyam (Qualcomm), Larry
        Masinter (Adobe Systems), Qiuling Pan (Huawei), TV Raman (Google),
        Thomas Reardon (Microsoft), Claus von Riegen (SAP AG), David Singer
        (Apple), David Singer (IBM), Ralph Swick (W3C), Anne van Kesteren,
        Jean-Charles Verdié (MStar), Chris Wilson (Google), Lauren Wood
        (unaffiliated), and Steve Zilles (Adobe Systems).</p>
      <h2 id="changes">15 Changes</h2>
      <p>This document is based on 1 August 2014 Process. <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/">Detailed
-          change logs</a> are available.</p>
      <p>The notable changes include:</p>
      <h3>Current Editor's draft</h3>
      <ul>
        <li>Remove <a id="GCGCreation" name="CGCreation"></a><a id="GroupsCG" name="GroupsCG"></a>
          <a id="CGParticipation" name="CGParticipation"></a><a id="cgparticipant"
            name="cgparticipant"></a>
          <a id="CGCharter" name="CGCharter"></a>Coordination groups - <a href="https://www.w3.org/community/w3process/track/issues/129">ISSUE-129</a></li>
      </ul>
      <h3>Previous Editor's drafts</h3>
      <ul>
        <li>Loosen requirement on multiple employees of one member on TAG -
          section 2.5.1</li>
        <li>Replace "W3C Chair" with "CEO"</li>
        <li>Editorial tweaks to what is requested for review</li>
        <li>Remove section <span id="three-month-rule">6.2.7 "Heartbeat"
            publishing requirement</span></li>
      </ul>
      <h3><span style="color: black;">30 September "AC intermediate review"</span></h3>
      <p>Provided to the Advisory Committee to review the following changes made
        compared to the 1 August 2014 Operative Process document</p>
      <ul>
        <li>Remove <a id="def-Activity">A</a><a id="ActivityStatement">c</a><a
            id="ActivityDevelopment">t</a><a
            id="ActivityCreation">i</a><a
            id="ActivityModification">v</a><a
            id="ActivityExtension">i</a><a
            id="ActivityTermination">t</a><a
            id="ActivityProposal">ies</a>
          <a id="Activities">f</a>rom the Process (as resolved multiple times
          since 2007)</li>
        <li>Remove 6.2.1.7 <a id="good-standing">Good Standing in a Working
            Group</a></li>
      </ul>
    </div>
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+          change logs</a> are available.</p>
      <p>The notable changes include:</p>
      <h3>Current Editor's draft</h3>
      <ul>
        <li>Remove <a id="GCGCreation" name="CGCreation"></a><a id="GroupsCG" name="GroupsCG"></a>
          <a id="CGParticipation" name="CGParticipation"></a><a id="cgparticipant"
            name="cgparticipant"></a>
          <a id="CGCharter" name="CGCharter"></a>Coordination groups - <a href="https://www.w3.org/community/w3process/track/issues/129">ISSUE-129</a></li>
        <li>Remove vestigial traces of Good Standing</li>
      </ul>
      <h3>Previous Editor's drafts</h3>
      <ul>
        <li>Loosen requirement on multiple employees of one member on TAG -
          section 2.5.1</li>
        <li>Replace "W3C Chair" with "CEO"</li>
        <li>Editorial tweaks to what is requested for review</li>
        <li>Remove section <span id="three-month-rule">6.2.7 "Heartbeat"
            publishing requirement</span></li>
      </ul>
      <h3><span style="color: black;">30 September "AC intermediate review"</span></h3>
      <p>Provided to the Advisory Committee to review the following changes made
        compared to the 1 August 2014 Operative Process document</p>
      <ul>
        <li>Remove <a id="def-Activity">A</a><a id="ActivityStatement">c</a><a
            id="ActivityDevelopment">t</a><a
            id="ActivityCreation">i</a><a
            id="ActivityModification">v</a><a
            id="ActivityExtension">i</a><a
            id="ActivityTermination">t</a><a
            id="ActivityProposal">ies</a>
          <a id="Activities">f</a>rom the Process (as resolved multiple times
          since 2007)</li>
        <li>Remove 6.2.1.7 <a id="good-standing">Good Standing in a Working
            Group</a></li>
      </ul>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>
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