Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness. PROV-DM is the conceptual data model that forms a basis for the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications. It defines a concepts for expressing provenance information enabling interchange. This document introduces an XML schema for the PROV data model (PROV-DM), allowing instances of the PROV data model to be serialized in XML.

The PROV Document Overview describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.

PROV Family of Documents

This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web. These documents are listed below. Please consult the [[PROV-OVERVIEW]] for a guide to reading these documents.

Implementations Encouraged

The Provenance Working Group encourages implementation of the material defined in this document. Although work on this document by the Provenance Working Group is complete, errors may be recorded in the errata or and these may be addressed in future revisions.

Please Send Comments

Introduction

For the purpose of this specification, provenance is defined as a record that describes the people, institutions, entities, and activities involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing. In particular, the provenance of information is crucial in deciding whether information is to be trusted, how it should be integrated with other diverse information sources, and how to give credit to its originators when reusing it. In an open and inclusive environment such as the Web, where users find information that is often contradictory or questionable, provenance can help those users to make trust judgements.

The PROV data model, PROV-DM, presents a generic data model for provenance that allows domain and application specific representations of provenance to be translated into such a data model and interchanged between systems. Thus, heterogeneous systems can export their native provenance into such a core data model, and applications that need to make sense of provenance can then import it, process it, and reason over it.

The PROV data model distinguishes core structures from extended structures: core structures form the essence of provenance information, and are commonly found in various domain-specific vocabularies that deal with provenance or similar kinds of information [[Mappings]]. Extended structures enhance and refine core structures with more expressive capabilities to cater for more advanced uses of provenance. The PROV data model, comprising both core and extended structures, is a domain-agnostic model, but with clear extensibility points allowing further domain-specific and application-specific extensions to be defined.

The PROV data model has a modular design and is structured according to six components covering various facets of provenance:

This specification's goal is to provide a succinct definition of the XML form of PROV-DM, thus, we refer the reader to the PROV-DM to provide overall justification and context to the definitions presented here.

PROV Namespace

The PROV namespace is http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#.

All the concepts, reserved names and attributes introduced in this specification belong to the PROV namespace.

The prefix prov is used when referring to the PROV namespace.

Conventions

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [[RFC2119]].

XML Schema Design

Several general design principles and patterns were used in the construction of the PROV XML Schema.

Schema Modularization

The PROV-XML schema have been modularized so that xml-elements denoting terms defined in Working Group Notes are defined in separate extension schemas. All xml-elements denoting terms defined in the PROV-DM are defined in the http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-core.xsd schema and xml-elements denoting terms defined in PROV Working Group Notes are defined in extension schemas (e.g. http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-dictionary.xsd, http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-links.xsd). The default schema, http://www.w3.org/ns/prov.xsd, imports http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-core.xsd and all extension schemas. With this modeling all PROV xml-elements, even those denoting terms defined in Notes, are declared from the default schema. If the user wishes to leverage a schema that does not include xml-elements corresponding to terms from the PROV Notes the user can use schemaLocation to directly reference the core schema.

The default schema - http://www.w3.org/ns/prov.xsd

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xs:schema targetNamespace="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    elementFormDefault="qualified"
    attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
    
  <xs:include schemaLocation="prov-core.xsd"/>
  <xs:include schemaLocation="prov-dictionary.xsd"/>
  <xs:include schemaLocation="prov-links.xsd"/>

</xs:schema>

Extension schemas import the http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-core.xsd schema and make use of a substitution group on the prov:internalElement to add extension-defined xml-elements to the list of valid PROV xml-elements in a bundle or document.

This schema design leveraging substitutionGroups on an abstract xml-element may result in sub-optimal binding classes being generated by Object-to-XML frameworks such as JAXB, JiBX, etc. See the PROV FAQ entry at How should I generate JAXB classes from the PROV-XML schemas? for a JAXB-specific discussion on using OXM technologies with the PROV schemas.

The http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-links.xsd extension schema.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    targetNamespace="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#" xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    elementFormDefault="qualified">
	
  <xs:include schemaLocation="prov-core.xsd" />
	
  <xs:complexType name="Mention">
    <xs:sequence>
      <xs:element name="specificEntity" type="prov:IDRef" />
      <xs:element name="generalEntity" type="prov:IDRef" />
      <xs:element name="bundle" type="prov:IDRef" />
    </xs:sequence>
  </xs:complexType>
  
  <xs:element name="mentionOf" type="prov:Mention" substitutionGroup="prov:internalElement" />
	
</xs:schema>

All schemas developed by the PROV WG utilize the PROV namespace.

Salami Slice Design Pattern

The general design pattern for the XML schema has been called Salami Slice Design. With this design, the individual components are each defined at the top level as separate xml-elements with distinct xml-types. This allows the xml-types to be easily reusable for domain specific extensions.

The prov:document xml-element has been defined to act as a convenient root xml-element for a PROV-XML document, but it's use as the root xml-element is not required. The schema follows the Salami Slice pattern to ensure PROV XML xml-elements can be integrated with mixed-schema XML documents which require a different document root.

Elements vs. Attributes

The PROV Notation (PROV-N) is a serialization of the PROV Data Model described in [[PROV-N]]. Examples in the [[PROV-DM]] document are encoded using PROV-N. Because of the heavy use of PROV-N syntax in [[PROV-DM]], the PROV-XML editors feel it is important to present a comparison of the PROV-N and PROV-XML syntaxes and justifications behind the select syntax decisions in PROV-XML.

The general PROV-N syntax patterns for expressing provenance concepts are:

thing(id, elem1, elem2, ..., [attr1=val1, attr2=val2])
concept(id; elem1, elem2, ... [attr1=val2, attr2=val2])

In PROV-XML the PROV identifier is treated as an xml-attribute (prov:id), the prov-"elements" are treated as xml-elements, always with the same required order (position) as the PROV-DM/PROV-N description followed by optional prov-"attributes" which are also represented by xml-elements. As in PROV-N, the prov-"attributes" can be specified multiple times, but unlike PROV-N the prov-"attributes" have a fixed (alphabetical) order. The prov-"attribute" xml-elements are always defined at the end of the encompassing sequence after all prov-"element" xml-elements. XML Elements defined in namespaces other than the PROV namespace may be included after the prov-"attribute" xml-elements.

Wherever an "id" is referenced from a later concept, the id is referenced as a prov:ref attribute of the element within the concept.

This transformation technique yields a general XML pattern:

<prov:thing prov:id="id">
  <prov:elem1 />
  <prov:elem2 />
  ...
  <ex:attr1>val1</ex:attr1>
  <ex:attr2>val2</ex:attr2>
  ...
</prov:thing>

Most of the concepts described below follow this general pattern.

Type Conventions

PROV Type Attribute

The PROV-DM states type information is described using the prov:type prov-"attribute" and may occur multiple times for a given entity, activity, agent, or relation.

PROV-XML uses the xml-element prov:type to represent the prov:type prov-"attribute". This xml-element can be use to represent both PROV and non-PROV type information. The following examples shows type information encoded using the prov:type xml-element.

<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">prov:Plan</prov:type>
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">ex:Workflow</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

</prov:document>

The prov:type xml-element can be used in conjunction with schema-defined PROV types (see examples 2-5).

Extension Types

PROV-XML defines complexTypes to match the PROV defined type values (prov-type). These xml-types provide a more native XML representation of prov-"types". The following example is considered equivalent to the previous example because the xml-element prov:plan has xs:type=prov:Plan. All complexTypes representing a prov-"type" which is defined as a subclass of another prov-"type" are defined in PROV-XML as extensions of their parent prov-"type's" complexType. For example, prov:Plan is defined as an extension of the complexType prov:Entity and may be referenced by either prov:plan or prov:entity xml-elements.

<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:plan prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">ex:Workflow</prov:type>
  </prov:plan>

</prov:document>

When an extension xml-type is used a prov-"type" may be inferred.

Explicit type declarations made using the prov:type xml-element may be easier for some encoding transformation tools (such as XSLT) to process, therefore use of the prov:type xml-element is highly encouraged even in cases where prov-"type" information is determinable from schema defined ComplexTypes.

<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:plan prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">ex:Workflow</prov:type>
    <prov:type>prov:Plan</prov:type> <!-- inferred -->
    <prov:type>prov:Entity</prov:type> <!-- inferred -->
  </prov:plan>

</prov:document>

XSI Type

Because the prov:Plan complexType is defined as an extension of the complexType prov:Entity, the following example using xsi:type is valid and considered equivalent to the two previous examples. The xml-attribute xsi:type tells an XML parser the complexType of the xml-element. The value of xsi:type must be a complexType derived from the default xml-element xml-type in a schema with known location (referenced through xsi:schemaLocation).

<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215" xsi:type="prov:Plan">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">ex:Workflow</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

</prov:document>

A prov-"type" xml-element may be inferred by the use of the xsi:type xml-attribute.

<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215" xsi:type="prov:Plan">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">ex:Workflow</prov:type>
    <prov:type>prov:Plan</prov:type> <!-- inferred -->
    <prov:type>prov:Entity</prov:type> <!-- inferred -->
  </prov:entity>

</prov:document>

Identifier Conventions

[[PROV-DM]] defines a PROV Identifier as a qualified name with the following definition:

[[PROV-DM]] also mandates that all qualified names be mappable to a URI by concatenating the namespace URI with a local name.

PROV-XML uses the prov:id xml-attribute to denote a PROV Identifier and the prov:ref xml-attribute to denote a reference-by-id to an instance of a prov-"type" or prov-"relation" which has a matching PROV Identifier. The value of prov:ref must be a valid PROV Identifier, but there is no requirement that for every prov:ref a corresponding prov:id must be known to exist.

PROV-XML defines the type of both the prov:id and prov:ref xml-attributes to be xsd:QName as that is the XSD datatype that most closely matches the qualified name definition by [[PROV-DM]]. Care should be taken when generating PROV identifier values in PROV-XML such that there is a known mapping to a URI.

The xsd:QName datatype is more restrictive than the QualifiedName defined in [[PROV-N]] (e.g. PROV-N allows local names to start with numbers), therefore valid identifier values in [[PROV-N]] serializations have to potential to not be valid identifier values in PROV-XML. It is recommended to enhance interoperability that provenance users strive to always use identifier schemes that map to valid xsd:QNames and URIs.

Naming Conventions

XML element names are aligned with [[PROV-N]] record names (e.g. prov:wasGeneratedBy, prov:actedOnBehalfOf) and record parameter roles (e.g. prov:delegate, prov:responsible on a Delegation). XML Elements are named in camelCase which also conforms with [[PROV-N]] naming conventions.

ComplexType names are aligned with [[PROV-DM]] prov-"type" names (e.g. prov:Generation, prov:Delegation). ComplexTypes are named in PascalCase which conforms to [[PROV-DM]] naming conventions and differentiates complexTypes from xml-elements in the schema.

PROV XML Schema

Provenance concepts, expressed as prov-"types" and prov-"relations", are organized according to six components that are defined in this section.

PROV-DM Components agents/responsibility agents/responsibility agents/responsibility derivations derivations alternate collections activities/entities bundles
PROV-DM Components (Informative, from PROV-DM Fig. 4)

Table 1 is a mapping of PROV-DM prov-"types" and prov-"relations" in PROV-XML schema XML complexTypes and xml-elements.

PROV-DM Types and Relations to XML Schema Mapping
PROV-DM Term / Concept XML Schema ComplexType XML Schema XML Element Component
Entity prov:Entity prov:entity Component 1: Entities/Activities
Activity prov:Activity prov:activity
Generation prov:Generation prov:wasGeneratedBy
Usage prov:Usage prov:used
Communication prov:Communication prov:wasInformedBy
Start prov:Start prov:wasStartedBy
End prov:End prov:wasEndedBy
Invalidation prov:Invalidation prov:wasInvalidatedBy
Derivation prov:Derivation prov:wasDerivedFrom Component 2: Derivations
Revision prov:Revision prov:wasRevisionOf
Quotation prov:Quotation prov:wasQuotedFrom
Primary Source prov:PrimarySource prov:hadPrimarySource
Agent prov:Agent prov:agent Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, Influence
Attribution prov:Attribution prov:wasAttributedTo
Association prov:Association prov:wasAssociatedWith
Delegation prov:Delegation prov:actedOnBehalfOf
Plan prov:Plan prov:plan
Person prov:Person prov:person
Organization prov:Organization prov:organization
Software Agent prov:SoftwareAgent prov:softwareAgent
Influence prov:Influence prov:wasInfluencedBy
Bundle prov:Bundle prov:bundle Component 4: Bundles
Bundle Constructor prov:BundleConstructor prov:bundleContent
Alternate prov:Alternate prov:alternateOf Component 5: Alternate
Specialization prov:Specialization prov:specializationOf
Collection prov:Collection prov:collection Component 6: Collections
Empty Collection prov:EmptyCollection prov:emptyCollection
Membership prov:Membership prov:hadMember

In the rest of the section, each type is defined, in English initially, followed by its XML schema definition and some example.

Component 1: Entities and Activities

The first component of PROV-DM is concerned with entities and activities, and their inter-relations: Usage, Generation, Start, End, and Communication.

Entity

<xs:complexType name="Entity">
  <xs:sequence>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:location" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:value" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>  
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="entity" type="prov:Entity"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">document</prov:type>
    <ex:version>2</ex:version>
  </prov:entity>

</prov:document>

Activity

<xs:complexType name="Activity">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="startTime" type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/> 
    <xs:element name="endTime" type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes --> 
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:location" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="activity" type="prov:Activity"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1">
    <prov:startTime>2011-11-16T16:05:00</prov:startTime>
    <prov:endTime>2011-11-16T16:06:00</prov:endTime>
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">ex:edit</prov:type>
    <ex:host>server.example.org</ex:host>
  </prov:activity>

</prov:document>

Generation

<xs:complexType name="Generation">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="entity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="time" type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:location" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:role" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasGeneratedBy" type="prov:Generation"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e1"/>

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1"/>

  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:time>2001-10-26T21:32:52</prov:time>
    <ex:port>p1</ex:port>
  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e2"/>

  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e2"/>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:time>2001-10-26T10:00:00</prov:time>
    <ex:port>p2</ex:port>
  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>

</prov:document>

Usage

<xs:complexType name="Usage">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="entity" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="time" type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:location" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:role" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
<xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="used" type="prov:Usage"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1"/>

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e1"/>

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e2"/>

  <prov:used>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
    <prov:time≶2011-11-16T16:00:00</prov:time>
    <ex:parameter>p1</ex:parameter>
  </prov:used>

  <prov:used>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e2"/>
    <prov:time>2011-11-16T16:00:01</prov:time>
    <ex:parameter>p2</ex:parameter>
  </prov:used>

</prov:document>

Communication

<xs:complexType name="Communication">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="informed" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="informant" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasInformedBy" type="prov:Communication"/>
<prov:document 
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">traffic regulations enforcing<prov:type>
  </prov:activity>

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a2">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">fine paying, check writing, and mailing</prov:type>
  </prov:activity>

  <prov:wasInformedBy>
    <prov:informed prov:ref="ex:a2"/>
    <prov:informant prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
  </prov:wasInformedBy>

</prov:document>

Start

<xs:complexType name="Start">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="trigger" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="starter" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="time" type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:location" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:role" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasStartedBy" type="prov:Start"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">email message</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">Discuss</prov:type>
  </prov:activity>

  <prov:wasStartedBy>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:trigger prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
    <prov:time>2011-11-16T16:05:00</prov:time>
  </prov:wasStartedBy>

  <prov:used>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
  </prov:used>

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a0">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">Write</prov:type>
  </prov:activity>

  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a0"/>
  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>

  <prov:wasStartedBy>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:trigger prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
    <prov:starter prov:ref="ex:a0"/>
    <prov:time>2011-11-16T16:05:00</prov:time>
  </prov:wasStartedBy>

  <prov:wasStartedBy>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:starter prov:ref="ex:a0"/>
    <prov:time>2011-11-16T16:05:00</prov:time>
  </prov:wasStartedBy>

</prov:document>

End

<xs:complexType name="End">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="trigger" type="prov:IDRef"  minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="ender" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="time" type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:location" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:role" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasEndedBy" type="prov:End"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">approval document</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">Editing</prov:type>
  </prov:activity>

  <prov:wasEndedBy>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:trigger prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
  </prov:wasEndedBy>

</prov:document>

Invalidation

<xs:complexType name="Invalidation">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="entity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="time" type="xs:dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:location" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:role" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasInvalidatedBy" type="prov:Invalidation"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:bbc="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:The-Painter"/>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:Picasso"/>

  <prov:wasAttributedTo>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:The-Painter" />
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Picasso" />
  </prov:wasAttributedTo>

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:crash"/>

  <prov:wasInvalidatedBy>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:The-Painter"/>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:crash"/>
    <prov:time>1998-09-03T01:31:00</prov:time>
    <ex:circumstances>plane accident</ex:circumstances>
  </prov:wasInvalidatedBy>

</prov:document>

Component 2: Derivations

The second component of PROV-DM is concerned with: derivations of entities from other entities and derivation subtypesRevision, Quotation, and Primary Source.

Derivation

<xs:complexType name="Derivation">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="generatedEntity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="usedEntity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="generation" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="usage" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasDerivedFrom" type="prov:Derivation"/>
<prov:document 
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e1"/>

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e2"/>

  <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:e2"/>
    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
  </prov:wasDerivedFrom>

  <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:e2"/>
    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">physical transform</prov:type>
  </prov:wasDerivedFrom>

</prov:document>

Revision

<xs:complexType name="Revision">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Derivation">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasRevisionOf" type="prov:Revision"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:rec54="http://www.w3.org/2001/02pd/rec54#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">rec54:WD</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">rec54:WD</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:wasRevisionOf>
    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215"/>
    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111018"/>
  </prov:wasRevisionOf>

</prov:document>

Quotation

<xs:complexType name="Quotation">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Derivation">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasQuotedFrom" type="prov:Quotation"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:wp="http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:dm="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop"/>

  <prov:entity prov:id="dm:bl-dagstuhl"/>

  <prov:person prov:id="ex:Luc"/>

  <prov:person prov:id="ex:Paul"/>

  <prov:wasQuotedFrom>
    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="dm:gl-dagstuhl"/>
    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop"/>
  </prov:wasQuotedFrom>

  <prov:wasAttributedTo>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="dm:bl-dagstuhl"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Luc"/>
  </prov:wasAttributedTo>

  <prov:wasAttributedTo>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="wp:thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Paul"/>
  </prov:wasAttributedTo>

</prov:document>

Primary Source

<xs:complexType name="PrimarySource">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Derivation">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="hadPrimarySource" type="prov:PrimarySource"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">map</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">journal</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:hadPrimarySource>
    <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:la-campagne-de-Russie-1812-1813"/>
    <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:revue-d-Histoire-de-la-Pharmacie-t-XVIII"/>
  </prov:hadPrimarySource>

</prov:document>

Component 3: Agents, Responsibility, and Influence

The third component of PROV-DM is concerned with agents and the relations Attribution, Association, and Delegation, relating agents to entities, activities, and agents, respectively.

Agent

<xs:complexType name="Agent">
  <xs:sequence>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:location" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="agent" type="prov:Agent"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:e1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">prov:Person</prov:type>
    <ex:name>Alice</ex:name>
    <ex:employee>1234</ex:employee>
  </prov:agent>

</prov:document>
Person
<xs:complexType name="Person">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Agent">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="person" type="prov:Person"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:person prov:id="ex:Paolo" />

</prov:document>
Organization
<xs:complexType name="Organization">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Agent">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="organization" type="prov:Organization"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:w3="http://w3.org/">

  <prov:organization prov:id="w3:Consortium" />

</prov:document>
Software Agent
<xs:complexType name="SoftwareAgent">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Agent">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="softwareAgent" type="prov:SoftwareAgent"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:softwareAgent prov:id="ex:ag" />

</prov:document>

Attribution

<xs:complexType name="Attribution">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="entity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="agent" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasAttributedTo" type="prov:Attribution"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#"
    xmlns:rec54="http://example.com/ns/rec54#">

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:Paolo">
    <prov:typexsi:type="xsd:QName">prov:Person</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:Simon">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">prov:Person</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">rec54:WD</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:wasAttributedTo>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Paolo"/>
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">editorship</prov:type>
  </prov:wasAttributedTo>

  <prov:wasAttributedTo>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:Simon"/>
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">authorship</prov:type>
  </prov:wasAttributedTo>

</prov:document>

Association

<xs:complexType name="Association">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="agent" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xs:element name="plan" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:role" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasAssociatedWith" type="prov:Association"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">workflow execution</prov:type>
  </prov:activity>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:ag1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">operator</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:ag2">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">designator</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag1"/>
    <prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName">loggedInUser</prov:role>
    <ex:how>webapp</ex:how>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag2"/>
    <prov:plan prov:ref="ex:wf"/>
    <prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName">designer</prov:role>
    <ex:content>project1</ex:content>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

  <prov:plan prov:id="ex:wf">
    <ex:label>Workflow 1</ex:label>
    <prov:location xsi:type="xsd:anyURI">http://example.org/workflow1.bpel</prov:location>
  </prov:plan>

</prov:document>
Plan
<xs:complexType name="Plan">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Entity">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="plan" type="prov:Plan"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">workflow execution</prov:type>
  </prov:activity>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:ag1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">operator</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:ag2">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">designator</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag1"/>
    <prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName">loggedInUser</prov:role>
    <ex:how>webapp</ex:how>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag2"/>
    <prov:plan prov:ref="ex:wf"/>
    <prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName">designer</prov:role>
    <ex:content>project1</ex:content>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

  <prov:plan prov:id="ex:wf">
    <ex:label>Workflow 1</ex:label>
    <prov:location xsi:type="xsd:anyURI">http://example.org/workflow1.bpel</prov:location>
  </prov:plan>

</prov:document>

Delegation

<xs:complexType name="Delegation">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="delegate" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="responsible" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="activity" type="prov:IDRef" minOccurs="0"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="actedOnBehalfOf" type="prov:Delegation"/>
<prov:document 
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">workflow</prov:type>
  </prov:activity>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:ag1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">programmer</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:ag2">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">researcher</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:ag3">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">funder</prov:type>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag1"/>
    <prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName">loggedInUser</prov:role>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag2"/>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag3"/>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

  <prov:actedOnBehalfOf>
    <prov:delegate prov:ref="ex:ag1"/>
    <prov:responsible prov:ref="ex:ag2"/>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">line-management</prov:type>
  </prov:actedOnBehalfOf>

  <prov:actedOnBehalfOf>
    <prov:delegate prov:ref="ex:ag2"/>
    <prov:responsible prov:ref="ex:ag3"/>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">contract</prov:type>
  </prov:actedOnBehalfOf>

</prov:document>

Influence

<xs:complexType name="Influence">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="influencee" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="influencer" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <!-- prov attributes -->
    <xs:element ref="prov:label" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:element ref="prov:type" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="wasInfluencedBy" type="prov:Influence"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#"
    xmlns:w3="http://w3.org/">

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215"/>

  <prov:agent prov:id="w3:Consortium"/>

  <prov:wasInfluencedBy>
    <prov:influencee prov:ref="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215"/>
    <prov:influencer prov:ref="w3:Consortium"/>
  </prov:wasInfluencedBy>

</prov:document>

Component 4: Bundles

The fourth component is concerned with bundles, a mechanism to support provenance of provenance.

Bundle

A prov:Bundle identifies a set of provenance descriptions, and is an extension of prov:Entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed by referencing the associated entity. The content of a bundle, i.e. its provenance records, can be represented by the prov:BundleConstructor ComplexType and is denoted with the prov:bundleContent xml-element, its prov:id corresponds to the bundle entity.

<xs:complexType name="Bundle">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Entity">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="bundle" type="prov:Bundle"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:bob="http://example.com/ns/bob#"
    xmlns:alice="http://example.com/ns/alice#"
    xmlns:agg="http://example.com/ns/agg#">

  <prov:bundle prov:id="ex:bundle1">
    <ex:version>1</ex:version>
  </prov:bundle>
    
  <prov:bundleContent prov:id="ex:bundle1">
    <prov:entity prov:id="ex:report1"/>
    
    <prov:entity prov:id="ex:report2">
      <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">report</prov:type>
      <ex:version>2</ex:version>
    </prov:entity>
    
    <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
      <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:report2"/>
      <prov:time>2012-05-25T11:00:01</prov:time>
    </prov:wasGeneratedBy>
    
    <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
      <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:report2"/>
      <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:report1"/>
    </prov:wasDerivedFrom>
  </prov:bundleContent>
  
</prov:document>

Bundle Constructor

The prov:BundleConstructor ComplexType is used to define a named set of provenance statements. The Bundle Constructor supports the prov:id xml-attribute.

The bundle entity associated with a bundle constructor set must have the same prov:id as the bundle constructor set.

<xs:complexType name="BundleConstructor">
  <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <-- references to standard non-PROV attribute PROV elements -->
  </xs:choice>
  <xs:attribute ref="prov:id"/>
</xs:complexType>

The xml-element prov:bundleContent is used to denote a set of nested provenance statements from within a prov:Document.

Although prov:bundleContent can only be expressed at the prov:document level, the corresponding bundle entities may be specified from either the prov:document or any prov:bundleContent.

<xs:complexType name="Document">
  <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <!-- references to standard non-PROV attribute PROV elements -->
    <xs:element name="bundleContent" type="prov:BundleConstructor" minOccurs="0"/>
  </xs:choice>
</xs:complexType>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:bob="http://example.com/ns/bob#"
    xmlns:alice="http://example.com/ns/alice#"
    xmlns:agg="http://example.com/ns/agg#">

  <prov:bundle prov:id="ex:bundle1">
    <ex:version>1</ex:version>
  </prov:bundle>
    
  <prov:bundleContent prov:id="ex:bundle1">
    <prov:entity prov:id="ex:report1"/>
    
    <prov:entity prov:id="ex:report2">
      <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">report</prov:type>
      <ex:version>2</ex:version>
    </prov:entity>
    
    <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
      <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:report2"/>
      <prov:time>2012-05-25T11:00:01</prov:time>
    </prov:wasGeneratedBy>
    
    <prov:wasDerivedFrom>
      <prov:generatedEntity prov:ref="ex:report2"/>
      <prov:usedEntity prov:ref="ex:report1"/>
    </prov:wasDerivedFrom>
  </prov:bundleContent>
  
</prov:document>

Component 5: Alternate Entities

The fifth component of PROV-DM is concerned with the relations Specialization and Alternate, relating entities to entities.

Specialization

<xs:complexType name="Specialization">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="specificEntity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="generalEntity" type="prov:IDRef"/>
  </xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="specializationOf" type="prov:Specialization"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:bbc="http://www.bbc.co.uk/">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:bbcNews2012-03-23"/>

  <prov:entity prov:id="bbc:news"/>

  <prov:specializationOf>
    <prov:specificEntity prov:ref="ex:bbcNews2012-03-23"/>
    <prov:generalEntity prov:ref="bbc:news"/>
  </prov:specializationOf>

</prov:document>

Alternate

<xs:complexType name="Alternate">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="alternate1" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="alternate2" type="prov:IDRef"/>
  </xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="alternateOf" type="prov:Alternate"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:bbc="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news"
    xmlns:bbcmobile="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/mobile">

  <prov:entity prov:id="bbc:science-environment-17526723">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">a news item for desktop</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:entity prov:id="bbcmobile:science-environment-17526723">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:string">a news item for mobile devices</prov:type>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:alternateOf>
    <prov:alternate1 prov:ref="bbcmobile:science-environment-17526723"/>
    <prov:alternate2 prov:ref="bbc:science-environment-17526723"/>
  </prov:alternateOf>

</prov:document>

Component 6: Collections

The sixth component of PROV-DM is concerned with the notion of collections. A collection is an entity that has some members. The members are themselves entities, and therefore their provenance can be expressed. Some applications need to be able to express the provenance of the collection itself: e.g. who maintains the collection (attribution), which members it contains as it evolves, and how it was assembled. The purpose of Component 6 is to define the types and relations that are useful to express the provenance of collections.

Collection

<xs:complexType name="Collection">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Entity">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="collection" type="prov:Collection"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:collection prov:id="ex:c1" />

</prov:document>
Empty Collection
<xs:complexType name="EmptyCollection">
  <xs:complexContent>
    <xs:extension base="prov:Collection">
    </xs:extension>
  </xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="emptyCollection" type="prov:EmptyCollection"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:bbc="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news"
    xmlns:bbcmobile="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/mobile">
    
    <prov:emptyCollection prov:id="ex:c0"/>

</prov:document>

Membership

<xs:complexType name="Membership">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:element name="collection" type="prov:IDRef"/>
    <xs:element name="entity" type="prov:IDRef" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="hadMember" type="prov:Membership"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e0"/>
  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e1"/>
  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e2"/>

  <prov:collection prov:id="ex:c"/>

  <prov:hadMember>
    <prov:collection prov:ref="ex:c"/>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e0"/>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e2"/>
  </prov:hadMember>

</prov:document>

Further Elements of PROV

This section introduces further elements of PROV.

Identifier

The xml-attribute used to identify an instances of a prov-"type" or prov-"relation".

<xs:attribute xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="id" type="xs:QName"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#" 
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:Qname">document</prov:type>
    <ex:version>2</ex:version>
  </prov:entity>

</prov:document>

Reference

A xml-attribute that denotes a reference-by-id to an instance of a prov-"type" or prov-"relation".

<xs:attribute ref="prov:ref" use="required" />
<prov:document
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e1"/>

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1"/>

  <prov:wasGeneratedBy>
    <prov:entity prov:ref="ex:e1"/>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a1"/>
    <prov:time>2001-10-26T21:32:52</prov:time>
    <ex:port>p1</ex:port>
  </prov:wasGeneratedBy>

</prov:document>

Attributes

The PROV-DM defined prov-"attributes" are represented in XML as xml-elements.

Label
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="label" type="prov:InternationalizedString"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#" 
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:e1">
    <prov:label>This is a human-readable label</prov:label>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:car01">
    <prov:label xml:lang="fr">Voiture 01</prov:label>
    <prov:label xml:lang="en">Car 01</prov:label>
  </prov:entity>

</prov:document>
Location
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="location" type="xs:anySimpleType"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:MonaLisa">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">StillImage</prov:type>
    <prov:location xsi:type="xsd:string">Le Louvre, Paris</prov:location>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:cell">
    <prov:location xsi:type="xsd:string">(5,5)</prov:location>
    <prov:value xsi:type="xsd:integer">10</prov:value>
  </prov:entity>

</prov:document>
Role
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="role" type="xs:anySimpleType"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag1"/>
    <prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName">loggedInUser</prov:role>
    <ex:how>webapp</ex:how>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

  <prov:wasAssociatedWith>
    <prov:activity prov:ref="ex:a"/>
    <prov:agent prov:ref="ex:ag2"/>
    <prov:plan prov:ref="ex:wf"/>
    <prov:role xsi:type="xsd:QName">designer</prov:role>
    <ex:content>project1</ex:content>
  </prov:wasAssociatedWith>

</prov:document>
Type
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="type" type="xs:anySimpleType"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#"
    xmlns:tr="http://example.com/ns/tr#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">document</prov:type>
    <ex:version>2</ex:version>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:agent prov:id="ex:e1">
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">prov:Person</prov:type>
    <ex:name>Alice</ex:name>
    <ex:employee>1234</ex:employee>
  </prov:agent>

  <prov:activity prov:id="ex:a1">
    <prov:startTime>2011-11-16T16:05:00</prov:startTime>
    <prov:endTime>2011-11-16T16:06:00</prov:endTime>
    <prov:type xsi:type="xsd:QName">ex:edit</prov:type>
    <ex:host>server.example.org</ex:host>
  </prov:activity>

</prov:document>
Value
<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="value" type="xs:anySimpleType"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:in">
    <prov:value xsi:type="xsd:string">abcd</prov:value>
  </prov:entity>

  <prov:entity prov:id="ex:out">
    <prov:value xsi:type="xsd:integer">4</prov:value>
  </prov:entity>

</prov:document>

Value

Relations defined by the PROV-DM to have prov-"type" Value have type xs:anySimpleType in PROV-XML unless otherwise specified.

Structural Elements of PROV-XML

Document

The root xml-element of all PROV-XML documents is prov:document which has xml-type prov:Document.

Similar to a prov:BundleConstructor, the prov:Document complexType is used to define a set of provenance statements.

Unlike the prov:BundleConstructor, a prov:Document

  • may contain prov:bundle xml-elements (but not other prov:document xml-elements)
  • does not support the prov:id xml-attribute.

<xs:complexType name="Document">
  <xs:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <!-- references to standard non-PROV attribute PROV elements -->
    <xs:element name="bundleContent" type="prov:BundleConstructor" minOccurs="0"/>
  </xs:choice>
</xs:complexType>

The xml-element prov:document may only be used as the root xml-element of a a PROV-XML document.

<xs:element xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="document" type="prov:Document"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <!-- prov statements go here -->

</prov:document>

Other

The prov:other xml-element provides a place to include non-PROV xml-elements inside a prov:document or prov:bundleContent.

<xs:complexType name="Other">
  <xs:sequence>
    <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>

The xml-element prov:other may be used in a prov:document or a prov:bundleContent but may not be used inside a prov-"relation", entity, or activity xml-element.

<xs:element name="other" type="prov:Other"/>
<prov:document
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns:prov="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#"
    xmlns:ex="http://example.com/ns/ex#">

  <!-- prov statements go here -->
  
  <prov:other>
    <ex:foo>
      <ex:content>bar</ex:content>
    </ex:foo>
  </prov:other>
  
  <!-- more prov statements can go here -->

</prov:document>

Media Type

Contact:
Ivan Herman
See also:
How to Register a Media Type for a W3C Specification
Internet Media Type registration, consistency of use
TAG Finding 3 June 2002 (Revised 4 September 2002)

The Internet Media Type / MIME type for PROV-XML is "application/provenance+xml".

It is recommended that PROV-XML files have the extension ".provx" (all lowercase) on all platforms.

It is recommended that PROV-XML files stored on Macintosh HFS file systems be given a file type of TEXT.

The information that follows has been registered with the IANA.

Type name:
application
Subtype name:
provenance+xml
Required parameters:
none
Optional parameters:
Same as charset parameter of application/xml as specified in RFC3023 (Section 3.2).
Encoding considerations:
Same as encoding considerations of application/xml as specified in RFC 3023 (Section 3.2).
Security considerations:
PROV-XML is an XML language for describing the provenance of things; applications may evaluate given data to dereference URIs, invoking the security considerations of the scheme for that URI. Note in particular, the privacy issues in [[RFC3023]] section 10 for HTTP URIs. Data obtained from an inaccurate or malicious data source may lead to inaccurate or misleading conclusions, as well as the dereferencing of unintended URIs. Care must be taken to align the trust in consulted resources with the sensitivity of the intended use of the data.
PROV-XML can express data which is presented to the user, for example, by means of label attributes. Application rendering strings retrieved from untrusted PROV-N documents must ensure that malignant strings may not be used to mislead the reader. The security considerations in the media type registration for XML ([[RFC3023]] section 10) provide additional guidance around the expression of arbitrary data and markup.
PROV-XML is a language for describing the provenance of things, and therefore a PROV-XML document is metadata for other resources. Untrusted PROV-XML documents may mislead its consumers by indicating that a third-party resource has a reputable lineage, when it has not. Provenance of PROV-XML document should be sought.
PROV-XML uses QNames mappable to IRIs as term identifiers. Applications interpreting data expressed in PROV-XML should address the security issues of Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs) [[RFC3987]] Section 8, as well as Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [[RFC3986]] Section 7.
Multiple IRIs may have the same appearance. Characters in different scripts may look similar (a Cyrillic "о" may appear similar to a Latin "o"). A character followed by combining characters may have the same visual representation as another character (LATIN SMALL LETTER E followed by COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT has the same visual representation as LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE). Any person or application that is writing or interpreting data in PROV-N must take care to use the IRI that matches the intended semantics, and avoid IRIs that make look similar. Further information about matching of similar characters can be found in Unicode Security Considerations [[UNISEC]] and Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs) [[RFC3987]] Section 8.
Interoperability considerations:
There are no known interoperability issues.
Published specification:
PROV-XML: The PROV XML Schema, Hua, Tilmes, Zednik (eds), Moreau http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-xml/, 2013.
Applications which use this media type:
It may be used by any application for publishing provenance information. This format is designed to be an XML form of provenance.
Fragment identifier considerations:
N/A
Additional Information:
Magic number(s):
PROV-XML documents are XML documents and thus may have initial strings similar to any XML document.
File extension(s):
.provx
Macintosh file type code(s):
"TEXT"
Person & email address to contact for further information:
Ivan Herman, [email protected]
Intended usage:
COMMON
Restrictions on usage:
none
Author:
The PROV-XML specification is the product of the World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Working Group.
Change controller:
The W3C, and the W3C Provenance Working Group, have change control over this specification.

XML Schema

Main Schema

The main PROV schema is an aggregation of the PROV core schema and all PROV-defined extension schemas.

The main PROV schema is available at http://www.w3.org/ns/prov.xsd

Core Schema

The PROV core schema defines an XML representation of the PROV data model defined by the PROV-DM. Extensions to PROV, defined in WG Notes, are defined in separate extension schemas.

The PROV core schema is available at http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-core.xsd

Extension Schemas

Extension schemas are schemas in the PROV Namespace that define additional PROV elements not from the PROV-DM. Workgroup Notes provide extension schemas to define their Note-introduced PROV elements. Extension schemas must import (using xs:include) the prov-core.xsd schema and make use of a substitution group on the prov:internalElement to add extension defined elements to the list of valid PROV elements in a bundle or document.

The PROV-defined extension schemas are available at

Change Log

Change Log Since WD Working Draft 12 March 2013

Change Log Since First Public Working Draft

Acknowledgements

This document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to Luc Moreau (University of Southampton), Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit) and James Cheney (University of Edinburgh) for their thorough reviews.

Members of the PROV Working Group at the time of publication of this document were: Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert), Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation), Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester), James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics), Sam Coppens (iMinds - Ghent University), David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science), Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives), Tom De Nies (iMinds - Ghent University), Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland), Simon Dobson (Invited expert), Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)), Kai Eckert (Invited expert), Jean-Pierre EVAIN (European Broadcasting Union, EBU-UER), James Frew (Invited expert), Irini Fundulaki (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)), Daniel Garijo (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), Yolanda Gil (Invited expert), Ryan Golden (Oracle Corporation), Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit), Olaf Hartig (Invited expert), David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI), Sandro Hawke (W3C/MIT), Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh), Ivan Herman, (W3C/ERCIM), Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant), Hook Hua (Invited expert), Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton), Graham Klyne (University of Oxford), Michael Lang (Revelytix, Inc.), Timothy Lebo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), James McCusker (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Deborah McGuinness (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Simon Miles (Invited expert), Paolo Missier (School of Computing Science, Newcastle university), Luc Moreau (University of Southampton), James Myers (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Vinh Nguyen (Wright State University), Edoardo Pignotti (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science), Paulo da Silva Pinheiro (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Carl Reed (Open Geospatial Consortium), Adam Retter (Invited Expert), Christine Runnegar (Invited expert), Satya Sahoo (Invited expert), David Schaengold (Revelytix, Inc.), Daniel Schutzer (FSTC, Financial Services Technology Consortium), Yogesh Simmhan (Invited expert), Stian Soiland-Reyes (University of Manchester), Eric Stephan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory), Linda Stewart (The National Archives), Ed Summers (Library of Congress), Maria Theodoridou (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)), Ted Thibodeau (OpenLink Software Inc.), Curt Tilmes (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), Craig Trim (IBM Corporation), Stephan Zednik (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Jun Zhao (University of Oxford), Yuting Zhao (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science).