W3C

PROV-O: The PROV Ontology

W3C Editor's Draft 05 June 2012

This version:
https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/ontology/Overview.html
Latest published version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/
Latest editor's draft:
https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/ontology/Overview.html
Previous version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-o-20111213/
Editors:
Timothy Lebo, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
Satya Sahoo, Case Western Reserve University, USA
Deborah McGuinness, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
Authors:
(In alphabetical order)
Khalid Belhajjame, University of Manchester, UK
James Cheney, University of Edinburgh, UK
Daniel Garijo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
Mike Lang, Jr., Revelytix, USA
Stian Soiland-Reyes, University of Manchester, UK
Stephan Zednik, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
Jun Zhao, University of Oxford, UK

Abstract

The PROV Ontology (PROV-O) expresses the PROV Data Model using the OWL2 Web Ontology Language (OWL2). It provides a set of classes, properties, and restrictions that can be used to represent and interchange provenance information generated in different systems and under different contexts. It can also be specialized to create new classes and properties to model provenance information specific to different domain applications.

The namespace for all PROV-O terms is http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#.

The OWL encoding of the PROV Ontology is available here.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

PROV Family of Specifications

This document is part of the PROV family of specifications, a set of specifications defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web. The specifications are:

How to read the PROV Family of Specifications

PROV-O Second Working Draft

This specification defines the PROV Ontology as the normative representation of the PROV Data Model using the Web Ontology Language (OWL2). Following feedback, the structure of the document has been reorganized to suit a gradual introduction to the terms available in PROV-O, permitting the addition of more elaborate terms as users understand the earlier terms. A cross reference was added and is created directly from the OWL ontology. Examples throughout this document are taken directly from the working group's version control system.

This document was published by the Provenance Working Group as an Editor's Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to public-prov-comments@w3.org (subscribe, archives). All feedback is welcome.

Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The PROV Ontology (PROV-O) defines the normative OWL2 Web Ontology Language encoding of the PROV Data Model [PROV-DM]. This document describes the set of classes, properties, and restrictions that constitute the PROV Ontology. This ontology specification provides the foundation to implement provenance applications in different domains that can represent, exchange, and integrate provenance information generated in different systems and under different contexts. Together with the PROV Access and Query [PROV-PAQ] and PROV Data Model [PROV-DM], this document forms a framework for provenance information interchange and management in domain-specific Web-based applications.

PROV-O conforms to the OWL-RL profile and is lightweight so that it can be adopted in the widest range of applications. The PROV Ontology classes and properties are defined such that they can not only be used directly to represent provenance information, but also can be specialized for modeling application-specific provenance details in a variety of domains. Thus, the PROV Ontology is expected to be both directly usable in applications as well as serve as a reference model for creating domain-specific provenance ontologies and thereby facilitate interoperable provenance modeling. To demonstrate the use of PROV-O classes and properties, this document uses an example provenance scenario similar to the one introduced in the PROV-Primer [PROV-PRIMER]. PROV-O conforms to the OWL-RL profile and is lightweight so that it can be adopted in the widest range of applications.

The PROV Data Model [PROV-DM] introduces a minimal set of concepts to represent provenance information in a variety of application domains. This document maps the PROV Data Model to PROV Ontology using the OWL2 ontology language, which facilitates a fixed interpretation and use of the PROV Data Model concepts based on the formal semantics of OWL2 [OWL2-RDF-BASED-SEMANTICS].

We briefly introduce some of the OWL2 modeling terms that will be used to describe the PROV Ontology. An OWL2 instance is an individual object in a domain of discourse, for example a person named Alice or a car, and a set of individuals sharing a set of additional characteristics is called a class. Person and Car are examples of classes representing the set of individual persons and cars respectively. The OWL2 object properties are used to link individuals, classes, or create a property hierarchy. For example, the object property "hasOwner" can be used to link car with person. The OWL2 datatype properties are used to link individuals or classes to data values, including XML Schema datatypes [XMLSCHEMA-2].

The key words "must", "must not", "required", "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "recommended", "may", and "optional" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2. PROV-O at a glance

PROV-O users may only need to use parts of the entire ontology, depending on their needs and according to how much detail they want to include in their provenance information. For this, the PROV-O terms (classes and properties) are grouped into four categories to provide an incremental introduction to the ontology: Starting Point terms, Expanded terms, terms for Qualifying relationships, and terms for Collections.

Starting Point classes and properties provide the basis for the rest of the PROV Ontology and thus it is recommended that readers become comfortable with how to apply these terms before continuing to the remaining categories. These terms are used to create simple provenance descriptions that can be elaborated using terms from other categories. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in Section 3.1.

Expanded classes and properties provide additional terms that can be used to relate classes in the Starting Point category. The terms in this category are applied in the same way as the terms in the Starting Point category. Many of the terms in this category are subclasses or subproperties of those in the Starting Point category. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in Section 3.2.

Qualified classes and properties provide elaborated information about binary relations asserted using Starting Point and Expanded properties. The terms in this category are applied using a pattern that differs from those in the Starting Point and Expanded categories. While the relations from the previous two categories are applied as direct, binary assertions, the terms in this category are used to provide additional attributes of the binary relations. The pattern used in this category allows users to provide elaborate details that are not available using only Starting Point and Expanded terms. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in Section 3.3.

Collection classes and properties are specializations of the Starting Point and Qualified terms that describe the provenance of collections as key-value pairs that are inserted and removed to create new collections. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in Section 3.4.

3. The PROV-O Ontology Description

This section introduces the terms in each of the following categories:

3.1 Starting Point Terms

The Starting Point category is a small collection of classes and properties that can be used to create simple, initial provenance descriptions. Three classes provide a basis for the rest of PROV-O:

The three primary classes relate to one another and to themselves using the properties shown in the following figure.

Activities start and end at particular points in time (described using properties prov:startedAtTime and prov:endedAtTime, respectively). Activities can use Entities during their lifespan and can also generate other Entities (described using prov:used and prov:wasGeneratedBy, respectively). For example, a blog writing activity may use a particular dataset and generate a bar chart. When an Activity uses an Entity that was generated by another Activity, we say it prov:wasInformedBy the other Activity. This allows provenance chains of just Activities, in addition to provenance chains of Entities linked by the Activities that used or generated them.

The provenance among Entities can also be expressed without mentioning the Activities involved, using the property prov:wasDerivedFrom. A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another. Entities are described using any number of existing or newly-created RDF properties.

An Agent can be responsible for an Activity or an Entity (described using the properties prov:wasAssociatedWith and prov:wasAttributedTo, respectively). Agents can also be responsible for other Agents' actions. In this case, the Agent involved with an Activity or Entity prov:actedOnBehalfOf another Agent that may have been less involved, but still bears some responnsibility for the Activity or Entity.

PROV-O Starting Point terms
Figure 1. The three Starting Point classes and the properties that relate them.

The following PROV-O describes the resources involved when creating a chart about crime statistics. The example uses only Starting Point terms and serves as a basis for elaboration that will be described in subsequent sections. In the example, Derek performs an aggregation of some government crime data, grouping by national regions that are described in a separate dataset by a civil action group.

@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix ex:   <http://example.org#> .

ex:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:illustrationActivity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom ex:aggregatedByRegions;
.

ex:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity; 
   prov:used              ex:aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith ex:derek;
   prov:wasInformedBy     ex:aggregationActivity;
.

ex:aggregatedByRegions
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:aggregationActivity;
.

ex:aggregationActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime    "2011-07-14T01:01:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith ex:derek;
   prov:used              ex:crimeData;
   prov:used              ex:nationalRegionsList;
   prov:endedAtTime      "2011-07-14T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

ex:crimeData
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo ex:government;
.
ex:nationalRegionsList 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo ex:civil_action_group;
.

ex:aggregatedByRegions prov:wasAttributedTo ex:derek .
ex:bar_chart           prov:wasAttributedTo ex:derek .

ex:derek
   a prov:Agent;
   a foaf:Person;
   foaf:givenName "Derek"^^xsd:string;
   foaf:mbox      <mailto:dererk@example.org>;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf ex:chartgen;
.

ex:chartgen 
   a prov:Agent;
   a prov:Organization;
   foaf:name "Chart Generators";
. 

ex:government         a prov:Organization, foaf:Organization .
ex:civil_action_group a prov:Organization, foaf:Organization .

The example states that the agent ex:derek was associated with two activities: ex:aggregationActivity and ex:illustrationActivity. The activity ex:aggregationActivity used the entities ex:crimeData (a crime statistics dataset) and ex:nationalRegionsList (a list of national regions), and generated a new entity, ex:aggregatedByRegions, that aggregates the statistics in ex:crimeData according to the regions in ex:nationalRegionsList. The ex:aggregatedByRegions entity was then used by the ex:illustrationActivity activity, to generate a new entity ex:chart1 that depicts the aggregated statistics.

The example also states that the activity ex:illustrationActivity was informed by the activity ex:aggregationActivity. Indeed, the former used the entity ex:aggregatedByRegions, which was generated by the latter.

Because the agent ex:derek was associated with the activities ex:aggregationActivity and ex:illustrationActivity, the entities generated by these activities, i.e., ex:aggregatedByRegions and ex:chart1, were attributed to him.

Finally, the example states that the agent ex:derek acted on behalf of the organization ex:chartgen.

3.2 Expanded Terms

The terms introduced in this section provide additional ways to describe the provenance among Entities, Activities, and Agents. The terms are illustrated in the following figure.

PROV-O Starting Point terms
Figure 2. The expanded terms build upon those in the Starting Points section.

Three common subclasses of Agent are provided: prov:Person, prov:Organization, and prov:SoftwareAgent. These classes are not disjoint and may overlap. Further, Agents may be Entities, in cases where one wishes to describe the provenance of Agents.

Similarly to how Activities have start and end times, an Entity may be bound by points in time for which it was generated or is no longer usable (described by properties prov:generatedAtTime and prov:invalidatedAtTime, respectively). For example, a painting could not have been displayed before it was painted, and it cannot be sold after it is destroyed by fire. The property prov:wasInvalidatedBy may be used to cite the Activity that invalidated any further uses of an Entity.

Three subproperties of prov:wasDerivedFrom are provided: prov:wasQuotedFrom, prov:wasRevisionOf, and prov:hadOriginalSource. prov:wasQuotedFrom cites a potentially larger Entity (such as a Book, or Blog) from which a quote was taken, prov:wasRevisionOf cites an older version of a revised Entity, and prov:hadOriginalSource cites the Entity that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied (such as a news article that "broke the story"). The property prov:tracedTo is a superproperty of all four of these properties, and is transitive.

prov:specializationOf and prov:alternateOf relate Entities that exist at different levels of specificity. While prov:specializationOf links a more specific Entity to a more general one (e.g., today's BBC news home page versus BBC's news home page on any day), prov:alternateOf links Entities that present aspects of the same thing, but not necessarily the same aspects or at the same time (e.g., the serialization of a document in different formats).

Entities may use the property prov:value to hold a literal value. For example, the prov:value of a quote could be the quote itself, or the prov:value of an Entity involved in a numeric calculation could be the xsd:integer four.

Activities may be started or ended by Entities, which is described using the properties prov:wasStartedBy and prov:wasEndedBy, respectively. Since Entities may start or end Activities, and Agents may be Entities, then Agents may also start or end Activities.

The property prov:atLocation can be used to describe the prov:Location of any resource. Use of prov:atLocation makes sense for most PROV-O classes. The properties used to describe instances of prov:Location are outside the scope of PROV-O; reuse of other existing vocabulary is encouraged.

Finally, a prov:Bundle is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed. Note that a named set of provenance descriptions can take any form, including scribbles on a drink napkin. A named set of PROV-O assertions is a special type of bundle that is not named by PROV or PROV-O.

We illustrate below the use of the expanded terms using the crime file example from the previous section as reference. Agent Derek now publishes a post about his work with the aggregated file, while Monica publishes an alternate version to reach a more casual audience.

@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix sioc: <http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix ex:   <http://example.org#> .

ex:bundlePost {

   ex:bundlePost a prov:Bundle .

   ex:derek
      a prov:Person, prov:Agent, foaf:Person; ## Typically prov:Agent will be inferred from prov:Person
      foaf:givenName      "Derek"^^xsd:string;
      foaf:mbox           <mailto:dererk@example.org>;
      prov:actedOnBehalfOf ex:chartgen;
   .

   ex:monica
      a prov:Person, prov:Agent, foaf:Person;
      foaf:givenName "Monica"^^xsd:string;
      foaf:mbox      <mailto:monica@example.org>
   .

   ex:chartgen 
      a prov:Organization, prov:Agent;       ##Typically prov:Organization will be inferred from prov:Person
      foaf:name "Chart Generators, Inc.";
   . 

   ex:aggregatedByRegions
      a prov:Entity;
      prov:atLocation <file://Users/aggr.txt>;
   .
   
   ex:more-crime-happens-in-cities
     a prov:Location, sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
     sioc:latest_version ex:post9821v1;
     sioc:previous_version ex:post9821;
   .

   ex:post9821 
      a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;   
      prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:publicationActivity1123;
      prov:atLocation     ex:more-crime-happens-in-cities;  ## PERMALINK to the (latest revision of the) post
      ex:snapshotContent  ex:postContent0;                  ## Snapshot with the content of this version
      sioc:title "More crime happens in cities"^^xsd:string;
      prov:hadOriginalSource ex:aggregatedByRegions;
      prov:wasAttributedTo   ex:derek;
     prov:generatedAtTime "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   .

   ## Version 2 of the post

   ex:post9821v1
      a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;
      prov:atLocation       ex:more-crime-happens-in-cities;  ## PERMALINK to the (latest revision of the) post
      ex:snapshotContent    ex:postContent1;                  ## Snapshot with the content of this version
      prov:wasRevisionOf    ex:post9821;
      prov:specializationOf ex:post9821;
      prov:wasAttributedTo  ex:derek;
   .

   ## Rephrasing of the post in a new version

   ex:post9821v2
      a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;
      prov:atLocation       ex:more-crime-happens-in-cities-for-dummies; ## PERMALINK to the (latest revision of the) post
      ex:snapshotContent    ex:postContent2;                              ## Snapshot with the content of this version
      prov:alternateOf      ex:post9821v1;
      prov:specializationOf ex:post9821;
      prov:tracedTo         ex:aggregatedByRegions;                       ## If the file hadn't existed, Monica would have not written the post.
      sioc:title "More crime happens in cities for dummies"^^xsd:string;
      prov:wasAttributedTo ex:monica;
   .

   ex:publicationActivity1123 
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:wasStartedAt      "2011-07-16T01:01:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:wasEndedAt        "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:wasAssociatedWith ex:derek;
      prov:used              ex:aggregatedByRegions;   
      prov:generated         ex:post9821;
      prov:wasStartedBy      ex:derek;
      prov:wasEndedBy        ex:derek
   .
}

Agent ex:derek, acting again in behalf of the ex:chartgenerators organization, publishes a post about his recent changes to the aggregated file (ex:aggregatedByRegions). Since he is the one who started and ended the publishing activity (ex:publicationActivity1123), that information is recorded as well. The post produced by ex:derek (ex:post9821) includes a permanent link where the content of the latest version is shown (ex:more-crime-happens-in-cities) plus a snapshot of the content of the current version (ex:postContent0). Derek also adds additional metadata of the post, like the title.

However, inmediately after having published the post, Derek detects a typo. He does not want to record the activity that led to the new version, so he just creates a new version and summarizes the changes in a revision of the original post(ex:post9821v1). This revision is also a specialization of the original post, since it is a refined version. Thus, the permalink to the latest version (ex:more-crime-happens-in-cities) remains the same in the new revision, but a different URL is given for its snapshot (ex:postContent1).

Shortly after Derek's post publication, ex:monica adapts the text for a wider audience in a new version (ex:post9821v2). This version is an specialization of the original post, and an alternate of the first version modified by Derek. Since the provenance produced by Derek and Monica is related to the same resources, the system automatically groups it in the same prov:Bundle (ex:bundlePost).

Some time passes by, and John writes his own conclusions quoting the previous two posts:

@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix sioc: <http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org#> .

:bundlePost2 {

   :bundlePost2 
      a prov:Bundle;
      prov:hasAnnotation :noteMadeByParser;
   .
   
   :john 
      a prov:Agent;
   .
   
   # Rows of the post quoting post :post9821v1

   :quote1
      a prov:Entity;
      prov:value "Analysis of the datasets demonstrate that there is more crime";
      prov:wasQuotedFrom :post9821v1.
      
   # Rows of the post quoting post :post9821v2

   :quote2
      a prov:Entity;
      prov:value "In sumary, there are clearly more crimes in the country";
      prov:wasQuotedFrom :post9821v2.
   
   :publicationActivity1123
      a prov:Axtivity;
      prov:used :quote1,
                :quote2,
                :aggregatedByRegions;
      prov:generated :post19201.
   
   :post19201
      a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;
      prov:wasAttributedTo   :john;
      prov:wasDerivedFrom    :post9821v1, 
                             :post9821v2;
      prov:wasGeneratedBy    :publicationActivity1123;
      prov:hadOriginalSource :aggregatedByRegions;
   .
}

Agent ex:John also names the URI of the original source (ex:aggregatedByRegions). All the provenance statements related to his post are grouped in a new prov:Bundle (ex:bundlePost2). Unfortunately, there is a problem in the servers where :post19201 is being stored, and all the data related to the post is lost. Thus, the system invalidates the entity automatically and notifies John about the error.

@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix sioc: <http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :   <http://example.org#> .

:post19201
      a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;
     prov:invalidatedAtTime "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z";
     prov:wasInvalidatedBy :hard_disk_failure;
.

:hard_disk_failure
     a prov:Activity;
     prov:wasEndedAt "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z";
.

3.3 Qualified Terms

The classes and properties in the Qualified terms category are for users who wish to provide additional details about the relationships between entities, activities, and agents. The terms in this category are the result of applying the Qualification Pattern [LD-Patterns-QR] to the simple (unqualified) relations available in the Starting Point and Expanded categories. The Qualification Pattern consists of restating the unqualified relation by using an intermediate involvement class. In this document, each property that can be qualified has a can be qualified with header linking to the qualifying property and involvement class. In the PROV-O OWL these are indicated using the annotation property prov:qualifiedForm. The involvement class is a subclass of prov:Involvement which determines which property to link from the involvement to the unqualified object, that is either prov:entity, prov:activity, prov:agent or prov:dictionary.

So for instance, if we have the unqualified statement:

:e1 prov:wasGeneratedBy :a1 .

Then we find in PROV-O that prov:wasGeneratedBy can be qualified with the qualification property prov:qualifiedGeneration and the involvement class prov:Generation, which is a subclass of prov:ActivityInvolvement. From this, we can restate the above relation using the qualification pattern as:

:e1    prov:wasGeneratedBy :e1Gen .
:e1Gen a                   prov:Generation ;
       prov:entity         :a1 .

The asserter can thus attach additional properties to :e1Gen to describe the generation of :e1. To simplify client queries, any qualified relation should be accompanied by the equivalent unqualified statement. Unqualified properties should not have the equivalent qualified form asserted unless it adds additional information (for instance identifying the involvement).

Figure 2 illustrates an example of the classes and properties needed to fulfill the qualification pattern for the prov:used and prov:wasAssociatedWith properties. While prov:qualifiedUsage, prov:Usage, and prov:entity are used to qualify prov:used relations, prov:qualifiedAssociation, prov:Association, and prov:agent are used to qualify prov:wasAssociatedWith relations. This pattern applies to the twelve other relations that can be qualified.

In the example, the prov:qualifiedUsage property parallels the prov:used property, and references an instance of prov:Usage that provides attributes of the prov:used relation between the Activity and Entity. The prov:entity property is used to cite the Entity that was used by the Activity. In this case, the time that the Activity used the Entity is provided using the prov:atTime property and a literal xsd:dateTime value.

Similarly, the prov:qualifiedAssociation property parallels the prov:wasAssociatedWith property, and references an instance of prov:Association that provides attributes of the prov:wasAssociatedWith relation between the Activity and Agent. The prov:agent property is used to cite the Agent that was involved in the Activity. In this case, the plan that the Agent used is provided using the prov:hadPlan property and an instance of prov:Plan.

The following two examples show the result of applying the Usage and Association patterns to the chart making example from Section 3.1.

Qualified Usage

The prov:qualifiedUsage property parallels the prov:used property to provide an additional description to ex:illustrationActivity. The instance of prov:Usage cites the data used (ex:aggregatedByRegions) and the time the activity used it (2011-07-14T03:03:03Z).

@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix ex:   <http://example.org#> .

ex:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity;                   ## (Using Starting Point terms)
   prov:used ex:aggregatedByRegions;  ## The aggregated data was used to create the chart.
.

ex:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .

ex:illustrationActivity    
   prov:qualifiedUsage  [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity ex:aggregatedByRegions;                ## Qualification: The aggregated data was used 
      prov:atTime "2011-07-14T03:03:03Z"^^xsd:dateTime;  ## at a particular time when creating the chart.
   ];
.
Qualified Association

The prov:qualifiedAssociation property parallels the prov:wasAssociatedWith property to provide an additional description to ex:illustrationActivity. The instance of prov:Association cites the agent (ex:derek) that followed the instructions (ex:tutorial_blog).

@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix ex:   <http://example.org#> .

ex:illustrationActivity             
   a prov:Activity;                  ## (Using Starting Point terms)
   prov:wasAssociatedWith ex:derek;  ## Derek was responsible for the chart making in some way.
.

ex:derek a prov:Agent .

ex:illustrationActivity
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [       ## Qualification: What plan (or recipe, instructions) 
      a prov:Association;            ## did Derek follow when creating the graphical chart?
      prov:agent   ex:derek
      prov:hadPlan ex:tutorial_blog;
   ];
.

ex:tutorial_blog a prov:Plan, prov:Entity .

Usage and Association (described above) are accompanied by six other qualifications of Starting Point relations. The following table lists the simple relations that can be qualified, along with the qualification property, qualification class, and the property used to indicate the object of the qualified relation.

Qualification Property and Involvement Class used to qualify a Starting-point Property.
Starting-point Property Qualification Property Involvement Class Object Property
prov:actedOnBehalfOf prov:qualifiedDelegation prov:Delegation prov:agent
prov:used prov:qualifiedUsage prov:Usage prov:entity
prov:wasAssociatedWith prov:qualifiedAssociation prov:Association prov:agent
prov:wasAttributedTo prov:qualifiedAttribution prov:Attribution prov:agent
prov:wasDerivedFrom prov:qualifiedDerivation prov:Derivation prov:entity
prov:wasGeneratedBy prov:qualifiedGeneration prov:Generation prov:activity
prov:wasInformedBy prov:qualifiedCommunication prov:Communication prov:activity

Six relations from the Expanded category can also be qualified. The following table lists the simple relations that can be qualified, along with the qualification property, qualification class, and the property used to indicate the object of the qualified relation.

Qualification Property and Involvement Class used to qualify an Expanded Property.
Expanded Property Qualification Property Involvement Class Object Property
prov:hadOriginalSource prov:qualifiedSource prov:Source prov:entity
prov:tracedTo prov:qualifiedTrace prov:Trace prov:entity
prov:wasEndedBy prov:qualifiedEnd prov:End prov:entity
prov:wasInvalidatedBy prov:qualifiedInvalidation prov:Invalidation prov:activity
prov:wasQuotedFrom prov:qualifiedQuotation prov:Quotation prov:entity
prov:wasRevisionOf prov:qualifiedRevision prov:Revision prov:entity
prov:wasStartedBy prov:qualifiedStart prov:Start prov:entity

This section finishes with two more examples of qualification as applied to the chart making example from Section 3.1.

Qualified Generation

The prov:qualifiedGeneration property parallels the prov:wasGeneratedBy property to provide an additional description to ex:chart1. The instance of prov:Generation cites the time (2011-07-14T15:52:14Z) that the activity (ex:illustrationActivity) generated the chart (ex:chart1).

@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix ex:   <http://example.org#> .

ex:chart1 
   a prov:Entity;                                ## (Using Starting Point terms)
   prov:wasGeneratedBy ex:illustrationActivity;  ## The chart was generated in an illustration activity.
.

ex:illustrationActivity a prov:Activity .

ex:chart1
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      prov:activity ex:illustrationActivity;             ## Qualification: The chart was 
      prov:atTime "2011-07-14T15:52:14Z"^^xsd:dateTime;  ## generated at a particular time.
   ];
.
Qualified Derivation

The prov:qualifiedDerivation property parallels the prov:wasDerivedFrom property to provide an additional description to ex:chart1. The instance of prov:Derivation cites the activity (ex:illustrationActivity) and the Usages and Generations that the activity conduced to create the chart (ex:chart1).

@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix ex:   <http://example.org#> .

ex:chart1
   a prov:Entity;                               ## (Using Starting Point terms)
   prov:wasDerivedFrom ex:aggregatedByRegions;  ## The chart was derived from the aggregate.
.

ex:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .

ex:chart1
   prov:qualifiedDerivation   [           
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:entity        ex:aggregatedByRegions;  ## Qualification: additional information about the derivation:
      prov:hadUsage      ex:usage;                ## Which activity derived the aggregate?
      prov:hadActivity   ex:activity;             ## What did the activity use to derive the aggregate?
      prov:hadGeneration ex:generation;           ## How did the activity generate the derived aggregate?
   ];
.

3.4 Collections Terms

A prov:Dictionary is an prov:Entity that acts as a container to some members, which are themselves entities. Specifically, a dictionary is composed of set of key-value pairs, where a literal key is used to identify a constituent entity within the dictionary. To illustrate this, the example below describes a dictionary :c1 that has as members the two key value pairs ("k1", :e1) and ("k2", :e2).

@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org/> .

:e1 a prov:Entity .
:e2 a prov:Entity .

:c1 a prov:Dictionary;
   prov:membership [ 
      a prov:Membership;
      prov:member [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k1"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e1
      ], [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k2"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e2
      ];
   ];
.

It is worth noting that :c1 may also have other members (i.e. prov:knownMembership is not functional). A dictionary may be empty and thus not have any known memberships, in which case it should be described as an instance of the subclass prov:EmptyDictionary.

To describe the provenance of a dictionary, PROV-O provides two kinds of involvements: prov:qualifiedInsertion is used to describe that a dictionary was obtained from an existing dictionary by inserting a set of key-value pairs. prov:qualifiedRemoval is used to specify that a given dictionary was obtained from an existing dictionary by removing a set of key-value pairs. The example below specifies that the dictionary :c1 was obtained from the empty dictionary :c by inserting the key-value pairs ("k1", :e1) and ("k2", :e2).

@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org/> .

:e1 a prov:Entity .
:e2 a prov:Entity .

:c  a prov:EmptyDictionary .

:c1 a prov:Dictionary;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :c;
   prov:qualifiedInsertion [ 
      a prov:Insertion;
      prov:dictionary :c;
      prov:inserted [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k1"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e1;
      ], [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k2"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e2;
      ];
   ]; 
. 

Similarly, the example below specifies that the dictionary :c3 was obtained by removing the key-value pairs associated with the keys "k1" and "k2" from the dictionary :c2. Thus, :c3 does not contain the members ("k1", :e1) and ("k2", :e2( from :c2.

@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org/> .

:c2 a prov:Dictionary .

:c3 a prov:Dictionary;
   prov:derivedByRemovalFrom :c2;
   prov:qualifiedRemoval [ 
      a prov:Removal;
      prov:dictionary :c2;
      prov:removed    "k1"^^xsd:string, 
                      "k3"^^xsd:string;
   ];
.

4. Cross reference for PROV-O classes and properties

This section provides details for each class and property defined by the PROV Ontology, grouped by the categories described above:

The superscripts op and dp denote that a property is an OWL object property or data property, respectively.

4.1 Starting Point Terms

The classes and properties that provide a basis for all other PROV-O terms are discussed in Section 3.1.

Class: prov:Activity back to starting-point classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity

An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:graduation
   a prov:Activity, :Graduation;
   prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-15T13:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used          :ms_smith;
   prov:generated     :doctor_smith;
   prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-15T14:30:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
.
:ms_smith     a prov:Entity .
:doctor_smith a prov:Entity .

An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities. This action can take multiple forms: consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, generating, or being associated with entities. Activities that operate on digital entities may for example move, copy, or duplicate them.

described with properties:
prov:qualifiedStart op , prov:qualifiedEnd op , prov:wasStartedBy op , prov:qualifiedCommunication op , prov:generated op , prov:qualifiedUsage op , prov:wasEndedBy op , prov:qualifiedAssociation op , prov:endedAtTime dp , prov:wasAssociatedWith op , prov:wasInformedBy op , prov:startedAtTime dp , prov:used op
in range of
prov:wasInformedBy op prov:activity op prov:wasGeneratedBy op prov:hadActivity op prov:wasInvalidatedBy op

Class: prov:Agent back to starting-point classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent

An agent is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place or for the existence of an entity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:derek
   a prov:Agent, prov:Person;
   foaf:givenName      "Derek"^^xsd:string;
   foaf:mbox           <mailto:dererk@example.org>;
   foaf:homePage       <http://dereck.example.com>;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :chartgen;
.

:chartgen 
   a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
   foaf:name "Chart Generators, Inc.";
. 

An agent is a type of entity that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place.

described with properties:
prov:actedOnBehalfOf op , prov:qualifiedDelegation op
in range of
prov:actedOnBehalfOf op prov:agent op prov:wasAssociatedWith op prov:wasAttributedTo op
has subclasses
prov:Organization , prov:Person , prov:SoftwareAgent

Class: prov:Entity back to starting-point classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity

An entity is a thing one wants to provide provenance for. For the purpose of this specification, things can be physical, digital, conceptual, or otherwise; things may be real or imaginary.

Example
@prefix rdfs:    <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:     <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:     <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix prov:    <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :        <http://example.com/> .

:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity;
   dcterms:title "Aggregated statistics from the crime file"^^xsd:string;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :derek;
.

:derek a prov:Agent .

An entity is a thing one wants to provide provenance for. For the purpose of this specification, things can be physical, digital, conceptual, or otherwise; things may be real or imaginary.

described with properties:
prov:invalidatedAtTime dp , prov:alternateOf op , prov:value dp , prov:qualifiedSource op , prov:wasInvalidatedBy op , prov:specializationOf op , prov:wasQuotedFrom op , prov:wasGeneratedBy op , prov:hadOriginalSource op , prov:qualifiedQuotation op , prov:wasRevisionOf op , prov:qualifiedInvalidation op , prov:tracedTo op , prov:qualifiedTrace op , prov:qualifiedAttribution op , prov:wasAttributedTo op , prov:wasDerivedFrom op , prov:qualifiedGeneration op , prov:qualifiedDerivation op , prov:generatedAtTime dp , prov:qualifiedRevision op
in range of
prov:hadMember op prov:alternateOf op prov:wasStartedBy op prov:wasQuotedFrom op prov:hadOriginalSource op prov:generated op prov:wasRevisionOf op prov:tracedTo op prov:wasEndedBy op prov:wasDerivedFrom op prov:pairValue op prov:entity op prov:specializationOf op prov:used op
has subclasses
prov:Collection , prov:KeyValuePair , prov:Plan , prov:Bundle

Property: prov:actedOnBehalfOf op back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf

Delegation is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent) to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:derek
   a prov:Agent;
   foaf:givenName "Derek"^^xsd:string;
   foaf:mbox      <mailto:dererk@example.org>;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :chartgen; 
.

:chartgen 
   a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
   foaf:name "Chart Generators, Inc.";
.

An object property to express the accountability of an agent towards another agent. The subordinate agent acted on behalf of the responsible agent in an actual activity.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:endedAtTime dp back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#endedAtTime

An activity end event is the instantaneous event that marks the instant an activity ends.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:geneSequencing
  a prov:Activity;
  prov:used :drosophilaSample;
  prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-30T12:46:32Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:drosophilaSample a prov:Entity .

The time at which an activity ended. See also prov:startedAtTime.

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range
  • http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
can be qualified with

Property: prov:startedAtTime dp back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#startedAtTime

An activity start event is the instantaneous event that marks the instant an activity starts.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:geneSequencing
  a prov:Activity;
  prov:used :drosophilaSample;
  prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-25T01:30:25Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:drosophilaSample a prov:Entity .

The time at which an activity started. See also prov:endedAtTime.

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range
  • http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
can be qualified with

Property: prov:used op back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used

A usage is an instantaneous world event: an activity beginning to consume an entity. Before this event, the activity had not begun to consume or use to this entity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:sortActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used       :datasetA;
   prov:generated  :datasetB;
.

:datasetA a prov:Entity.
:datasetB a prov:Entity.

# See qualified Usage for example on how the role of :datasetA can be described for this Activity

A prov:Entity that was used by this prov:Activity. For example, :baking prov:used :spoon, :egg, :oven .

has characteristics Irreflexive, Asymmetric

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasAssociatedWith op back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith

An activity association is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:illustrating
   a prov:Activity; 
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
.

:derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .

An prov:Agent that had some (unspecified) responsibility for the occurrence of this prov:Activity.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasAttributedTo op back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo

An entity is a thing one wants to provide provenance for. For the purpose of this specification, things can be physical, digital, conceptual, or otherwise; things may be real or imaginary.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:nationalRegionsList 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :civil_action_group;
.

Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasDerivedFrom op back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom

An entity is a thing one wants to provide provenance for. For the purpose of this specification, things can be physical, digital, conceptual, or otherwise; things may be real or imaginary.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bar_chart prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions .

A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, a construction of an entity into another, or an update of an entity, resulting in a new one.

has characteristics Irreflexive, Asymmetric

has super-properties
has domain
has range
has sub-properties
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasGeneratedBy op back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy

An entity generation event is the instantaneous event that marks the final instant of an entity's creation timespan, after which it is no longer available for use.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrating;
.

:illustrating a prov:Activity .

wasGeneratedBy links Entitites with Activity representing that entity was generated as a result of Activity

has characteristics Irreflexive, Functional, Asymmetric

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasInformedBy op back to starting-point properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy

Communication is the exchange of an entity by two activities, one activity using the entity generated by the other.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:writing-celebrity-gossip 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasInformedBy :voicemail-interception;
.

:voicemail-interception a prov:Activity .

An activity a2 is dependent on or informed by another activity a1, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by a1 and used by a2.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

4.2 Expanded Terms

The additional terms used to describe relations among Starting Point classes are discussed in Section 3.2.

Class: prov:Bundle back to expanded classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle

An account is any mechanism by which a set of provenance descriptions can be bundled up and named.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# An account can be described in many ways. A possibility is a named graph:
:acc23_04_2012_dereck {

   :acc23_04_2012_dereck a prov:Bundle .

   :entity1 a prov:Entity .
   :agent1  a prov:Agent .

   #Other provenance statements.
}

# Another possibility is by pointing to the container of the provenance triples:
<http://www.example.com/provTriples.txt> a prov:Bundle .

Note that there are kinds of accounts (e.g. handwritten letters, audio recordings, etc.) that are not expressed in PROV-O, but can be still be described by PROV-O.

is subclass of
prov:Entity

Class: prov:Location back to expanded classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Location

A location can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column. As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate, address, landmark, and so forth.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix sioc: <http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# A Location can be a path or a geographical location.

:post9821 
   a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;   
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :publicationActivity1123;
   prov:atLocation     :more-crime-happens-in-cities;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      prov:activity    :publicationActivity1123;
      prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime; 
      prov:atLocation <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid>;
   ];
.

:publicationActivity1123      a prov:Activity.
:more-crime-happens-in-cities a prov:Location.
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid> a prov:Location. 

A location can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column. As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate, address, landmark, and so forth.

in range of
prov:atLocation op

Class: prov:Organization back to expanded classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Organization

Agents of type Organization are social institutions such as companies, societies etc.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:boogle 
   a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
   foaf:name "Boogle";
. 

Agents of type Organization are social institutions such as companies, societies etc.

is subclass of
prov:Agent
described with properties:
prov:actedOnBehalfOf op , prov:qualifiedDelegation op

Class: prov:Person back to expanded classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Person

Agents of type Person are people.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso>
   a prov:Person, prov:Agent;
   foaf:depiction <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg>;
.

Agents of type Person are people.

is subclass of
prov:Agent
described with properties:
prov:actedOnBehalfOf op , prov:qualifiedDelegation op

Class: prov:SoftwareAgent back to expanded classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#SoftwareAgent

A software agent is running software.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# Googlebot is Google's web crawling bot; it can initiate and participate in web-crawling activities.

:googlebot
   a prov:SoftwareAgent;
   rdfs:label "Googlebot"^^xsd:string;
.

A software agent is running software.

is subclass of
prov:Agent
described with properties:
prov:actedOnBehalfOf op , prov:qualifiedDelegation op
has subclass
prov:ProvenanceService

Property: prov:alternateOf op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf

A software agent is running software.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:london_forecast_0412 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy [
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-12T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.

:london_forecast_0413 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy [
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-13T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.

:london_forecast 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
.

## :london_forecast_0412 and :london_forecast_0413 are both 
## specialization of the more general entity :london_forecast

:london_forecast_0412  
   prov:alternateOf      :london_forecast_0413;
   prov:specializationOf :london_forecast;
.

An entity is alternate of another if they are both a specialization of some common entity. The common entity does not need to be identified.

has characteristics Transitive, Reflexive, Symmetric

has domain
has range
has sub-properties

Property: prov:atLocation op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation

A location can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column. As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate, address, landmark, and so forth.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix sioc: <http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# A Location can be a path or a geographical location.

:post9821 
   a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;   
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :publicationActivity1123;
   prov:atLocation     :more-crime-happens-in-cities;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      prov:activity    :publicationActivity1123;
      prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime; 
      prov:atLocation <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid>;
   ];
.

:publicationActivity1123      a prov:Activity .
:more-crime-happens-in-cities a prov:Location .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid> a prov:Location .

The Location of any resource.

has characteristics Irreflexive, Asymmetric

has range

Property: prov:generated op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated

An entity generation event is the instantaneous event that marks the final instant of an entity's creation timespan, after which it is no longer available for use.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:proteinDigestion
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:generated :peptideSample1;
.

:peptideSample1 a prov:Entity .

This inverse of prov:wasGeneratedBy is defined so that Activities being described can reference their generated outputs directly without needing to 'stop' and start describing the Entity. This helps 'Activity-centric' modeling as opposed to 'Entity-centric' modeling.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
has inverse

Property: prov:generatedAtTime dp back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime

An entity generation event is the instantaneous event that marks the final instant of an entity's creation timespan, after which it is no longer available for use.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# A widget was generated 1:35:23 PM on April 3, 2012 UTC

:widget-789532
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-04-03T13:35:23Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

# The above statement is equivalent to:
# :widget-789532 prov:qualifiedGeneration [ prov:atTime "2012-04-03T13:35:23Z"^^xsd:dateTime ] .

The time at which an entity was completely created.

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range
  • http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
can be qualified with

Property: prov:hadOriginalSource op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadOriginalSource

An original source refers to the source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied.

Example
@prefix rdfs:    <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:     <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:     <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix foaf:    <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix prov:    <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix lang:    <http://lexvo.org/id/iso639-3/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix frbr:    <http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#> .
@prefix :        <http://example.com/> .

## Having an original source is a particular case of derivation.

<http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/996>
   a prov:Entity, frbr:Work;
   dcterms:title          "Don Quixote";
   prov:wasAttributedTo   :ormsby;
   dcterms:language       lang:eng;
   prov:hadOriginalSource <http://cultura.linkeddata.es/BNE/resource/C1001/XX2197892>;
.

#### The English version book is a translation that is based on the original Spanish book

<http://cultura.linkeddata.es/BNE/resource/C1001/XX2197892>;
    a prov:Entity, frbr:Work;
    prov:wasAttributedTo :cervantes;
    dcterms:language     lang:spa;
.

:cervantes
   a prov:Person;
   foaf:name "Miguel de Cervantes";
.

:ormsby
   a prov:Person;
   foaf:name "John Ormsby";
.

An original source refers to the source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. An original source relation is a particular case of derivation that aims to give credit to the source that originated some information.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:invalidatedAtTime dp back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime

Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, :Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso>;
   prov:invalidatedAtTime "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z";
.

The time at which an entity began to be invalidated (i.e., no longer usable).

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range
  • http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
can be qualified with

Property: prov:specializationOf op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf

A software agent is running software.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:london_forecast_0412 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy [
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-12T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.

:london_forecast_0413 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy [
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-13T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.

:london_forecast 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
.

## :london_forecast_0412 and :london_forecast_0413 are both 
## specialization of the more general entity :london_forecast

:london_forecast_0412  
   prov:alternateOf      :london_forecast_0413;
   prov:specializationOf :london_forecast;
.

An entity is a specialization of another if they both refer to some common thing but the former is a more constrained entity than the former. The common entity does not need to be identified.

has characteristics Transitive, Irreflexive, Asymmetric

has super-properties
has domain
has range

Property: prov:tracedTo op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#tracedTo

Traceability is the ability to link back an entity to another by means of derivation or responsibility relations, possibly repeatedly traversed.

Example
@prefix rdfs:    <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:     <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:     <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov:    <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix :        <http://example.com/> .

# An up-to-date web page listing the presidents of the United States
# is traced to all of those who have held the office.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States>
   a prov:Entity;
   dcterms:title "List of Presidents of the United States"^^xsd:string;
   prov:tracedTo <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Barack_Obama>;
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Barack_Obama>
   a prov:Entity, prov:Person;
.

An object property to link back an entity to another by means of derivation or responsibility relations, possibly repeatedly traversed.

has characteristics Transitive

has super-properties
has domain
has range
has sub-properties
can be qualified with

Property: prov:value dp back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#value

The main value (if there is one) of a structured value.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# prov:value is used to reference the entity in a prov:KeyValuePair.
# The object of a prov:value statement is inferred to be of type prov:Entity .
# The subject of a prov:value statement is inferred to be of type prov:KeyValuePair.

[]
   a prov:KeyValuePair;
   prov:key   "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
   prov:value <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe>;
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe> a prov:Entity .

Provides a value for an Entity.

has domain

Property: prov:wasEndedBy op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy

An activity end event is the instantaneous event that marks the instant an activity ends.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:experiment 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasEndedBy :inconsistentResult;
   prov:qualifiedEnd [
      a prov:End;
      prov:entity     :inconsistentResult;
      prov:atTime    "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation :scienceLab_003;
   ];
.

:inconsistentResult a prov:Entity .
:scienceLab_003     a prov:Location .

End is when an activity is deemed to have ended. An end may refer to an entity, known as trigger, that terminated the activity.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasInvalidatedBy op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy

Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, :Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso>;
   prov:wasInvalidatedBy :Swissair_Flight_111_crash;
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso> 
   a prov:Agent;
   foaf:depiction <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg>;
.

:Swissair_Flight_111_crash 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Swissair_Flight_111>;
.

<> prov:wasDerivedFrom <http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#dfn-wasinvalidatedby> .
has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasQuotedFrom op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom

A quotation is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone other than its original author.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bl-dagstuhl
   a prov:Entity;

   prov:value """During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus
   based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be
   formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused
   formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.
   This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across
   systems and through databases and be able to understand the
   mathematical properties of this interconnection.""";

   prov:wasQuotedFrom 
      <http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/>;
.

<http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/> a prov:Entity .

<> prov:wasDerivedFrom <http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#dfn-wasquotedfrom> .

An entity is derived from an original entity by copying, or "quoting", some or all of it.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasRevisionOf op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf

A revision is a derivation that revises an entity into a revised version.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix sioc: <http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:post9821v1
   a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;
   prov:wasRevisionOf :post9821;
   rdfs:comment ":post9821v1 is a post, which is a revision of the original post :post9821.";
.    

A revision is a derivation that revises an entity into a revised version.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:wasStartedBy op back to expanded properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy

An activity start event is the instantaneous event that marks the instant an activity starts.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# Use prov:qualifiedStart to see when and where the activity was started

:experiment
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasStartedBy :researcher;
.

:researcher a prov:Agent .

Start is when an activity is deemed to have started. A start may refer to an entity, known as trigger, that initiated the activity.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

4.3 Qualified Terms

The terms used to qualify the Starting Point and Expanded properties are discussed in Section 3.3.

Class: prov:ActivityInvolvement back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInvolvement

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy      :illustrating;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration :making-bar-chart;
. 

:making-bar-chart
   a prov:Generation, 
     prov:ActivityInvolvement;  ## Instances of Generation, Invalidation, and Communication qualify
   prov:activity :illustrating; ## the involvement of an Activity (cited by prov:activity)
   rdfs:comment "Ended up with bar chart as line chart looked ugly."@en;
.

:illustrating a prov:Activity .
is subclass of
prov:Involvement
described with properties:
prov:activity op
has subclasses
prov:Invalidation , prov:Generation , prov:Communication

Class: prov:AgentInvolvement back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInvolvement

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:illustrating
    a prov:Activity; 
    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
       a prov:Association, 
         prov:AgentInvolvement; ## Instances of Generation, Invalidation, and Communication qualify
       prov:agent   :derek;     ## the involvement of an Agent (cited by prov:agent)
       prov:hadRole :illustrationist
    ];
.

:derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .

:illustratonist a prov:Role .
is subclass of
prov:Involvement
described with properties:
prov:agent op
has subclasses
prov:Delegation , prov:Association , prov:Attribution

Class: prov:Association back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association

An activity association is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:illustrating
    a prov:Activity; 
    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek, 
                           :steve;
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent   :derek;
        prov:hadRole :illustrationist;
    ];
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent   :steve;
        prov:hadRole :stylist;
        prov:hadPlan :style-guide;
        rdfs:comment "Steve helped Derek conform with the publisher's style guide."@en;
    ];
.

:derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .
:steve a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .

:illustratonist a prov:Role .
:stylist        a prov:Role .

:style-guide a prov:Plan, prov:Entity .

An instance of prov:Association provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasAssociatedWith relation from an prov:Activity to some prov:Agent that is responsible for it. For example, :baking prov:wasAssociatedWith :baker; prov:qualified [ a prov:Association; prov:agent :baker; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:AgentInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:hadPlan op
prov:hadRole op
prov:agent op
in range of
prov:qualifiedAssociation op
qualifies
prov:wasAssociatedWith op

Class: prov:Attribution back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution

Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Fallingwater>
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Edgar_J._Kaufmann>,
                        <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Frank_Lloyd_Wright>,
                        :western-Pennsylvania-Conservancy;
   prov:qualifiedAttribution [
      a prov:Attribution;
      prov:agent <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Edgar_J._Kaufmann>;
      prov:hadRole :owner;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAttribution [
      a prov:Attribution;
      prov:agent <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Frank_Lloyd_Wright>;
      prov:hadRole :architect;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAttribution [
      a prov:Attribution;
      prov:agent :western-Pennsylvania-Conservancy;
      prov:hadRole :conserver;
   ];
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Edgar_J._Kaufmann>  a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Frank_Lloyd_Wright> a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
:western-Pennsylvania-Conservancy a prov:Organization, prov:Agent . 

An instance of prov:Attribution provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasAttributedTo relation from an prov:Entity to some prov:Agent that is responsible for it. For example, :cake prov:wasAttributedTo :baker; prov:qualified [ a prov:Attribution; prov:entity :baker; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:AgentInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:agent op
in range of
prov:qualifiedAttribution op
qualifies
prov:wasAttributedTo op

Class: prov:Communication back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication

Communication is the exchange of an entity by two activities, one activity using the entity generated by the other.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:writing-celebrity-gossip 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasInformedBy          :voicemail-interception;
   prov:qualifiedCommunication :informing-the-journalist;
.

:informing-the-journalist 
   a prov:Communication;
   prov:activity   :voicemail-interception;
   prov:atLocation :unknown-location;
   rdfs:comment    """The journalist was informed by the private 
                      investigator, but we don't know how or what he was told."""@en;
.

:voicemail-interception a prov:Activity .

:unknown-location 
   a prov:Location;
   rdfs:label "Location unknown"@en;
.

An instance of prov:Communication provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasInformedBy relation from an informed prov:Activity to the prov:Activity that informed it. For example, :you_jumping_off_bridge prov:wasInformedBy :everyone_else_jumping_off_bridge; prov:qualifiedCommunication [ a prov:Communication; prov:entity :everyone_else_jumping_off_bridge; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:ActivityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:activity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedCommunication op
qualifies
prov:wasInformedBy op

Class: prov:Delegation back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation

Delegation is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent) to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .
  
:policySale
   a prov:Actvity;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :insuranceAgent_Frank;
.

:insuranceAgent_Frank
   a prov:Person;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :insuranceCompany_A;
   prov:qualifiedDelegation [
      a prov:Delegation;
      prov:agent   :insuranceCompany_A;
      prov:hadRole :guarantor; # The company is the guarantor of the policy
   ];
.

An instance of prov:Delegation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:actedOnBehalfOf relation from a performing prov:Agent to some prov:Agent for whom it was performed. For example, :mixing prov:wasAssociatedWith :toddler . :toddler prov:actedOnBehalfOf :mother; prov:qualifiedDelegation [ a prov:Delegation; prov:entity :mother; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:AgentInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:hadActivity op
prov:agent op
in range of
prov:qualifiedDelegation op
qualifies
prov:actedOnBehalfOf op

Class: prov:Derivation back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation

A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, a construction of an entity into another, or an update of an entity, resulting in a new one.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;  # The simplest (and least detailed) form of derivation.
.

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;  # The simple form can be accompanied by a qualified form:
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [                  
      a prov:Derivation;                      # An instance of Derivation provides more details
      prov:entity      :aggregatedByRegions;  # about how :bar_chart was derived from :aggregatedRegions

      :foo :bar;                              # Arbitrary domain-specific descriptions are permitted.

      # Derivations can cite the Activity involved in doing the derivation.
      prov:hadActivity   :illustration_activity;

      # They can also cite the Usage and Generation that the Activity performed to generate :bar_chart.
      prov:hadUsage      :how_illustration_activity_used_data;
      prov:hadGeneration :bar_chart_generation;
   ];
.

:illustration_activity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :derek;
.

:bar_chart_generation
   a prov:Generation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
   prov:atTime "2012-04-03T00:00:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:how_illustration_activity_used_data
   a prov:Usage;
.

An instance of prov:Derivation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasDerivedFrom relation from some prov:Entity to another prov:Entity. For example, :chewed_bubble_gum prov:wasDerivedFrom :unwrapped_bubble_gum; prov:qualified [ a prov:Derivation; prov:entity :unwrapped_bubble_gum; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:hadGeneration op , prov:hadUsage op
prov:hadActivity op
prov:entity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedDerivation op
qualifies
prov:wasDerivedFrom op

Class: prov:End back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End

An activity end event is the instantaneous event that marks the instant an activity ends.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# End can be used to qualify wasEndedBy with time and location information

:experiment 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasEndedBy :inconsistentResult;
   prov:qualifiedEnd [
      a prov:End;
      prov:entity     :inconsistentResult;
      prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation :scienceLab_003;
   ];
.
   
:inconsistentResult a prov:Entity .

An instance of prov:End provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasEndedBy relation from some ended prov:Activity to an prov:Entity that ended it. For example, :ball_game prov:wasEndedBy :buzzer; prov:qualified [ a prov:Usage; prov:entity :buzzer; :foo :bar; prov:atTime '2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00'^^xsd:dateTime ].

is subclass of
prov:InstantaneousEvent , prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:hadRole op
prov:atTime dp , prov:entity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedEnd op
qualifies
prov:wasEndedBy op

Class: prov:EntityInvolvement back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInvolvement

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# EntityInvolvement is intended to be an 'abstract' subclass of Involvement 
# for Involvements that reference an entity. It is a superclass for concrete Involvements 
# (e.g. Usage, Derivation, Source) 

# It is not recommended that the type EntityInvolvement be used without also declaring
# one of its concrete subclasses.

# By definition, all instances of prov:Usage are also instances of prov:EntityInvolvement.

:sortActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used :datasetA;
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage, 
        prov:EntityInvolvement; ## Instances of Start, End, Usage, and Derivation qualify
      prov:entity  :datasetA;   ## the involvement of an Entity (cited by prov:entity)
      prov:hadRole :inputToBeSorted;
   ];
   prov:generated :datasetB;
.
is subclass of
prov:Involvement
described with properties:
prov:entity op
has subclasses
prov:Usage , prov:Source , prov:Membership , prov:Revision , prov:Quotation , prov:Start , prov:End , prov:Derivation , prov:Trace

Class: prov:Generation back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation

An entity generation event is the instantaneous event that marks the final instant of an entity's creation timespan, after which it is no longer available for use.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix bbc:  <http://www.bbc.co.uk/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bbcNews2012-04-03 
   a prov:Entity, :DailyNews;
   rdfs:comment """The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 contained a reference 
                   to a given news item, but the BBC news home page on the next day did not.""";

   prov:wasGeneratedBy :publishingActivity;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
      prov:atTime "2012-04-03T00:00:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:activity :publishingActivity;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedInvalidation [
      a prov:Invalidation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
      prov:atTime "2012-04-03T23:59:59Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.
:publishingActivity 
   a prov:Activity.
<> prov:wasDerivedFrom <http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#dfn-wasinvalidatedby> .

An instance of prov:Generation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasGeneratedBy relation from a generated prov:Entity to the prov:Activity that generated it. For example, :cake prov:wasGeneratedBy :baking; prov:qualifiedGeneration [ a prov:Generation; prov:activity :baking; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:InstantaneousEvent , prov:ActivityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:hadRole op
prov:atTime dp , prov:activity op
in range of
prov:hadGeneration op prov:qualifiedGeneration op
qualifies
prov:wasGeneratedBy op

Class: prov:InstantaneousEvent back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent

An instantaneous event, or event for short, happens in the world and marks a change in the world, in its activities and in its entities. The term 'event' is commonly used in process algebra with a similar meaning. Events represent communications or interactions; they are assumed to be atomic and instantaneous.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix bbc:  <http://www.bbc.co.uk/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bbcNews2012-04-03 
   a prov:Entity, :DailyNews;
   rdfs:comment """The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 contained a reference 
                 to a given news item, but the BBC news home page on the next day did not.""";

   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
      prov:atTime "2012-04-03T00:00:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedInvalidation [
      a prov:Invalidation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
      prov:atTime "2012-04-03T23:59:59Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.

<> prov:wasDerivedFrom <http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#dfn-wasinvalidatedby> .

An instantaneous event, or event for short, happens in the world and marks a change in the world, in its activities and in its entities. The term 'event' is commonly used in process algebra with a similar meaning. Events represent communications or interactions; they are assumed to be atomic and instantaneous.

described with properties:
prov:atTime dp
has subclasses
prov:Invalidation , prov:End , prov:Usage , prov:Generation , prov:Start

Class: prov:Invalidation back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation

Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix wgs:  <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, :Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso>;

   prov:wasInvalidatedBy :swissair_Flight_111_crash;
   prov:qualifiedInvalidation [
      a prov:Invalidation;
      prov:activity    :swissair_Flight_111_crash;
      prov:atTime      "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z";
      prov:atLocation  <http://purl.org/twc/location/Swissair-Flight-111-crash>;
   ];
. 

<http://purl.org/twc/location/Swissair-Flight-111-crash>
   a prov:Location;
   wgs:lat   44.409167;
   wgs:long -63.973611;
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso> 
   a prov:Agent;
   foaf:depiction <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg>;
.

:swissair_Flight_111_crash 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used          <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Swissair_Flight_111>;
   prov:startedAtTime "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z";
   prov:atLocation    <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Atlantic_ocean>;
.

<> prov:wasDerivedFrom <http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation> .
is subclass of
prov:InstantaneousEvent , prov:ActivityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:atTime dp , prov:activity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedInvalidation op

Class: prov:Involvement back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Involvement

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix my:   <http://example.com/ontology#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# Although a domain extension (e.g. ':wasConductedBy') is not defined by PROV-O,
# the relation between a surgery and an agent can still be qualified
# by reusing prov:Involvement and one of its three subclasses 
# (depending on the type of the instance involved):
# AgentInvolvement, EntityInvolvement, and ActivityInvolement.

my:wasConductedBy rdfs:subPropertyOf prov:wasAssociatedWith .

:conductingSurgery_1
   a prov:Activity;
   my:wasConductedBy :bob;     # This unqualified involvement is unknown in PROV, this would be a subproperty of wasAssocitedWith
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [ # Even though PROV systems do not understand :wasConductedBy, 
      a prov:Association,      # they can recognize that the unknonw relation is being qualified wtih hadRole.
        prov:AgentInvolvement, # Inferred
        prov:Involvement;      # Inferred
      prov:agent   :bob;       # The object of :wasConductedBy
      prov:hadRole :surgeon;
   ];
.

:bob       a prov:Agent .
my:surgeon a prov:Role .

Any resource that involved an prov:Activity, prov:Entity, or prov:Agent can qualify its involvement by also referencing an instance of prov:Involvement. Instances of prov:Involvement reference the involved Activity, Entity, or Agent (using prov:activity, prov:entity, or prov:agent, respectively) and may be described with any kind of attributes, including user-defined attributes and those provided by PROV (prov:hadRole, prov:hadPlan, prov:atTime, prov:hadLocation). A description (via prov:Involvement) of the binary involvement implies the assertion of the binary involvement.

described with properties:
prov:involvee op , prov:hadActivity op , prov:hadRole op
has subclasses
prov:AgentInvolvement , prov:EntityInvolvement , prov:DictionaryInvolvement , prov:ActivityInvolvement
qualifies
prov:involved op

Class: prov:Plan back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Plan

A plan is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:illustrating 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation :steve-checking-style-guide;
.

:steve-checking-style-guide
   a prov:Association;
   prov:agent   :steve;
   prov:hadPlan :style-guide;
   rdfs:comment "Steve followed the publisher's style guide"@en;
. 

:style-guide
   a prov:Plan, prov:Entity;
   rdfs:comment "Use blue graphs for positive spin, red for negative"@en;
.

There exist no prescriptive requirement on the nature of plans, their representation, the actions or steps they consist of, or their intended goals. Since plans may evolve over time, it may become necessary to track their provenance, so plans themselves are entities. Representing the plan explicitly in the provenance can be useful for various tasks: for example, to validate the execution as represented in the provenance record, to manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.

is subclass of
prov:Entity
in range of
prov:hadPlan op

Class: prov:Quotation back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation

A quotation is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone other than its original author.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bl-dagstuhl
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasQuotedFrom <http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/>;
   prov:qualifiedQuotation [
      a prov:Quotation;
      prov:entity    <http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/>;
      prov:hadQuoter <http://data.semanticweb.org/person/luc-moreau>;
      prov:hadQuoted <http://data.semanticweb.org/person/paul-groth>;
   ] .

<http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/> 
   a prov:Entity .

<http://data.semanticweb.org/person/luc-moreau> a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
<http://data.semanticweb.org/person/paul-groth> a prov:Person, prov:Agent .

An instance of prov:Quotation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasQuotedFrom relation from some prov:Entity to another prov:Entity. For example, :here_is_looking_at_you_kid prov:wasQuotedFrom :casablanca_script; prov:qualified [ a prov:Quotation; prov:entity :casablanca_script; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:entity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedQuotation op
qualifies
prov:wasQuotedFrom op

Class: prov:Revision back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision

A revision is a derivation that revises an entity into a revised version.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:draft2 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasRevisionOf    :draft1;
   prov:qualifiedRevision [
      a prov:Revision;
      prov:entity        :draft1;
   ];

   prov:wasAttributedTo :edward;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent        :edward;
      prov:hadRole      :editor;
   ];
.

:draft1 a prov:Entity .

:edward 
   a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity;
.

An instance of prov:Revision provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasRevisionOf relation from some prov:Entity to another prov:Entity. For example, :draft_2 prov:wasRevisionOf :draft_1; prov:qualified [ a prov:Source; prov:entity :draft_1; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:entity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedRevision op
qualifies
prov:wasRevisionOf op

Class: prov:Role back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role

A Role is the function of an entity with respect to an activity, in the context of a usage, generation, association, start, and end.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:divideActivity 
   a prov:Activity;   
   prov:used :variableA, :variableB;

   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity  :variableA;
      prov:hadRole :dividend;          
   ];
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity  :variableB;
      prov:hadRole :divisor;          
   ];

   prov:generated :result_112234;
.

:variableA 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value 10;
.
:variableB 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value 2;
.

:dividend a prov:Role.
:divisor  a prov:Role.

:result_112234 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value 5;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :divideActivity;
.

A Role is the function of an entity with respect to an activity, in the context of a usage, generation, association, start, and end.

in range of
prov:hadRole op

Class: prov:Source back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Source

An original source refers to the source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:myPost 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:hadOriginalSource :donQuixote;
   prov:qualifiedSource [
      a prov:Source;
      prov:entity :donQuixote;
      :confidenceValue "6"^^xsd:integer;
      rdfs:comment """Not sure if Don Quixote was the original source, 
                      so asserting a confidence value of 6 out of 10.""";
   ];
.

:donQuixote a prov:Entity.

An instance of prov:Source provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:hadOriginalSource relation from some prov:Entity to another prov:Entity. For example, :blog prov:hadOriginalSource :newsArticle; prov:qualified [ a prov:Source; prov:entity :newsArticle; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:entity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedSource op
qualifies
prov:hadOriginalSource op

Class: prov:Start back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start

An activity start event is the instantaneous event that marks the instant an activity starts.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# Start can be used to qualify wasStartedBy with time and location information.

:experiment
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasStartedBy :researcher;
   prov:qualifiedStart [
      a prov:Start;
      prov:entity    :researcher;
      prov:atTime    "2011-07-06T01:48:36Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation :scienceLab_003;
   ];
.

:researcher a prov:Agent .

An instance of prov:Start provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasStartedBy relation from some started prov:Activity to an prov:Entity that started it. For example, :foot_race prov:wasStartedBy :bang; prov:qualified [ a prov:Usage; prov:entity :bang; :foo :bar; prov:atTime '2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00'^^xsd:dateTime ].

is subclass of
prov:InstantaneousEvent , prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:hadActivity op , prov:hadRole op
prov:atTime dp , prov:entity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedStart op
qualifies
prov:wasStartedBy op

Class: prov:Trace back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Trace

Traceability is the ability to link back an entity to another by means of derivation or responsibility relations, possibly repeatedly traversed.

Example
@prefix rdfs:    <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:     <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:     <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov:    <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix :        <http://example.com/> .

:newsArticle
   a prov:Entity;
   dcterms:title "Review of the last presidents of the United States of America"^^xsd:string;
   prov:tracedTo       :president_obama;
   prov:qualifiedTrace :trace1;
.
   
:trace1 
   a prov:Trace;
   prov:entity        :president_obama;
   prov:hasAnnotation :noteFromTheAuthor;
.
     
:president_obama 
   a prov:Entity, prov:Agent;
.

:noteFromTheAuthor {
   :noteFromTheAuthor a prov:Note .
   :trace1 
      rdfs:comment "The main motivation for the article was the latest president"^^xsd:string;
      :annotatedAtTime "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   .
}

An instance of prov:Trace provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:tracedTo relation from some prov:Entity to some other prov:Element. For example, :stomach_ache prov:tracedTo :spoon; prov:qualified [ a prov:Trace; prov:entity :spoon; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:entity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedTrace op
qualifies
prov:tracedTo op

Class: prov:Usage back to qualified classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage

A usage is an instantaneous world event: an activity beginning to consume an entity. Before this event, the activity had not begun to consume or use to this entity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:sortActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime  "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime; 
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity    :datasetA;         ## The entity used by the prov:Usage
      prov:hadRole   :inputToBeSorted;  ## the role of the entity in this prov:Usage        
   ];
   prov:generated :datasetB;
.

:datasetA        a prov:Entity .
:datasetB        a prov:Entity .
:inputToBeSorted a prov:Role .

## Expressing the above using starting-point terms
## the role of :datasetA cannot be expressed

:sortActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used       :datasetA;
   prov:generated  :datasetB;
.

An instance of prov:Usage provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:used relation from some prov:Activity to an prov:Entity that it used. For example, :keynote prov:used :podium; prov:qualified [ a prov:Usage; prov:entity :podium; :foo :bar ].

is subclass of
prov:InstantaneousEvent , prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:hadRole op
prov:atTime dp , prov:entity op
in range of
prov:hadUsage op prov:qualifiedUsage op
qualifies
prov:used op

Property: prov:activity op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity

prov:ActivityInvolvement provides descriptions of any binary involvement between any instance and an prov:Activity. The property prov:activity is used to reference the object of the triple being described.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:making-bar-chart
   a prov:Generation, 
     prov:ActivityInvolvement;
   prov:activity :illustrating;
   rdfs:comment "Ended up with bar chart as line chart looked ugly."@en;
.

:illustrating a prov:Activity .

:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrating;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration :making-bar-chart;
.

The property used by an prov:ActivityInvolvement to cite the prov:Activity that was involved with either an Activity or Entity. It can be used to refer to the activity involved in generating an entity, informing another activity, or starting another activity.

has characteristics Functional

has super-properties
has domain
has range

Property: prov:agent op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent

prov:AgentInvolvement provides descriptions of any binary involvement between any instance and an prov:Agent. The property prov:agent is used to reference the object of the triple being described.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:world_flight_1937
   a prov:Activity;

   prov:wasAssociatedWith <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amelia_Earhart>,
                          <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Purdue_University>,
                          <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Lockheed_Aircraft_Company>;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amelia_Earhart>;
      prov:hadRole :pilot;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Purdue_University>;
      prov:hadRole :financer;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Lockheed_Aircraft_Company>;
      prov:hadRole :plane_builder;
   ];

   rdfs:seeAlso <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelia_Earhart#1937_world_flight>;
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amelia_Earhart>            a prov:Person,       prov:Agent .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Purdue_University>         a prov:Organization, prov:Agent .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Lockheed_Aircraft_Company> a prov:Organization, prov:Agent .

The property used by a prov:AgentInvolvement to cite the Agent that was prov:involved with either an Activity or Entity. It can be used to express the agent involved in being responsible for an activity, being attributed to an entity, starting or ending an activity, or being responsible for another subordinate agent in an activity.

has characteristics Functional

has super-properties
has domain
has range

Property: prov:atTime dp back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime

An instantaneous event, or event for short, happens in the world and marks a change in the world, in its activities and in its entities. The term 'event' is commonly used in process algebra with a similar meaning. Events represent communications or interactions; they are assumed to be atomic and instantaneous.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:Timearticle20120430_publication
   a prov:InstantaneousEvent;
   prov:atTime "2012-04-30T20:40:40"^^xsd:dateTime;
. 

The time at which an InstantaneousEvent occurred, in the form of xsd:dateTime. This property is predominantly used on Involvements such as Generation, Usage, and Invalidation.

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range
  • http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
qualifies
prov:invalidatedAtTime dp

Property: prov:entity op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity

prov:EntityInvolvement provides descriptions of any binary involvement between any instance and an prov:Entity. The property prov:entity is used to reference the object of the triple being described.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:myPost 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:hadOriginalSource :donQuixote;
   prov:qualifiedSource [
      a prov:Source;
      prov:entity :donQuixote;
      # Other attributes of the relationship
   ];
.

:donQuixote a prov:Entity .

The property used by an prov:EntityInvolvement to cite the Entity that was prov:involved with either an Activity or Entity. It can be used to refer to the entity involved in deriving another entity, being quoted or revised from, being the source of another entity, or being used in an activity.

has characteristics Functional

has super-properties
has domain
has range

Property: prov:hadActivity op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity

An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# The activity that which used, generated, invalidated or was responsible for the entity.
# In this qualified Derivation prov:hadActivity references the activity that generated the bar chart.

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :make_bar_chart;
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:entity      :aggregatedByRegions;
      prov:hadActivity :make_bar_chart; # references same activity as prov:wasGeneratedBy
   ];
.

:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .
:make_bar_chart      a prov:Activity .

The _optional_ Activity of an Involvement, which used, generated, invalidated, or was the responsibility of some Entity. This property is _not_ used by ActivityInvolvement (use prov:activity instead).

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range

Property: prov:hadGeneration op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration

An entity generation event is the instantaneous event that marks the final instant of an entity's creation timespan, after which it is no longer available for use.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bar_chart   
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:hadGeneration :illustration;
   ];
.

:illustration   
   a prov:Generation, 
     prov:InstantaneousEvent;
   prov:atTime "2012-04-03T00:00:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

## An alternative way to express some of the above information

:bar_chart   
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrationActivity;
.

:illustrationActivity   
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-03T00:00:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

The _optional_ Generation involved in an Entity's Derivation.

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range

Property: prov:hadPlan op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPlan

A plan is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:illustrating
   a prov:Activity; 
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek, 
                          :steve;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation :steve-checking-style-guide;
.

:steve-checking-style-guide
   a prov:Association;
   prov:agent   :steve;
   prov:hadRole :stylist;
   prov:hadPlan :style-guide;
   rdfs:comment "Steve followed the style guide"@en;
.

:style-guide
   a prov:Plan, prov:Entity;
   rdfs:comment "Use blue graphs for positive spin, red for negative"@en;
.

The _optional_ Plan adopted by an Agent in Association with some Activity. Plan specifications are out of the scope of this specification.

has characteristics Irreflexive, Functional, Asymmetric

has domain
has range

Property: prov:hadRole op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole

A usage is an instantaneous world event: an activity beginning to consume an entity. Before this event, the activity had not begun to consume or use to this entity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:divideActivity 
   a prov:Activity;   

   prov:used         :variableA;
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity    :variableA;
      prov:hadRole   :dividend;          
   ];
   
   prov:used         :variableB;
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity    :variableB;
      prov:hadRole   :divisor;          
   ];
.
   
:variableA a prov:Entity .
:variableB a prov:Entity .

:dividend a prov:Role .
:divisor  a prov:Role .

The _optional_ Role that an Entity assumes in the context of an Activity. For example, :baking prov:used :spoon; prov:qualified [ a prov:Usage; prov:entity :spoon; prov:hadRole roles:mixing_implement ].

has characteristics Irreflexive

has domain
has range

Property: prov:hadUsage op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage

A usage is an instantaneous world event: an activity beginning to consume an entity. Before this event, the activity had not begun to consume or use to this entity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:digestedProteinSample1
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :proteinSample;
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:hadUsage [
         a prov:Usage;
         :treatmentEnzyme :Trypsin;
      ];
   ];
.

:proteinSample a prov:Entity .

The _optional_ Usage involved in an Entity's Derivation.

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range

Property: prov:involved op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#involved

The broadest provenance relation between two resources, prov:involved is the superproperty of all unqualified binary relations among any two Activities, Entities, or Agents (or anything else). A more specific property should be favored of prov:involved.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used              :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
   prov:wasInformedBy     :aggregationActivity;
.

:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:involved :aggregatedByRegions, # prov:involved is a superproperty of
                 :derek,               # many of the direct binary
                 :aggregationActivity; # PROV-O properties.
.

:aggregationActivity a prov:Activity .  
:derek               a prov:Agent .
:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .

Property: prov:involvee op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#involvee

The rdf:object of the (binary) prov:involved relation (triple) that this Involvement is qualifying (reifying) for further description (as an n-ary relation).

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:qualifiedUsage         :usage_1;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation   :association_1;
   prov:qualifiedCommunication :communication_1;
.

:usage_1
   a prov:Usage;
   prov:entity   :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:involvee :aggregatedByRegions; # Inferred
.

:association_1
   a prov:Association;
   prov:agent    :derek;
   prov:involvee :derek; # - - - - - - - Inferred
.

:communication_1
   a prov:Communication;
   prov:activity :aggregationActivity;
   prov:involvee :aggregationActivity; # Inferred
.

:aggregationActivity a prov:Activity .  
:derek               a prov:Agent .
:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .

Subproperties of prov:involvee are used to cite the object of an unqualified PROV-O triple whose predicate is a subproperty of prov:involved (e.g. prov:used, prov:wasGeneratedBy). prov:involvee is used much like rdf:object is used.

has domain
has sub-properties

Property: prov:qualifiedAssociation op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation

An activity association is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:illustrating
    a prov:Activity; 
    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek, 
                           :steve;
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent :derek;
        prov:role  :illustrationist;
        rdfs:comment "Derek made the illustration"@en
    ];
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent :steve;
        prov:role  :stylist;
        prov:hadPlan :style-guide;
        rdfs:comment "Steve helped Derek conform with the publisher's style guide."@en 
    ];
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent :derek;
        prov:role  :stylist;
        rdfs:comment "But Derek also did some styling of his own."@en 
    ] .

:derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .
:steve a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .

:illustratonist a prov:Role .
:stylist        a prov:Role .

:style-guide a prov:Plan, prov:Entity .

If this Activity prov:wasAssociatedWith Agent :ag, then it can qualify the Association using prov:qualifiedAssociation [ a prov:Association; prov:agent :ag; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasAssociatedWith op

Property: prov:qualifiedAttribution op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution

Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

## When the role of the agent is not known or does not matter:

:nationalRegionsList 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :civil_action_group;
.

:civil_action_group a prov:Agent .

## If we want to express the role of the agent:

:nationalRegionsList 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:qualifedAttribution [
      a prov:Attribution;
      prov:agent   :civil_action_group;
      prov:hadRole :owner;
   ]
.

:owner a prov:Role .

If this Entity prov:wasAttributedTo Agent :ag, then it can qualify how it was using prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution; prov:agent :ag; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasAttributedTo op

Property: prov:qualifiedCommunication op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication

Communication is the exchange of an entity by two activities, one activity using the entity generated by the other.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:writing-celebrity-gossip 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :journalist;
   prov:wasInformedBy   :voicemail-interception;
   prov:qualifiedCommunication [
      a prov:Communication;
      prov:activity :voicemail-interception;
      rdfs:comment """The journalist was informed by the private 
                      investigator, but we don't know how or what he was told."""@en;
   ];
.

:voicemail-interception 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :private-investigator;
.

:private-investigator a prov:Agent .
:journalist           a prov:Agent .

If this Activity prov:wasInformedBy Activity :a, then it can qualify how it was Inform[ed] using prov:qualifiedCommunication [ a prov:Communication; prov:activity :a; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:qualifiedDelegation op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation

Delegation is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent) to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:traffic-stop
    a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :chauffeur, 
                          :traffic-officer-34;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   :chauffeur;
      prov:hadRole :violator; # The chauffeur was the one violating traffic rules.
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   :traffic-officer-34;
      prov:hadRole :enforcer; # The officer was the one enforcing the traffic rules.
   ];
.

:chauffeur       
   a prov:Person;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :celebrity-in-car;
   prov:qualifiedDelegation [
      a prov:Delegation;
      prov:agent   :celebrity-in-car;
      prov:hadRole :employer; # The celebrity employed the chauffeur during the enforcement.
   ];
.

:traffic_officer_34 
   a prov:Person;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :city-of-Paris;
   prov:qualifiedDelegation [
      a prov:Delegation;
      prov:agent   :city-of-Paris;
      prov:hadRole :employer; # The city of Paris employed the officer during the enforcement.
   ];
.

<> prov:wasDerivedFrom <http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#concept-communication> .

If this Agent prov:actedOnBehalfOf Agent :ag, then it can qualify how with prov:qualifiedResponsibility [ a prov:Responsibility; prov:agent :ag; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:actedOnBehalfOf op

Property: prov:qualifiedDerivation op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation

A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, a construction of an entity into another, or an update of an entity, resulting in a new one.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bar_chart
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:entity :aggregatedByRegions;         
      prov:hadGeneration :illustration; ## More details about the activity underpinning the derivation
   ];
.

If this Entity prov:wasDerivedFrom Entity :e, then it can qualify how it was derived using prov:qualifiedDerivation [ a prov:Derivation; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasDerivedFrom op

Property: prov:qualifiedEnd op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd

An activity end event is the instantaneous event that marks the instant an activity ends.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

## The end of the experiment might have been triggered by this inconsistent result

:experiment 
   a prov:Acticity;
   prov:wasEndedBy :inconsistentResult;
   prov:qualifiedEnd [
      a prov:End;
      prov:entity     :inconsistentResult;
      prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation :scienceLab003;
   ];
.

:inconsistentResult a prov:Entity.

If this Activity prov:wasEndedBy Entity :e1, then it can qualify how it was ended using prov:qualifiedEnd [ a prov:End; prov:entity :e1; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasEndedBy op

Property: prov:qualifiedGeneration op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration

An entity generation event is the instantaneous event that marks the final instant of an entity's creation timespan, after which it is no longer available for use.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrating;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      prov:activity :illustrating;
      rdfs:comment "Ended up with bar chart as line chart looked ugly."@en;
   ];
.

:illustrating a prov:Activity .

If this Activity prov:generated Entity :e, then it can qualify how it did performed the Generation using prov:qualifiedGeneration [ a prov:Generation; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasGeneratedBy op

Property: prov:qualifiedInvalidation op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation

Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, :Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso>;

   prov:wasInvalidatedBy :swissair_Flight_111_crash;
   prov:qualifiedInvalidation [
      a prov:Invalidation;
      prov:activity    :swissair_Flight_111_crash;
      prov:atTime      "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z";
      prov:atLocation  <http://purl.org/twc/location/Swissair-Flight-111-crash>;
   ];
. 

If this Entity prov:wasInvalidatedBy Activity :a, then it can qualify how it was invalidated using prov:qualifiedInvalidation [ a prov:Invalidation; prov:activity :a; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasInvalidatedBy op

Property: prov:qualifiedQuotation op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation

A quotation is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone other than its original author.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .


:bl-dagstuhl
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value """During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus
   based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be
   formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused
   formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.
   This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across
   systems and through databases and be able to understand the
   mathematical properties of this interconnection.""";
   prov:wasQuotedFrom <http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/>;
   prov:qualifiedQuotation [
      a prov:Quotation;
      prov:entity <http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/>;
      prov:hadQuoter <http://data.semanticweb.org/person/luc-moreau>;
      prov:hadQuoted <http://data.semanticweb.org/person/paul-groth>;
   ] .


<http://thinklinks.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-principles-of-provenance-workshop/> 
   a prov:Entity .

<http://data.semanticweb.org/person/luc-moreau> a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
<http://data.semanticweb.org/person/paul-groth> a prov:Person, prov:Agent .

If this Entity prov:wasQuotedFrom Entity :e, then it can qualify how using prov:qualifiedQuotation [ a prov:Quotation; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasQuotedFrom op

Property: prov:qualifiedRevision op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision

A revision is a derivation that revises an entity into a revised version.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:draft2 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasRevisionOf :draft1;
   prov:qualifiedRevision [
      a prov:Revision;
      prov:entity :draft1
   ];
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :eddie;
.

:draft1 a prov:Entity .
:eddie  a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .

If this Entity prov:wasRevisionOf Entity :e, then it can qualify how it was revised using prov:qualifiedRevision [ a prov:Revision; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasRevisionOf op

Property: prov:qualifiedSource op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedSource

An original source refers to the source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied.

Example
@prefix rdfs:    <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:     <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:     <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix prov:    <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :        <http://example.com/> .

:temperatureDisplay
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:hadOriginalSource :sensorReading20120510;
   prov:qualifiedSource [
      a prov:Source;
      prov:entity         :sensorReading20120510;
   ];
.

:sensorReading20120510 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :temperatureSensor;
.

If this Entity prov:hadOriginalSource Entity :e, then it can qualify how using prov:qualifiedSource [ a prov:Source; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:hadOriginalSource op

Property: prov:qualifiedStart op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart

An activity start event is the instantaneous event that marks the instant an activity starts.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# Start can be used to qualify wasStartedBy with time and location information

:experiment
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasStartedBy :researcher;
   prov:qualifiedStart [
      a prov:Start;
      prov:entity    :researcher;
      prov:atTime    "2011-07-06T01:48:36Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation :scienceLab_003;
   ];
.

:researcher a prov:Agent .

If this Activity prov:wasStartedBy Entity :e1, then it can qualify how it was started using prov:qualifiedStart [ a prov:Start; prov:entity :e1; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:wasStartedBy op

Property: prov:qualifiedTrace op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedTrace

Traceability is the ability to link back an entity to another by means of derivation or responsibility relations, possibly repeatedly traversed.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Hurricane_Isabel>
   a prov:Entity, :Hurricane;
   rdfs:label "Hurricane Isabel";
   prov:tracedTo :butterfly_456;
   prov:qualifiedTrace [
      a prov:Trace;
      rdfs:seeAlso <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfly_effect>;
   ];
.

:butterfly_456
   a prov:Entity, :Butterfly;
   foaf:depiction <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Charaxes_brutus_natalensis.jpg>;
.

<> prov:wasDerivedFrom <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfly_effect> .

If this prov:wasAttributedTo Entity :e, then it can qualify how using prov:qualifiedTrace [ a prov:Trace; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ]. If this prov:wasAttributedTo Activity :a, then it can qualify how using prov:qualifiedTrace [ a prov:Trace; prov:activity :a; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:tracedTo op

Property: prov:qualifiedUsage op back to qualified properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage

A usage is an instantaneous world event: an activity beginning to consume an entity. Before this event, the activity had not begun to consume or use to this entity.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:newsPublication
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used :tsunami_image;
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      :hasCopyrightPermission :licensedUse;  
      :hasOwner               :reuters;
   ];
.

:reuters a prov:Agent .

If this Activity prov:used Entity :e, then it can qualify how it used it using prov:qualifiedUsage [ a prov:Usage; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].

has characteristics Inverse Functional

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:used op

4.4 Collection Terms

The terms used to describe the provenance of collections of key-value pairs are discussed in Section 3.4.

Class: prov:Collection back to collections classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection

A collection is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be member of the collections.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# TODO
is subclass of
prov:Entity
described with properties:
prov:hadMember op
has subclass
prov:Dictionary

Class: prov:Dictionary back to collections classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Dictionary

A dictionary is a collection whose members are indexed by keys.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:studentRegister_2012
   a prov:Dictionary, prov:Entity;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :studentRegister_2011;
   :hasTotalStudents 45;
   :wasCreatedBy    :bob;
.

This concept allows for the provenance of the dictionary, but also of its constituents to be expressed. Such a notion of dictionary corresponds to a wide variety of concrete data structures, such as a maps or associative arrays.

PROV-DM defines a specific type of collection, a dictionary...

A given dictionary forms a given structure for its members. A different structure (obtained either by insertion or removal of members) constitutes a different dictionary.

is subclass of
prov:Collection
described with properties:
prov:derivedByInsertionFrom op , prov:qualifiedRemoval op , prov:qualifiedInsertion op , prov:derivedByRemovalFrom op , prov:qualifiedMembership op
prov:hadMember op
in range of
prov:derivedByInsertionFrom op prov:derivedByRemovalFrom op prov:dictionary op
has subclass
prov:EmptyDictionary

Class: prov:DictionaryInvolvement back to collections classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#DictionaryInvolvement

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:c1 a prov:Dictionary .

:c2 
   a prov:Dictionary, 
     prov:Entity;
   prov:derivedByRemovalFrom :c1;
   prov:qualifiedRemoval [
      a prov:Removal, prov:DictionaryInvolvement;
      prov:dictionary :c1;
      prov:removedKey "k1"^^xsd:string;
   ];
. 
is subclass of
prov:Involvement
described with properties:
prov:dictionary op
has subclasses
prov:Insertion , prov:Removal

Class: prov:EmptyDictionary back to collections classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EmptyDictionary

An empty dictionary is a dictionary without member.

Example
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org/> .

:e1 a prov:Entity .
:e2 a prov:Entity .

:c  a prov:EmptyDictionary .

:c1 a prov:Dictionary;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :c;
   prov:qualifiedInsertion [ 
      a prov:Insertion;
      prov:dictionary :c;
      prov:inserted [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k1"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e1;
      ], [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k2"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e2;
      ];
   ]; 
. 

An empty dictionary.

is subclass of
prov:Dictionary

Class: prov:Insertion back to collections classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Insertion

Insertion is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by insertion of one or more key-value pairs.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:our-NEW-baseball-team-field-positions
   a prov:Dictionary, 
         :FieldPositions;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :our-old-baseball-team-field-positions;
   prov:qualifiedInsertion [ 
      a prov:Insertion;
      prov:collection :our-old-baseball-team-field-positions;
      prov:inserted [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe>;
      ];
   ];
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe> a prov:Entity .

:our-old-baseball-team-field-positions a prov:Dictionary .

Insertion is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by insertion of one or more key-value pairs.

is subclass of
prov:DictionaryInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:inserted op
prov:dictionary op
in range of
prov:qualifiedInsertion op
qualifies
prov:derivedByInsertionFrom op

Class: prov:KeyValuePair back to collections classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#KeyValuePair

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:our-NEW-baseball-team-field-positions
   a prov:Dictionary, 
         :FieldPositions;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :our-old-baseball-team-field-positions;
   prov:qualifiedInsertion [ 
      a prov:Insertion;
      prov:collection :our-old-baseball-team-field-positions;
      prov:inserted [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe>;
      ];
   ];
   prov:hadActivity :hiring_jim_thorpe;
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe> a prov:Entity .

:hiring_jim_thorpe a prov:Activity .

:our-old-baseball-team-field-positions
   a prov:Dictionary, 
         :FieldPositions;
   prov:membership [ 
      a prov:Membership;
      prov:member [
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :george;
      ];
      prov:member [
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key "pitcher"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :carl;
      ];
   ];
.

:george a prov:Entity .
:carl   a prov:Entity . 

A key-value pair. Part of a prov:Dictionary through prov:Membership. The key is any RDF Literal, the value is a prov:Entity.

is subclass of
prov:Entity
described with properties:
prov:pairKey dp , prov:pairValue op
in range of
prov:pair op prov:removed op prov:inserted op

Class: prov:Membership back to collections classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Membership

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .


:e1 a prov:Entity .
:e2 a prov:Entity .

:c1 
   a prov:Dictionary, 
     prov:Entity;
   prov:membership [ 
      a prov:Membership;
      # These are (some of the) members of c1
      prov:member [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k1"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e1;
      ], [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k2"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e2;
      ];
   ];
.

Described members of a collection, in the form of key-value pairs. The Membership resource can also be annotated with attributes.

is subclass of
prov:EntityInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:pair op
prov:entity op
in range of
prov:qualifiedMembership op
qualifies
prov:hadMember op

Class: prov:Removal back to collections classes

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Removal

Removal is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by removing one or more key-value pairs.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:c1 a prov:Dictionary .

:c2 
   a prov:Dictionary, 
     prov:Entity;
   prov:derivedByRemovalFrom :c1;
   prov:qualifiedRemoval [
      a prov:Removal, prov:DictionaryInvolvement;
      prov:dictionary :c1;
      prov:removedKey "k1"^^xsd:string, 
                      "k2"^^xsd:string;
   ];
.

Removal is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by removing one or more key-value pairs.

is subclass of
prov:DictionaryInvolvement
described with properties:
prov:removed op , prov:removedKey dp
prov:dictionary op
in range of
prov:qualifiedRemoval op
qualifies
prov:derivedByRemovalFrom op

Property: prov:derivedByInsertionFrom op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#derivedByInsertionFrom

Insertion is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by insertion of one or more key-value pairs.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .


:e1 a prov:Entity .
:e2 a prov:Entity .

:c  a prov:EmptyDictionary .

:c1 a prov:Dictionary;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :c;
   prov:qualifiedInsertion [ 
      a prov:Insertion;
      prov:dictionary :c;
      prov:inserted [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k1"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e1;
      ], [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k2"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e2;
      ];
   ]; 
. 

The dictionary was derived from the other by insertion. prov:qualifiedInsertion shows details of the insertion, in particular the inserted key-value pairs.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:derivedByRemovalFrom op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#derivedByRemovalFrom

Removal is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by removing one or more key-value pairs.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:c1 a prov:Dictionary .

:c2 
   a prov:Dictionary, prov:Entity;
   prov:derivedByRemovalFrom :c1;
   prov:qualifiedRemoval [
      a prov:Removal, prov:DictionaryInvolvement;
      prov:dictionary :c1;
      prov:removedKey "k1"^^xsd:string, 
                      "k2"^^xsd:string;
   ];
.

The dictionary was derived from the other by removal. prov:qualifiedRemoval shows details of the removal, in particular the removed key-value pairs.

has super-properties
has domain
has range
can be qualified with

Property: prov:dictionary op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#dictionary

prov:DictionaryInvolvement provides descriptions of any binary involvement between any instance and a prov:Dictionary. The property prov:dictionary is used to reference the object of the triple being described.

Example
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org/> .

:e1 a prov:Entity .

:c  a prov:EmptyDictionary .

:c1 a prov:Dictionary;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :c;
   prov:qualifiedInsertion [ 
      a prov:Insertion;
      prov:dictionary :c;
      prov:inserted [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "k1"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :e1;
      ];
   ]; 
. 

The property used by a prov:DictionaryInvolvement to cite the prov:Dictionary that was prov:involved in insertion or removal of elements of a collection.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

Property: prov:hadMember op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember

TODO Property needs a definition.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# TODO
has domain
has range

Property: prov:inserted op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#inserted

Insertion is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by insertion of one or more key-value pairs.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:our-NEW-baseball-team-field-positions
   a prov:Dictionary, 
         :FieldPositions;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :our-old-baseball-team-field-positions;
   prov:qualifiedInsertion [ 
      a prov:Insertion;
      prov:collection :our-old-baseball-team-field-positions;
      prov:inserted [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe>;
      ];
   ];
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe> a prov:Entity .

:our-old-baseball-team-field-positions a prov:Dictionary .

An object property to refer to the prov:KeyValuePair inserted into a prov:Dictionary.

has domain
has range

Property: prov:pair op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#pair

TODO Property needs a definition.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# TODO

The key-value pair was part of the membership. A membership can have multiple members.

has super-properties
has domain
has range

Property: prov:pairKey dp back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#pairKey

TODO Property needs a definition.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:baseball-team-player a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:pairKey   "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
         prov:pairValue <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe>;
.         

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe> a prov:Entity .

The key of a KeyValuePair, which is an element of a prov:Dictionary. See also prov:pairValue.

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range
  • http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

Property: prov:pairValue op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#pairValue

TODO Property needs a definition.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:baseball-team-player a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:pairKey   "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
         prov:pairValue <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe>;
.         

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe> a prov:Entity .

The value of a KeyValuePair. See also prov:pairKey.

has characteristics Functional

has domain
has range

Property: prov:qualifiedInsertion op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInsertion

Insertion is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by insertion of one or more key-value pairs.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:our-NEW-baseball-team-field-positions
   a prov:Dictionary, 
         :FieldPositions;
   prov:derivedByInsertionFrom :our-old-baseball-team-field-positions;
   prov:qualifiedInsertion [ 
      a prov:Insertion;
      prov:collection :our-old-baseball-team-field-positions;
      prov:inserted [ 
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key   "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe>;
      ];
   ];
.

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Jim_Thorpe> a prov:Entity .

:our-old-baseball-team-field-positions
   a prov:Dictionary, 
         :FieldPositions;
   prov:membership [ 
      a prov:Membership;
      prov:member [
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key "first-baseman"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :george;
      ];
      prov:member [
         a prov:KeyValuePair;
         prov:key "pitcher"^^xsd:string;
         prov:value :carl;
      ];
   ];
.

:george a prov:Entity .
:carl   a prov:Entity . 

If this Dictionary prov:derivedByInsertionFrom another Dictionary :e, then it can qualify how it did perform the Insertion using prov:qualifiedInsertion [ a prov:Insertion; prov:dictionary :e; prov:inserted [a prov:KeyValuePair; prov:key "k1"^^xsd:string; prov:value :foo] ].

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:derivedByInsertionFrom op

Property: prov:qualifiedMembership op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedMembership

TODO Property needs a definition.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# TODO

The collection included the specified membership of keys-values.

has domain
has range

Property: prov:qualifiedRemoval op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRemoval

Removal is a derivation that transforms a dictionary into another, by removing one or more key-value pairs.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:d1 a prov:Dictionary .

:d2 
   a prov:Dictionary, prov:Entity;
   prov:derivedByRemovalFrom :d1;
   prov:qualifiedRemoval [
      a prov:Removal;
      prov:dictionary :d1;
      prov:removedKey "k1"^^xsd:string, 
                      "k2"^^xsd:string;
   ];
.

If this Dictionary prov:derivedByRemovalFrom another Dictionary :e, then it can qualify how it did perform the Removal using prov:qualifiedRemoval [ a prov:Removal; prov:dictionary :c; prov:removed "k1"^^xsd:string ].

has domain
has range
qualifies
prov:derivedByRemovalFrom op

Property: prov:removed op back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#removed

TODO Property needs a definition.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

# TODO
has domain
has range

Property: prov:removedKey dp back to collections properties

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#removedKey

TODO Property needs a definition.

Example
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix xsd:  <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.com/> .

:c2 
   a prov:Dictionary, 
     prov:Entity;
   prov:derivedByRemovalFrom :c1;
   prov:qualifiedRemoval [
      a prov:Removal, 
        prov:DictionaryInvolvement;
      prov:dictionary :c1;
      prov:removedKey "k1"^^xsd:string, 
                       1337, 
                       3.14;
   ];
.

The key removed in a Removal.

has domain
has range
  • http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

A. PROV-O OWL Profile

To encourage widespread adoption, PROV-O's design is intentionally minimal and lightweight. The OWL RL profile was used as a baseline for simplicity, i.e., if an OWL assertion was not RL compliant, then it would require justification to be included in the final ontology. This section enumerates those axioms that are beyond OWL RL, along with a description of why they were important enough to be included.

Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(provDerivation provResponsibility provStart) [ObjectPropertyDomain(provhadActivity ObjectUnionOf(provDerivation provResponsibility provStart)) in provhttp://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-o-2012MMDD] hadActivity
Use of non-superclass expression in position that requires a superclass expression: ObjectUnionOf(provAssociation provEnd provGeneration provStart provUsage) [ObjectPropertyDomain(provhadRole ObjectUnionOf(provAssociation provEnd provGeneration provStart provUsage)) in provhttp://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-o-2012MMDD] hadRole

B. Names of inverse properties

To maximize interoperability, PROV-O intentionally avoids defining too many properties' inverses. In fact, it only defines one (prov:generated). When all inverses are defined for all properties, modelers may choose from two logically equivalent properties when making each assertion. Although the two options may be logically equivalent, developers consuming the assertions must exert extra effort to handle both (either by adding an OWL reasoner, or writing code and queries to handle both cases). This extra effort must be avoided.

For example, the first PROV-O statement (below) could just as easily be asserted as the second statement. But if a client queries using prov:wasDerivedFrom when :hadDerivation was used in the assertion, there will be no results unless OWL reasoning is applied (or the size of the query is doubled).

<http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/>  prov:wasDerivedFrom <http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/> .

   # These two statements are equivalent if prov:wasDerivedFrom is an inverse of :hadDerivation.
   # But extra effort is required to handle both cases (if one is not already using OWL reasoning).
   # We cannot assume that everybody is using OWL reasoning.
   # We do not want people to write more code and query than necessary.

<http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/>     :hadDerivation  <http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/>  .

So, PROV-O avoids this situation by encouraging modelers to use one property instead of its inverse; the preferred property to use is the one defined in the PROV-O ontology. Those asserting and querying for the preferred property avoid the need for OWL reasoning, additional code, and larger queries while maintaining the same level of interoperability.

However, the absence of defined inverses can lead to a different risk to interoperability. Because modelers are free to create their own properties to suit their needs, they may be motivated to assert the inverse of any PROV-O property defined herein.

For example, since PROV-O does not define the inverse of prov:wasDerivedFrom, and if three developers really want to model their assertions in the opposite direction, the following set of assertions might be found in the future web of provenance. These assertions are not in an interoperable form without the use of an OWL reasoner, additional code, or larger queries.

# If PROV-O's properties' inverses are not defined, modelers are motivated to define their own inverse.
# The following three statements are equivalent if their predicates are all inverses of prov:wasDerivedFrom.

<http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/>    my:hadDerivation  <http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/>  .
<http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/>  your:ledTo          <http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/>  .
<http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/> their:derivedTo      <http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/>  .

To balance these two interoperability risks, this document provides recommendations for the local names of all PROV-O properties' inverses. The local name is available as an annotation (http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#inverse) on the preferred property that is defined in PROV-O. Although PROV-O does not define the inverses, modelers wishing to use them may; and they should use the existing PROV-O namespace (http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#).

For example, the same three modelers above that defined my:hadDerivation, your:ledTo, and their:derivedTo should instead look for the http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#inverse annotation on prov:wasDerivedFrom to determine that they should use the property http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadDerivation.

@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .

# Each PROV-O property is annotated with the local name of its inverse.

prov:wasDerivedFrom
   a owl:AsymmetricProperty, owl:IrreflexiveProperty, owl:ObjectProperty;
   rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#>;
   prov:inverse     "hadDerivation";
   rdfs:domain  prov:Entity;
   rdfs:range   prov:Entity;
.

# Instead of defining their own, modelers should use the
# recommended inverse local name within the PROV namespace:

<http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/> prov:hadDerivation <http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/>  .

# Following this recommendation avoids a proliferation of inverse definitions, 
# while encouraging the use of one inverse over another.
# This increases interoperability.

The following table lists the recommended inverse names that should be used if a modeler does not want to use the recommended PROV-O property. For convenience, this file lists the resulting inverse properties.

Names of inverses
PROV-O Property Recommended inverse name
prov:qualifiedDelegation prov:qualifiedDelegationOf
prov:wasStartedBy prov:started
prov:qualifiedTrace prov:qualifiedTraceOf
prov:inserted prov:wasInsertedBy
prov:used prov:wasUsedBy
prov:qualifiedQuotation prov:qualifiedQuotationOf
prov:involvee prov:involvement
prov:hadOriginalSource prov:wasOriginalSourceOf
prov:specializationOf prov:generalizationOf
prov:hadActivity prov:wasActivityOfInvolvement
prov:qualifiedStart prov:qualifiedStartOf
prov:hadUsage prov:wasUsedInDerivation
prov:qualifiedMembership prov:membershipOf
prov:qualifiedAssociation prov:qualifiedAssociationOf
prov:derivedByInsertionFrom prov:hadDerivationByInsertion
prov:hadPlan prov:wasPlanOf
prov:wasQuotedFrom prov:quotedAs
prov:entity prov:entityOfInvolvement
prov:derivedByRemovalFrom prov:hadDerivationByRemoval
prov:pairValue prov:valueOf
prov:qualifiedUsage prov:qualifiedUsingActivity
prov:qualifiedGeneration prov:qualifiedGenerationOf
prov:qualifiedInvalidation prov:qualifiedInvalidationOf
prov:alternateOf prov:alternateOf
prov:hadGeneration prov:generatedAsDerivation
prov:qualifiedEnd prov:qualifiedEndOf
prov:atLocation prov:locationOf
prov:wasRevisionOf prov:hadRevision
prov:wasGeneratedBy prov:generated
prov:pair prov:inMembership
prov:qualifiedInsertion prov:qualifiedInsertionOf
prov:hadRole prov:wasRoleIn
prov:qualifiedCommunication prov:qualifiedCommunicationOf
prov:qualifiedAttribution prov:qualifiedAttributionOf
prov:dictionary prov:dictionaryOfInvolvement
prov:qualifiedRevision prov:revisedEntity
prov:tracedTo prov:tracedFrom
prov:wasInvalidatedBy prov:invalidated
prov:wasEndedBy prov:ended
prov:agent prov:agentOfInvolvement
prov:activity prov:activityOfInvolvement
prov:wasDerivedFrom prov:hadDerivation
prov:qualifiedRemoval prov:removedFromDictionary
prov:actedOnBehalfOf prov:hadDelegate
prov:involved prov:wasInvolvedWith
prov:qualifiedSource prov:qualifiedSourceOf
prov:wasAttributedTo prov:contributed
prov:wasInformedBy prov:informed
prov:qualifiedDerivation prov:qualifiedDerivationOf
prov:wasAssociatedWith prov:wasAssociateFor
prov:generated prov:wasGeneratedBy

C. Acknowledgements

Thanks to the members of the Provenance Working Group for their feedback throughout the development of the PROV Ontology and this documentation page. We also thank the developers of the tools that helped create the PROV-O ontology and portions of this page. Without these great tools, developing PROV-O would have been much less of a pleasure.

D. References

D.1 Normative references

[OWL2-RDF-BASED-SEMANTICS]
Michael Schneider. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language:RDF-Based Semantics. 27 October 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-owl2-rdf-based-semantics-20091027/
[RFC2119]
S. Bradner. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Internet RFC 2119. URL: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt
[XMLSCHEMA-2]
Paul V. Biron; Ashok Malhotra. XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition. 28 October 2004. W3C Recommendation. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/

D.2 Informative references

[LD-Patterns-QR]
Leigh Dodds and Ian Davis Qualified Relation. modified 31 May 2012, accessed June 01 2012 URL: http://patterns.dataincubator.org/book/qualified-relation.html
[PROV-DM]
Luc Moreau, Paolo MissierThe PROV Data Model and Abstract Syntax Notation. 18 October 2011. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-prov-dm-20111018/
[PROV-PAQ]
Graham Klyne and Paul Groth Provenance Access and Query. 2011, Work in progress. URL: https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/paq/prov-aq.html
[PROV-PRIMER]
Yolanda Gil and Simon Miles (eds.) Khalid Belhajjame, Helena Deus, Daniel Garijo, Graham Klyne, Paolo Missier, Stian Soiland-Reyes, and Stephan Zednik Prov Model Primer. 2011, Working Draft. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-primer/