drafts/rdf11-testcases/Overview.html
author Ivan Herman <ivan@ivan-herman.net>
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      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" /></a>
    
  </p>
  <h1 class="title p-name" id="title" property="dcterms:title">RDF 1.1 Test Cases</h1>
  
  <h2 property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2014-02-25T08:00:00.000Z" id="w3c-working-group-note-25-february-2014"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Working Group Note <time class="dt-published" datetime="2014-02-25">25 February 2014</time></h2>
  <dl>
    
      <dt>This version:</dt>
      <dd><a class="u-url" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-rdf11-testcases-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-rdf11-testcases-20140225/</a></dd>
      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-testcases/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-testcases/</a></dd>
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    <dt>Editors:</dt>
    <dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Gregg Kellogg" href="http://greggkellogg.net/">Gregg Kellogg</a>, Kellogg Associates</span>
</dd>
<dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" property="foaf:name" content="Markus Lanthaler" href="http://www.markus-lanthaler.com/">Markus Lanthaler</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.tugraz.at/">Graz University of Technology</a></span>
</dd>

    
    
  </dl>
  
    <p>
      Please check the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2014/rdf1.1-errata"><strong>errata</strong></a> for any errors or issues
      reported since publication.
    </p>
  
  
  
  
    
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  <section id="abstract" class="introductory" property="dcterms:abstract" datatype="" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_abstract">Abstract</h2>
    <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for
      representing information in the Web. This document lists
      the test suites and implementation reports
      for RDF 1.1 Semantics as well as the various
      serialization formats.</p>
  </section><section id="sotd" class="introductory" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_sotd">Status of This Document</h2>
  
    
      
        <p>
          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication.
          Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the
          latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports index</a> at
          http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
        </p>
        
        <p>
          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/rdf-wg/">RDF Working Group</a> as a Working Group Note.
          
          
            If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
            <a href="mailto:public-rdf-comments@w3.org">public-rdf-comments@w3.org</a> 
            (<a href="mailto:public-rdf-comments-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
            <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/">archives</a>).
          
          
          
          
            All comments are welcome.
          
        </p>
        
        
          <p>
            Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>
            Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other
            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in
            progress.
          </p>
        
        
        
        <p>
          
            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
            <a id="sotd_patent" about="" rel="w3p:patentRules" href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent
            Policy</a>.
          
          
          
            
              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46168/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent
              disclosures</a> 
            
            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes
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            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
          
          
        </p>
        
      
    
  
</section><section id="toc"><h2 class="introductory" aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_toc">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc" role="directory" id="respecContents"><li class="tocline"><a href="#test-suites-and-implementation-reports" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Test Suites and Implementation Reports</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#general-instructions-for-running-rdf-test-suites" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>General instructions for running RDF Test suites</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#syntax-tests" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Syntax Tests</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#evaluation-tests" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Evaluation Tests</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#sematics-tests" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Sematics Tests</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A.1 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>

  <section id="test-suites-and-implementation-reports">
    
<!--OddPage-->
<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_test-suites-and-implementation-reports"><span class="secno">1. </span>Test Suites and Implementation Reports</h2>
    <p>The following are links to the syntax and semantics test suites and
      implementation reports:</p>

    <ul>
      <li><strong>RDF 1.1 Semantics</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">RDF11-MT</a></cite>]<br />
        <ul>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/rdf-mt-tests/">Test Suite</a></li>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/rdf-mt-reports/index.html">Implementation Report</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li><strong>RDF 1.1 Turtle</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>]<br />
        <ul>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/TurtleTests/">Test Suite</a></li>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/TurtleReports/index.html">Implementation Report</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li><strong>RDF 1.1 TriG</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TRIG">TRIG</a></cite>]<br />
        <ul>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/TrigTests/">Test Suite</a></li>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/TrigReports/index.html">Implementation Report</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li><strong>RDF 1.1 N-Triples</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-TRIPLES">N-TRIPLES</a></cite>]<br />
        <ul>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/N-TriplesTests/">Test Suite</a></li>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/N-TriplesReports/index.html">Implementation Report</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li><strong>RDF 1.1 N-Quads</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-QUADS">N-QUADS</a></cite>]<br />
        <ul>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/N-QuadsTests/">Test Suite</a></li>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/N-QuadsReports/index.html">Implementation Report</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li><strong>RDF 1.1 XML</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-XML">RDF11-XML</a></cite>]<br />
        <ul>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/RDFXMLTests/">Test Suite</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li><strong>JSON-LD 1.0</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">JSON-LD</a></cite>]/[<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-API">JSON-LD-API</a></cite>]<br />
        <ul>
          <li><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/json-ld-tests/">Test Suite</a></li>
          <li><a href="http://json-ld.org/test-suite/reports/index.html">Implementation Report</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>

      <li>RDF 1.1 Concepts [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">RDF11-CONCEPTS</a></cite>] does not have a test suite and is not directly implemented in software;
        instead, it is implemented by the specs which build on it, including the other specs in this set.</li>
    </ul>
  </section>

  <section id="general-instructions-for-running-rdf-test-suites">
    
<!--OddPage-->
<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_general-instructions-for-running-rdf-test-suites"><span class="secno">2. </span>General instructions for running RDF Test suites</h2>
    <p>All test suites have a common test manifest representation using test vocabularies
      similar to the SPARQL 1.1 Test case structure [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-SPARQL11-TEST-CASE">SPARQL11-TEST-CASE</a></cite>]. Test manifests
      are expressed using [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>], except for the JSON-LD test manifests, which
      are represented using [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD">JSON-LD</a></cite>]. (Detailed information on the JSON-LD Test Suite
      is at [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-JSON-LD-TESTS">JSON-LD-TESTS</a></cite>]). The Manifest has a header, and lists one
      or more test entries such as the following:</p>
    <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 1</span>: Manifest header</div><pre class="example"><script type="text/turtle"><>  rdf:type mf:Manifest ;
   rdfs:comment "Turtle tests" ;
   mf:entries
   (
   ....
   ) .</script></pre></div>

    <p>In addition to the namespaces described in [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-SPARQL11-TEST-CASE">SPARQL11-TEST-CASE</a></cite>], RDF manifests use
      the following vocabularies:</p>
    <dl>
      <dt><code>rdft</code></dt>
      <dd><code>http://www.w3.org/ns/rdftest#</code></dd>
    </dl>

    <section id="syntax-tests">
      <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_syntax-tests"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Syntax Tests</h3>
      <p>Concrete RDF syntaxes may have positive- and negative-syntax tests, intended
        to determine if a processor correctly recognizes valid or invalid serializations.
        Positive Syntax Tests include a <em>name</em>, optional <em>comment</em>, and <em>action</em> along
        with a type which identifies them as being a Syntax Test for the appropriate
        serialization format. An example Turtle Syntax test definition is the following:</p>

      <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 2</span>: Syntax test</div><pre class="example"><script type="text/turtle"><#turtle-syntax-file-01> rdf:type rdft:TestTurtlePositiveSyntax ;
   mf:name    "turtle-syntax-file-01" ;
   rdfs:comment "Empty file" ;
   mf:action    <turtle-syntax-file-01.ttl> ;
   .</script></pre></div>

     <p>Class names vary by serialization format and include the following:</p>
     <dl>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestTurtlePositiveSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Positive [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestTurtleNegativeSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Negative [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestTriGPositiveSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Positive [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TRIG">TRIG</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestTriGNegativeSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Negative [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TRIG">TRIG</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestNTriplesPositiveSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Positive [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-TRIPLES">N-TRIPLES</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestNTriplesNegativeSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Negative [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-TRIPLES">N-TRIPLES</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestNQuadsPositiveSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Positive [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-QUADS">N-QUADS</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestNQuadsNegativeSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Negative [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-N-QUADS">N-QUADS</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestXMLNegativeSyntax</code></dt><dd>A Negative [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-XML">RDF11-XML</a></cite>] Syntax Test.</dd>
     </dl>

     <p>A positive test is passed if an implementation can parse the content at the URL identified
       by the object of the <code>mf:action</code> properly using rules for the the appropriate syntax.</p>
     <p>A negative test is passed if an implementation raises an error when it parses
        content at the URL identified by the object of the <code>mf:action</code> properly using rules for the appropriate syntax.</p>
   </section>
   <section id="evaluation-tests">
     <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_evaluation-tests"><span class="secno">2.2 </span>Evaluation Tests</h3>
     <p>Concrete RDF syntaxes may have positive- and negative-evaluation tests, intended
       to determine if a processor correctly evaluates serializations.
       Positive Evaluation Tests include a <em>name</em>, optional <em>comment</em>, <em>action</em>, and <em>result</em> along
       with a type which identifies them as being an Evaluation Test for the appropriate
       serialization format. An example Turtle Evaluation test definition is the following:</p>

     <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 3</span>: Evaluation test</div><pre class="example"><script type="text/turtle"><#IRI_subject> rdf:type rdft:TestTurtleEval ;
   mf:name      "IRI_subject" ;
   rdfs:comment "IRI subject" ;
   mf:action    <IRI_subject.ttl> ;
   mf:result    <IRI_spo.nt> ;
   .</script></pre></div>

     <p>Class names vary by serialization format and include the following:</p>
     <dl>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestTurtleEval</code></dt><dd>A Positive [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>] Evaluation Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestTurtleNegativeEval</code></dt><dd>A Negative [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TURTLE">TURTLE</a></cite>] Evaluation Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestTrigEval</code></dt><dd>A Positive [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TRIG">TRIG</a></cite>] Evaluation Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:TestTrigNegativeEval</code></dt><dd>A Negative [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-TRIG">TRIG</a></cite>] Evaluation Test.</dd>
       <dt><code>rdft:XMLEval</code></dt><dd>A Positive [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-XML">RDF11-XML</a></cite>] Evaluation Test.</dd>
     </dl>

     <p>A positive test is passed if an implementation parses the input
       (identified by the object of the <code>mf:action</code> property) using the
       appropriate syntax into a graph
       or dataset, parses the expected result
       (identified by the object of the <code>mf:result</code> property)
       into another graph or dataset, and those two graphs/datasets are
       <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#graph-isomorphism">isomorphic</a> (see [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">RDF11-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]).</p>
       <p>A negative test is passed if an implementation parses the input
         (identified by the object of the <code>mf:action</code> property) using the
         appropriate syntax into a graph
         or dataset, parses the expected result
         (identified by the object of the <code>mf:result</code> property)
         into another graph or dataset, and those two graphs/datasets are _not_
         <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#graph-isomorphism">isomorphic</a> (see [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">RDF11-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]).</p>
    </section>

    <section id="sematics-tests">
      <h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_sematics-tests"><span class="secno">2.3 </span>Sematics Tests</h3>
      <p>These tests test implementations of RDF and RDFS Entailment [<cite><a class="bibref" href="#bib-RDF11-MT">RDF11-MT</a></cite>].
        Entailment Tests (<code>mf:PositiveEntailmentTest</code> or <code>mf:NegativeEntailmentTest</code>) include a <em>name</em>, <em>comment</em>, <em>action</em>, <em>result</em>, an <em>entailment</em> regime,
        a <em>list of recognized datatypes</em> and a <em>list of unrecognized datatypes</em>, and <em>result</em> along
        with a type which identifies them as being an Entailment Test for the appropriate
        serialization format.</p>
      <p>All tests have the following properties:</p>
      <ul>
        <li>a name (<code>mf:name</code>)</li>
        <li>an input RDF graph url (<code>mf:action</code>)</li>
        <li>an output RDF graph URL or the special marker <code>false</code> (<code>mf:result</code>),</li>
        <li>an entailment regime, which is &quot;simple&quot;, &quot;RDF&quot;, or &quot;RDFS&quot; (<code>mf:entailmentRegime</code>),</li>
        <li>a list of recognized datatypes (<code>mf:recognizedDatatypes</code>),</li>
        <li>a list of unrecognized datatypes (<code>mf:unrecognizedDatatypes</code>).</li>
      </ul>
      <p>An example Entailment test is the following:</p>

     <div class="example"><div class="example-title"><span>Example 4</span>: Entailment test</div><pre class="example"><script type="text/turtle"><#datatypes-non-well-formed-literal-2> a mf:PositiveEntailmentTest;
  mf:name "datatypes-non-well-formed-literal-2";
  rdfs:comment """
    With appropriate datatype knowledge, a 'badly-formed'
    datatyped literal can be detected.
  """;
  rdfs:comment """
    Ill-formed datatyped literals now are inconsistent.
    Used to be negative entailment to <datatypes/test002b.nt>
  """;
  rdft:approval rdft:Approved;
  mf:entailmentRegime "RDFS" ;
  mf:recognizedDatatypes ( xsd:integer ) ;
  mf:unrecognizedDatatypes ( ) ;
  mf:action <datatypes/test002.nt>;
  mf:result false.</script></pre></div>

    <p>An implementation passes a Positive (Negative) Entailment Test if, when
    configured to
     (1) perform entailment under the entailment regime of the test or some entailment regime that is stronger (weaker) than the entailment regime and
     (2) recognize all the datatypes in the list of <em>recognized datatypes</em> and none of the datatypes in the list of <em>unrecognized datatypes</em>,</p>
    <ul>
    <li>for tests that have an output graph, determines that the input RDF graph entails (does not entail) the output RDF graph</li>
    <li>for tests that have <code>false</code> as output, either determines that the input RDF graph entails (does not entail) an inconsistent RDF graph or that the input RDF graph is inconsistent (consistent).</li>
  </ul>

  <p>An implementation also passes a test if when configured differently from a
    correct configuration as given above nonetheless produces the given result,
    and the result is correct in the configured entailment regime with the
    configured recognized datatypes.</p>

    </section>
  </section>



<section id="references" class="appendix" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter">
<!--OddPage-->
<h2 aria-level="1" role="heading" id="h2_references"><span class="secno">A. </span>References</h2><section id="informative-references" typeof="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" rel="bibo:Chapter"><h3 aria-level="2" role="heading" id="h3_informative-references"><span class="secno">A.1 </span>Informative references</h3><dl class="bibliography" about=""><dt id="bib-JSON-LD">[JSON-LD]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Manu Sporny, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler, Editors. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">JSON-LD 1.0</a></cite>. 16 January 2014. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-JSON-LD-API">[JSON-LD-API]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Markus Lanthaler, Gregg Kellogg, Manu Sporny, Editors. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-api/">JSON-LD 1.0 Processing Algorithms and API</a></cite>. 16 January 2014. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-api/">http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld-api/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-JSON-LD-TESTS">[JSON-LD-TESTS]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references"><cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/json-ld-tests/">JSON-LD 1.0 Test Suite</a></cite>. W3C Test Suite. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2013/json-ld-tests/">http://www.w3.org/2013/json-ld-tests/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-N-QUADS">[N-QUADS]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Gavin Carothers. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-n-quads-20140225/">RDF 1.1 N-Quads</a></cite>. W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-n-quads-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-n-quads-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/n-quads/">http://www.w3.org/TR/n-quads/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-N-TRIPLES">[N-TRIPLES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Gavin Carothers, Andy Seabourne. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-n-triples-20140225/">RDF 1.1 N-Triples</a></cite>. W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-n-triples-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-n-triples-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/n-triples/">http://www.w3.org/TR/n-triples/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-RDF11-CONCEPTS">[RDF11-CONCEPTS]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Richard Cyganiak, David Wood, Markus Lanthaler. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/">RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax.</a></cite> W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-concepts-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-RDF11-MT">[RDF11-MT]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Patrick J. Hayes, Peter F. Patel-Schneider. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/">RDF 1.1 Semantics.</a></cite> W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf11-mt-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-mt/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-RDF11-XML">[RDF11-XML]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Fabien Gandon, Guus Schreiber. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20140225/">RDF 1.1 XML Syntax</a></cite>. W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20140225/</a>. The latest published version is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/">http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/</a>.
</dd><dt id="bib-SPARQL11-TEST-CASE">[SPARQL11-TEST-CASE]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Axel Polleres. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/docs/tests/README.html">SPARQL1.1: Test case structure</a></cite> Informal. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/docs/tests/README.html">http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/docs/tests/README.html</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-TRIG">[TRIG]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Gavin Carothers, Andy Seaborne. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/">TriG: RDF Dataset Language</a></cite>. W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-trig-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/trig/">http://www.w3.org/TR/trig/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-TURTLE">[TURTLE]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Eric Prud'hommeaux, Gavin Carothers. <cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/">RDF 1.1 Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language.</a></cite> W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-turtle-20140225/</a>. The latest edition is available at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/">http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/</a>
</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>