ontology/Overview.html
author Paul Groth <p.t.groth@vu.nl>
Fri, 07 Jun 2013 20:21:19 +0200
changeset 6412 600c6fd1fdb4
parent 5705 5820d629fd7f
permissions -rw-r--r--
minor updates to address dong's comments
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN' 'http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd'>
<html lang="en" dir="ltr">
<head>
    <title>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
    <link rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hasProvenance" href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/provenance/prov-o">

    <style type="text/css">
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          font-size: 95%;
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         /* doesn't work right SOMETIMES 
         margin-bottom: 1em;   */
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      .name {
          font-family: monospace;
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          margin-top: 1ex;
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          padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
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          margin-bottom: 1ex;
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          padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
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      .image {
          text-align: center;
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      .centered {
          text-align: center;
          padding-top: 4ex;
          padding-bottom: 4ex;
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      .centered table {
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          font-weight: bold;
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      .indent {
          margin-left: 20px;
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      .atrisknote {
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          border: solid 2px blue;
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      /* Stying the examples. */

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      /* Styling the parts in the RDF syntax. */

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          margin-bottom: 10px; 
          margin-left: 20px; 
          margin-right: 20px; 
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      /* Also copy MediaWiki style here, so it will not look different when exported */
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      /* Style for a "Recommendation" */

      /*
         Copyright 1997-2003 W3C (MIT, ERCIM, Keio). All Rights Reserved.
         The following software licensing rules apply:
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      /* $Id: base.css,v 1.25 2006/04/18 08:42:53 bbos Exp $ */

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    </style>
    <!-- link rel="provenance" href="http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?format=turtle&uri=http://aquarius.tw.rpi.edu/prov-wg/prov-o"/ -->

    <!-- 
      === NOTA BENE ===
      For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
      out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
     -->

   <!-- From DM -->
   
   <!-- From DM -->
   <style type="text/css">
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         padding: 2px;
         border-style: solid;
         border-color: gray;
         background-color: rgb(246,246,246);
      }
   </style>

   <style type="text/css">
      /* This CSS written by Tim Lebo for PROV-O HTML (all other CSS was taken from elsewhere) */
      table.qualified-forms {
         width: 75%;
      }
      ul.hlist {
         margin: 20px;
      }
      table {
         margin: 20px; 
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         background-color: #F4FFFF;
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         padding-top: 5px;
         padding-bottom: 5px;
         padding-left: 15px;
         padding-right: 15px;
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         width: 20%
      }
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          color:black; text-decoration:none; 
      }
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         background-color: #FFD4D4
      }
      .component-agents-responsibility {
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         background-color: #CCD9EE;
      }
      .component-derivations {
         border:1px solid gray;
         background-color: #CCEED9;
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      .component-collections {
         border:1px solid gray;
         background-color: #CED4D4;
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      .component-alternate {
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         background-color: #F4FFD9;
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      .component-annotations {
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         background-color: #FCE1CE;
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      a.qname {
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      }
      strong.crossreference {
         padding-right: 15px;
      }
      div.feature-at-risk {
         color: red;
      }
     </style>

     
     
   
    
  <style type="text/css">
/*****************************************************************
 * ReSpec CSS
 * Robin Berjon (robin at berjon dot com)
 * v0.05 - 2009-07-31
 *****************************************************************/


/* --- INLINES --- */
em.rfc2119 { 
    text-transform:     lowercase;
    font-variant:       small-caps;
    font-style:         normal;
    color:              #900;
}

h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
    border: none;
}

dfn {
    font-weight:    bold;
}

a.internalDFN {
    color:  inherit;
    border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
    text-decoration:    none;
}

a.externalDFN {
    color:  inherit;
    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ccc;
    text-decoration:    none;
}

a.bibref {
    text-decoration:    none;
}

code {
    color:  #ff4500;
}


/* --- WEB IDL --- */
pre.idl {
    border-top: 1px solid #90b8de;
    border-bottom: 1px solid #90b8de;
    padding:    1em;
    line-height:    120%;
}

pre.idl::before {
    content:    "WebIDL";
    display:    block;
    width:      150px;
    background: #90b8de;
    color:  #fff;
    font-family:    initial;
    padding:    3px;
    font-weight:    bold;
    margin: -1em 0 1em -1em;
}

.idlType {
    color:  #ff4500;
    font-weight:    bold;
    text-decoration:    none;
}

/*.idlModule*/
/*.idlModuleID*/
/*.idlInterface*/
.idlInterfaceID, .idlDictionaryID {
    font-weight:    bold;
    color:  #005a9c;
}

.idlSuperclass {
    font-style: italic;
    color:  #005a9c;
}

/*.idlAttribute*/
.idlAttrType, .idlFieldType, .idlMemberType {
    color:  #005a9c;
}
.idlAttrName, .idlFieldName, .idlMemberName {
    color:  #ff4500;
}
.idlAttrName a, .idlFieldName a, .idlMemberName a {
    color:  #ff4500;
    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ff4500;
    text-decoration: none;
}

/*.idlMethod*/
.idlMethType {
    color:  #005a9c;
}
.idlMethName {
    color:  #ff4500;
}
.idlMethName a {
    color:  #ff4500;
    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ff4500;
    text-decoration: none;
}

/*.idlParam*/
.idlParamType {
    color:  #005a9c;
}
.idlParamName {
    font-style: italic;
}

.extAttr {
    color:  #666;
}

/*.idlConst*/
.idlConstType {
    color:  #005a9c;
}
.idlConstName {
    color:  #ff4500;
}
.idlConstName a {
    color:  #ff4500;
    border-bottom:  1px dotted #ff4500;
    text-decoration: none;
}

/*.idlException*/
.idlExceptionID {
    font-weight:    bold;
    color:  #c00;
}

.idlTypedefID, .idlTypedefType {
    color:  #005a9c;
}

.idlRaises, .idlRaises a.idlType, .idlRaises a.idlType code, .excName a, .excName a code {
    color:  #c00;
    font-weight:    normal;
}

.excName a {
    font-family:    monospace;
}

.idlRaises a.idlType, .excName a.idlType {
    border-bottom:  1px dotted #c00;
}

.excGetSetTrue, .excGetSetFalse, .prmNullTrue, .prmNullFalse, .prmOptTrue, .prmOptFalse {
    width:  45px;
    text-align: center;
}
.excGetSetTrue, .prmNullTrue, .prmOptTrue { color:  #0c0; }
.excGetSetFalse, .prmNullFalse, .prmOptFalse { color:  #c00; }

.idlImplements a {
    font-weight:    bold;
}

dl.attributes, dl.methods, dl.constants, dl.fields, dl.dictionary-members {
    margin-left:    2em;
}

.attributes dt, .methods dt, .constants dt, .fields dt, .dictionary-members dt {
    font-weight:    normal;
}

.attributes dt code, .methods dt code, .constants dt code, .fields dt code, .dictionary-members dt code {
    font-weight:    bold;
    color:  #000;
    font-family:    monospace;
}

.attributes dt code, .fields dt code, .dictionary-members dt code {
    background:  #ffffd2;
}

.attributes dt .idlAttrType code, .fields dt .idlFieldType code, .dictionary-members dt .idlMemberType code {
    color:  #005a9c;
    background:  transparent;
    font-family:    inherit;
    font-weight:    normal;
    font-style: italic;
}

.methods dt code {
    background:  #d9e6f8;
}

.constants dt code {
    background:  #ddffd2;
}

.attributes dd, .methods dd, .constants dd, .fields dd, .dictionary-members dd {
    margin-bottom:  1em;
}

table.parameters, table.exceptions {
    border-spacing: 0;
    border-collapse:    collapse;
    margin: 0.5em 0;
    width:  100%;
}
table.parameters { border-bottom:  1px solid #90b8de; }
table.exceptions { border-bottom:  1px solid #deb890; }

.parameters th, .exceptions th {
    color:  #fff;
    padding:    3px 5px;
    text-align: left;
    font-family:    initial;
    font-weight:    normal;
    text-shadow:    #666 1px 1px 0;
}
.parameters th { background: #90b8de; }
.exceptions th { background: #deb890; }

.parameters td, .exceptions td {
    padding:    3px 10px;
    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
    vertical-align: top;
}

.parameters tr:first-child td, .exceptions tr:first-child td {
    border-top: none;
}

.parameters td.prmName, .exceptions td.excName, .exceptions td.excCodeName {
    width:  100px;
}

.parameters td.prmType {
    width:  120px;
}

table.exceptions table {
    border-spacing: 0;
    border-collapse:    collapse;
    width:  100%;
}

/* --- TOC --- */
.toc a {
    text-decoration:    none;
}

a .secno {
    color:  #000;
}

/* --- TABLE --- */
table.simple {
    border-spacing: 0;
    border-collapse:    collapse;
    border-bottom:  3px solid #005a9c;
}

.simple th {
    background: #005a9c;
    color:  #fff;
    padding:    3px 5px;
    text-align: left;
}

.simple th[scope="row"] {
    background: inherit;
    color:  inherit;
    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
}

.simple td {
    padding:    3px 10px;
    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
}

.simple tr:nth-child(even) {
    background: #f0f6ff;
}

/* --- DL --- */
.section dd > p:first-child {
    margin-top: 0;
}

.section dd > p:last-child {
    margin-bottom: 0;
}

.section dd {
    margin-bottom:  1em;
}

.section dl.attrs dd, .section dl.eldef dd {
    margin-bottom:  0;
}

/* --- EXAMPLES --- */
pre.example {
    border-top: 1px solid #ff4500;
    border-bottom: 1px solid #ff4500;
    padding:    1em;
    margin-top: 1em;
}

pre.example::before {
    content:    "Example";
    display:    block;
    width:      150px;
    background: #ff4500;
    color:  #fff;
    font-family:    initial;
    padding:    3px;
    font-weight:    bold;
    margin: -1em 0 1em -1em;
}

/* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
.issue {
    padding:    1em;
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  <body style="display: inherit;"><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</h1><h2 id="w3c-proposed-recommendation-12-march-2013"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Proposed Recommendation 12 March 2013</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</a></dd><dt>Implementation report:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-implementations-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-implementations-20130312/</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/</a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo">Timothy Lebo</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA</dd>
<dd><a href="http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo">Satya Sahoo</a>, Case Western Reserve University, USA</dd>
<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/Deborah_L_McGuinness">Deborah McGuinness</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA</dd>
<dt>Contributors:</dt><dd><span>(In alphabetical order)</span></dd>
<dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a>, University of Manchester, UK</dd>
<dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/">James Cheney</a>, University of Edinburgh, UK</dd>
<dd><a href="http://homepages.abdn.ac.uk/dcorsar/pages/">David Corsar</a>, University of Aberdeen, UK</dd>
<dd><a href="http://www.oeg-upm.net/index.php/en/phdstudents/28-dgarijo">Daniel Garijo</a>, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain</dd>
<dd><a href="http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/">Stian Soiland-Reyes</a>, University of Manchester, UK</dd>
<dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/StephanZednik">Stephan Zednik</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA</dd>
<dd><a href="http://users.ox.ac.uk/~zool0770/">Jun Zhao</a>, University of Oxford, UK</dd>
</dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2011-2013 <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div>

    <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
         <p>The PROV Ontology (PROV-O) expresses the PROV Data Model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] using the OWL2 Web Ontology Language (OWL2) [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>]. It provides a set of classes, properties, and restrictions that can be used to represent and interchange provenance information generated in different systems and under different contexts. 
It can also be specialized to create new classes and properties to model provenance information for different applications and domains.
        The <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.
        </p>


        <p style="text-align: center;">The namespace for all PROV-O terms is <span class="repeated">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span>.
        </p>

        <p style="text-align: center;">The OWL encoding of the PROV Ontology is available <a href="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-o">here</a>.
        </p>
    </div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
       <h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
       This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
       interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents are listed below. Please consult the [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] for a guide to reading these documents.
       <ul>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-overview-20130312/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (To be published as Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (To be published as Note), a primer for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/">PROV-O</a> (Proposed Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF (this document);</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-dm-20130312/">PROV-DM</a> (Proposed Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-n-20130312/">PROV-N</a> (Proposed Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-constraints-20130312/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> (Proposed Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-xml-20130312/">PROV-XML</a> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-aq-20130312/">PROV-AQ</a> (To be published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]; </li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dictionary-20130312/">PROV-DICTIONARY</a> (To be published as Note) introduces a specific type of collection, consisting of key-entity pairs [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">PROV-DICTIONARY</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dc-20130312/">PROV-DC</a> (To be published as Note) provides a mapping between PROV and Dublic Core Terms [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DC">PROV-DC</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-sem-20130312/">PROV-SEM</a> (To be published as Note), a declarative specification in terms of first-order logic of the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-SEM">PROV-SEM</a></cite>];</li>
       <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-links-20130312/">PROV-LINKS</a> (To be published as Note) introduces a mechanism to link across bundles [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-LINKS">PROV-LINKS</a></cite>].</li>
       </ul>
    
       <h4 id="w3c-members-please-review-by-09-april-2013"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Members Please Review By 09 April 2013</h4>
    
       <p>The <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Director seeks review and feedback from <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Advisory Committee representatives by 09 April 2013. This will allow the Director to assess consensus and determine whether to issue this document as a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Recommendation.</p>
    
       <p>Others are encouraged by the Provenance Working Group to continue to send reports of implementation experience, and other feedback, to
       <a href="mailto:public-prov-comments@w3.org">public-prov-comments@w3.org</a>
                 (<a href="mailto:public-prov-comments-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
                 <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). Open discussion among developers is also welcome at
       <a href="mailto:public-prov-comments@w3.org">public-prov-comments@w3.org</a>
                 (<a href="mailto:public-prov-comments-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
              <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).</p>
    <p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a Proposed Recommendation. This document is intended to become a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Recommendation. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:public-prov-comments@w3.org">public-prov-comments@w3.org</a> (<a href="mailto:public-prov-comments-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as a Proposed Recommendation does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#compliance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Compliance with this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#notations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#namespaces" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Namespaces</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-o-at-a-glance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV-O at a glance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#description" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>The&nbsp;PROV-O&nbsp;Ontology&nbsp;Description</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#description-starting-point-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Starting Point Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#description-expanded-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Expanded Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#description-qualified-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Qualified Terms</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Cross reference&nbsp;for&nbsp;PROV-O&nbsp;classes&nbsp;and&nbsp;properties</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference-starting-point-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Starting Point Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference-expanded-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Expanded Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference-qualified-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Qualified Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference-index" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.4 </span>Term Index</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#owl-profile" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>PROV-O OWL Profile</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#inverse-names" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Names of inverse properties</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-wd-prov-o-20120724" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>Changes since WD-prov-o-20120724</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-cr-prov-o-20121211" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D. </span>Changes since CR-prov-o-20121211</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">E. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">F. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">F.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">F.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
  
 
    


     <div id="introduction" class="section">    
         <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>  
         <p>The PROV Ontology (PROV-O) defines the OWL2 Web Ontology Language encoding of the PROV Data Model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]. This document describes the set of classes, properties, and restrictions that constitute the PROV Ontology. This ontology specification provides the foundation to implement provenance applications in different domains that can represent, exchange, and integrate provenance information generated in different systems and under different contexts. Together with the PROV Access and Query [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>] and PROV Data Model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>], this document forms a framework for provenance information interchange in domain-specific Web-based applications.
         </p>
        <p>
         PROV-O is a lightweight ontology that can be adopted in a wide range of applications. 
         With the exception of <a href="#owl-profile">five axioms</a>, PROV-O conforms to the OWL-RL profile [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-PRIMER">OWL2-PRIMER</a></cite>]. 
         The PROV Ontology classes and properties are defined such that they can not only be used directly to represent provenance information, 
         but also can be specialized for modeling application-specific provenance details in a variety of domains. 
         Thus, the PROV Ontology is expected to be both directly usable in applications as well as serve as a <i>reference model</i> 
         for creating domain-specific provenance ontologies and thereby facilitates interoperable provenance modeling. 
         To demonstrate the use of PROV-O classes and properties, this document uses an example provenance scenario similar to the one introduced in the PROV-Primer [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>].
        </p>
         <p> The PROV Data Model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] introduces a set of concepts to represent provenance information in a variety of application domains. This document maps the PROV Data Model to PROV Ontology using the OWL2 ontology language [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>]. 
        </p>

        <p> We briefly introduce some of the OWL2 modeling terms that will be used to describe the PROV Ontology. 
         An OWL2 <i>instance</i> is an individual object in a domain of discourse, for example a person named Alice or a car named KITT. 
         A set of individuals sharing common characteristics constitutes a <i>class</i>.

         Person and Car are examples of classes representing the set of individual persons and cars respectively. 
         The OWL2 object properties are used to link individuals, classes, or create a property hierarchy. 
         For example, the object property "hasOwner" can be used to link car with person. 
         The OWL2 datatype properties are used to link individuals or classes to data values, including XML Schema datatypes [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>].   
        </p>

    <div id="compliance" class="section">    
       <h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Compliance with this Document</h3>  
      <p>For the purpose of compliance, the normative sections of this document are 
         <a href="#compliance">Section 1.1</a>, 
         <a href="#notations">Section 1.2</a>,
         <a href="#description">Section 3</a>,
         <a href="#cross-reference">Section 4</a>, and
         <a href="#inverse-names">Appendix B</a>
      </p>
      <ul>
         <li>Information in tables is normative if it appears in a normative section.</li>
         <li>All figures and diagrams are informative.</li>
         <li>All examples are informative.</li>
      </ul>
    </div>

    <div id="notations" class="section">    
       <h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</h3>  

        <p>The key words "<em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall">shall</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall not">shall not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>",  "<em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>", and       "<em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].</p>
    </div>

      <div class="informative section" id="namespaces">
         <h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Namespaces</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
         <p>The following namespace prefixes are used throughout this document.

         </p><div style="text-align: left;">
            <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
            <caption id="namespace-table"><a href="#namespace-table">Table 1</a>: Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption> <!-- Table 1-->
            <tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace IRI</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>

            <tr><td><a>rdf</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</td><td>The RDF namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]</td></tr>

            <tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]</td></tr>

            <tr><td><a>owl</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#</td><td>The OWL namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>]</td></tr>

            <tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td>
                <td>The PROV namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]</td></tr>

            <tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> 
                  In particular, IRIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>]</td></tr>
            </tbody></table>
         </div>
      </div>
   </div>

   <div id="prov-o-at-a-glance" class="informative section">
      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV-O at a glance</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>

      <p>PROV-O users may only need to use parts of the entire ontology, depending on their needs and according to how much detail they want to include in their provenance information. For this, the PROV-O terms (classes and properties) are grouped into three categories to provide an incremental introduction to the ontology: Starting Point terms, Expanded terms, and terms for Qualifying relationships.
      </p>

      <div id="prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">
         <p><strong>Starting Point classes and properties</strong> provide the basis for the rest of the PROV Ontology and thus it is recommended that readers become comfortable with how to apply these terms before continuing to the remaining categories. These terms are used to create simple provenance descriptions that can be elaborated using terms from other categories. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Section 3.1</a>.</p>
         
<div class="prov-starting-point owl-classes at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li>
      <a href="#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Activity">prov:Activity</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Agent">prov:Agent</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="prov-starting-point owl-properties at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#startedAtTime">prov:startedAtTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#used">prov:used</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#endedAtTime">prov:endedAtTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

      </div>

      <div id="prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">
         <p><strong>Expanded classes and properties</strong> provide additional terms that can be used to relate classes in the Starting Point category. The terms in this category are applied in the same way as the terms in the Starting Point category. Many of the terms in this category are subclasses or subproperties of those in the Starting Point category. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in <a href="#description-expanded-terms">Section 3.2</a>.</p>
         
<div class="prov-expanded owl-classes at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li>
      <a href="#Collection">prov:Collection</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#EmptyCollection">prov:EmptyCollection</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Bundle">prov:Bundle</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Person">prov:Person</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#SoftwareAgent">prov:SoftwareAgent</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Organization">prov:Organization</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Location">prov:Location</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="prov-expanded owl-properties at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#generatedAtTime">prov:generatedAtTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#value">prov:value</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#invalidatedAtTime">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#influenced">prov:influenced</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#generated">prov:generated</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

      </div>

      <div id="prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">
         <p><strong>Qualified classes and properties</strong> provide elaborated information about binary relations asserted using Starting Point and Expanded properties. The terms in this category are applied using a pattern that differs from those in the Starting Point and Expanded categories. While the relations from the previous two categories are applied as direct, binary assertions, the terms in this category are used to provide additional attributes of the binary relations. The pattern used in this category allows users to provide elaborate details that are not available using only Starting Point and Expanded terms. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in <a href="#description-qualified-terms">Section 3.3</a>.</p>
         
<div class="prov-qualified owl-classes at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li>
      <a href="#Influence">prov:Influence</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#EntityInfluence">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Usage">prov:Usage</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Start">prov:Start</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#End">prov:End</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Derivation">prov:Derivation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#PrimarySource">prov:PrimarySource</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Quotation">prov:Quotation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Revision">prov:Revision</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Generation">prov:Generation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Communication">prov:Communication</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Invalidation">prov:Invalidation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#AgentInfluence">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Attribution">prov:Attribution</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Association">prov:Association</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Plan">prov:Plan</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Delegation">prov:Delegation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#InstantaneousEvent">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Role">prov:Role</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="prov-qualified owl-properties at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedDerivation">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedQuotation">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedRevision">prov:qualifiedRevision</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedAttribution">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedInvalidation">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedStart">prov:qualifiedStart</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedCommunication">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedEnd">prov:qualifiedEnd</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadPlan">prov:hadPlan</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

      </div>

      <div>
       
      </div>

   </div> <!-- PROV-O at a glance -->



    <div id="description" class="section">
      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>The&nbsp;PROV-O&nbsp;Ontology&nbsp;Description</h2>       
      <p>This section introduces the terms in each of the following categories:
      </p>     
      <ul>
         <li><a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Point Terms</a></li>
         <li><a href="#description-expanded-terms">Expanded Terms</a></li>
         <li><a href="#description-qualified-terms">Qualified Terms</a></li>
      </ul>

     <div id="description-starting-point-terms" class="section">
      <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Starting Point Terms</h3>
       <p>The Starting Point category is a small set of classes and properties that can be used to create simple, initial provenance descriptions.
         Three classes provide a basis for the rest of PROV-O:  
       </p>
         <ul>
            <li>An <a class="qname" href="#Entity">prov:Entity</a> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary.  
            </li>
            <li>An <a class="qname" href="#Activity">prov:Activity</a> is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.  
            </li>
            <li>An <a class="qname" href="#Agent">prov:Agent</a> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. 
            </li>
         </ul> 
      <p>The three primary classes relate to one another and to themselves using the properties shown in the following figure.</p>

      <p>Activities <strong>start</strong> and <strong>end</strong> at particular points in time (described using properties 
      <a href="#startedAtTime" class="qname">prov:startedAtTime</a> and <a href="#endedAtTime" class="qname">prov:endedAtTime</a>, respectively) 
      and during their lifespan can  <strong>use</strong> and <strong>generate</strong> a variety of Entities (described with 
      <a href="#used" class="qname">prov:used</a> and <a href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="qname">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>, respectively). 
      For example, a blog writing activity may use a particular dataset and generate a bar chart. 
      By expressing usage and generation, one can construct provenance chains comprising both Activities and Entities.
      </p>

      <p>In addition, we can say that an Activity <a href="#wasInformedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInformedBy</a>
      another Activity to provide some dependency information without explicitly providing the activities' start and end times. 
      A <span class="repeated">prov:wasInformedBy</span> relation between Activities suggests that the informed Activity used an Entity that was generated by the informing 
      Activity, but the Entity itself is unknown or is not of interest. 
      So, the <span class="repeated">prov:wasInformedBy</span> property allows the construction of provenance chains comprising only Activities.
      </p>

      <p>Provenance chains comprising only Entities can be formed using the <a href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="qname">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> property.
         A derivation is a transformation of one entity into another. For example, if the Activity that created the bar chart is not known or is not of interest,
          then we can say that the bar chart <span class="repeated">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span> the dataset.
         Arbitrary RDF properties can be used to describe the fixed aspects of an Entity that are interesting within a particular application (for example, 
         the file size and format of the dataset, or the aspect ratio of the bar chart).
      </p>

      <p>While the properties <span class="repeated">prov:used</span>, <span class="repeated">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span>, 
         <span class="repeated">prov:wasInformedBy</span>, and <span class="repeated">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span> can be used to construct provenance chains among 
         Activities and Entities, Agents may also be ascribed responsibility for any Activity or Entity within a provenance chain. 
         An Agent's responsibility for an Activity or Entity is described using the properties <a href="#wasAssociatedWith" class="qname">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a> and 
         <a href="#wasAttributedTo" class="qname">prov:wasAttributedTo</a>, respectively. 
         Agents can also be responsible for other Agents' actions. In this case of delegation, the influencing Agent <a href="#actedOnBehalfOf" class="qname">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a> 
         another Agent that also bears responsibility for the influenced Activity or Entity.
      </p>

      <p>The properties rdf:type and rdfs:label are used to express <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a> 
         and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-label">prov:label</a>, respectively.
      </p>

      <div id="starting-points-figure" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
            <!-- When publishing to w3c: replace prov-o-diagrams/ with diagrams/ -->
            <!--img src="prov-o-diagrams/Starting-points-terms.png"-->
            <img src="diagrams/starting-points.svg" style="width: 60%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 60em" alt="PROV-O Starting Point terms">
            <div class="figcaption"><a href="#starting-points-figure">Figure 1</a>. 
            The three Starting Point classes and the properties that relate them.<br>
            The diagrams in this document depict Entities as yellow ovals,<br>
            Activities as blue rectangles, and Agents as orange pentagons.<br>
            The responsibility properties are shown in pink.
            </div>
      </div>

        <div id="narrative-example-simple-1" class="exampleOuter">
           <p>
            <a href="#narrative-example-simple-1">Example 1</a>: The following PROV-O describes the resources involved when creating a chart about crime statistics. The example uses only Starting Point terms and serves as a basis for elaboration that will be described in subsequent sections. In the example, Derek performs an aggregation of some government crime data, grouping by national regions that are described in a separate dataset by a civil action group.
           </p> 
           <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy  :illustrationActivity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom  :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :derek;
.

:derek
   a foaf:Person, prov:Agent;
   foaf:givenName       "Derek";
   foaf:mbox            &lt;mailto:derek@example.org&gt;;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :natonal_newspaper_inc;
.

:national_newspaper_inc 
   a foaf:Organization, prov:Agent;
   foaf:name "National Newspaper, Inc.";
.

:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity; 
   prov:used              :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
   prov:wasInformedBy     :aggregationActivity;
.

:aggregatedByRegions
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy  :aggregationActivity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :derek;
.

:aggregationActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime    "2011-07-14T01:01:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
   prov:used              :crimeData;
   prov:used              :nationalRegionsList;
   prov:endedAtTime      "2011-07-14T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:crimeData
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :government;
.
:government a foaf:Organization, prov:Agent .

:nationalRegionsList 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :civil_action_group;
.
:civil_action_group a foaf:Organization, prov:Agent .</pre>
        </div>

      <p>The example states that the agent <code>:derek</code> was associated with two 
      activities: <code>:aggregationActivity</code> and <code>:illustrationActivity</code>. The 
      activity <code>:aggregationActivity</code> used 
      the entities <code>:crimeData</code> (a crime statistics dataset) and <code>:nationalRegionsList</code> (a list of national regions), and 
      generated a new entity, <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code> that aggregates the statistics in
       <code>:crimeData</code> according to the regions in <code>:nationalRegionsList</code>. 
      The <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code> entity was then used by the <code>:illustrationActivity</code> activity, 
      to generate a new entity <code>:bar_chart</code> that depicts the aggregated statistics.
      </p>

      <p> The example also states that the activity <code>:illustrationActivity</code> was 
      informed by the activity <code>:aggregationActivity</code>. Indeed, the former used
       the entity <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code>, which was generated by the latter.
      </p>

      <p> Because the agent <code>:derek</code> was associated with the activities 
      <code>:aggregationActivity</code> and <code>:illustrationActivity</code>, the entities 
      generated by these activities, i.e., <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code> and <code>:bar_chart</code>, were also 
      attributed to him.
      </p>

      <p>Finally, the example states that the agent <code>:derek</code> acted on behalf of the organization <code>:national_newspaper_inc</code>.
      </p>   

      <div id="narrative-example-simple-1-figure" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
            <img src="diagrams/starting-points-example.svg" style="width: 90%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 60em" alt="Illustration of Derek making a bar chart from some aggregated government data.">
            <div class="figcaption"><a href="#narrative-example-simple-1-figure">Figure 2</a>. 
            A graphical illustration of the PROV-O in <a href="#narrative-example-simple-1">Example 1</a>, 
            showing how the three Starting Point classes relate.<br>
            The diagrams in this document depict Entities as yellow ovals, Activities as blue rectangles,<br>
            and Agents as orange pentagons. The responsibility properties are shown in pink.
            </div>
      </div>

     </div> <!-- Starting Points  in PROV-O -->

     <div id="description-expanded-terms" class="section">
      <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Expanded Terms</h3>

      <p>The terms introduced in this section provide additional ways to describe the provenance among Entities, Activities, and Agents.
         The additional terms are illustrated in the following figure and can be separated into five different categories.</p>

      <div id="expanded-terms-figure" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
            <img src="diagrams/expanded.svg" style="width: 60%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 60em" alt="PROV-O Starting Point terms">
            <div class="figcaption"><a href="#expanded-terms-figure">Figure 3</a>.
            The expanded terms build upon those in the <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Points section</a>.<br>
            The diagrams in this document depict Entities as yellow ovals, Activities as blue rectangles, and Agents as orange pentagons.<br>
            The domain of <a href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> (<span class="repeated">prov:Activity</span> or <span class="repeated">prov:Entity</span> or <span class="repeated">prov:Agent</span> or <span class="repeated">prov:InstantaneousEvent</span>) is not illustrated.
            </div>
      </div>


     <p>The <strong>first</strong> category extends the <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Point terms</a> with subclasses, subproperties, and a superproperty.</p>

     <p>Three subclasses of Agent (<a href="#Person" class="qname">prov:Person</a>, <a href="#Organization" class="qname">prov:Organization</a>, and
      <a href="#SoftwareAgent" class="qname">prov:SoftwareAgent</a>) and
      three subclasses of Entity are provided (<a href="#Collection" class="qname">prov:Collection</a>, <a href="#Bundle" class="qname">prov:Bundle</a>,
      and <a href="#Plan" class="qname">prov:Plan</a>).
      </p>

      <p>
      A <span class="repeated">prov:Collection</span> is an Entity that provides a structure (e.g. set, list, etc.) to some constituents (which are themselves Entities).
      The <span class="repeated">prov:Collection</span> class can be used to express the provenance of the collection itself:
      e.g. who maintained the collection, which members it contained as it evolved, and how it was assembled.
      The <a href="#hadMember" class="qname">prov:hadMember</a> property is used to assert membership in a collection.
      </p>

      <div id="description-bundle">
         <p>
         A <span class="repeated">prov:Bundle</span> is a named set of provenance descriptions, which may itself have provenance.
         The named set of provenance descriptions may be expressed as PROV-O or any other form.
         The subclass of Bundle that names a set of PROV-O assertions is not provided by PROV-O, since it is more appropriate to do so using other recommendations,
         standards, or technologies. In any case, a Bundle of PROV-O assertions is an abstract set of RDF triples, and adding or removing a triple creates a new distinct
         Bundle of PROV-O assertions.
         </p>
      </div>

      <p>A <span class="repeated">prov:Plan</span> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.
      </p>


     <p>
      More general and more specific properties are also provided by the expanded terms. More generally, the property
      <a href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> is a superproperty that relates any influenced Entity, Activity, or Agent to any other
      influencing Entity, Activity, or Agent that had an effect on its characteristics.

      Three subproperties of <span class="repeated">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span> are also provided for certain kinds of derivation among Entities:
      <a href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="qname">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a> cites a potentially larger Entity (such as a book, blog, or image) from which a new Entity was created
      by repeating some or all of the original,
      <a href="#wasRevisionOf" class="qname">prov:wasRevisionOf</a> indicates that the derived Entity contains substantial content from the original Entity
      (e.g., two editions of a book), and
      <a href="#hadPrimarySource" class="qname">prov:hadPrimarySource</a> cites a preceding Entity produced by some agent with direct experience and
      knowledge about the topic (such as a reading from a sensor, or a journal written during an historical event).
      </p>
   
     <p>The <strong>second</strong> category of expanded terms relates Entities according to their levels of abstraction, where some Entities may present more specific aspects than their more general counterparts.
      While <a href="#specializationOf" class="qname">prov:specializationOf</a> links a more specific Entity to a more general one (e.g., today's BBC news home page versus BBC's news home page on any day), <a href="#alternateOf" class="qname">prov:alternateOf</a> links Entities that present aspects of the same thing, but not necessarily the same aspects or at the same time (e.g., the serialization of a document in different formats or a backup copy of a computer file).
     </p>
   
      <p>
      The <strong>third</strong> category of expanded terms allows further description of Entities. The property <a href="#value" class="qname">prov:value</a>
      provides a literal value that is a direct representation of an entity.
      For example, the <span class="repeated">prov:value</span> of a quote could be a string of the sentences stated, or the <span class="repeated">prov:value</span> of an Entity involved in a numeric calculation could be the xsd:integer four.
      The property <a href="#atLocation" class="qname">prov:atLocation</a> can be used to describe the <a href="#Location" class="qname">prov:Location</a> of any
      Entity, Activity, Agent, or <a href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="qname">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
      (i.e., the starting or ending of an activity or the generation, usage, or invalidation of an entity).
      The properties used to describe instances of <span class="repeated">prov:Location</span> are outside the scope of PROV-O;
      reuse of other existing vocabulary is encouraged.
      </p>


      <p>The <strong>fourth</strong> category of expanded terms describes the lifetime of an Entity beyond being <strong>generated</strong> by an Activity and <strong>used</strong> by other Activities. For example, a painting could not have been displayed before it was painted, and it could not be sold after it was destroyed by fire.
      Similar to how Activities have start and end times, an Entity may be bound by points in time for which it was generated or is no longer usable.
The properties <a href="#generatedAtTime" class="qname">prov:generatedAtTime</a> and <a href="#invalidatedAtTime" class="qname">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a> can be used to bound the starting and ending moments of an Entity's existence. The Activities that led to the generation or invalidation of an Entity can be provided using <span class="repeated">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span> and <a href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>, respectively.
<a href="#generated" class="qname">prov:generated</a> and <a href="#invalidated" class="qname">prov:invalidated</a> are the inverses of <span class="repeated">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span> and <span class="repeated">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</span>, respectively, and are defined to facilitate Activity-as-subject as well as Entity-as-subject descriptions.
      For more about inverses, see the <a href="#inverse-names">Appendix B</a>.
      </p>

      <p>The <strong>fifth</strong> category of expanded terms describes the lifetime of an Activity beyond its start and end times and predecessor Activities.
      Activities may also be started or ended by Entities, which are described using the properties <a href="#wasStartedBy" class="qname">prov:wasStartedBy</a>
      and <a href="#wasEndedBy" class="qname">prov:wasEndedBy</a>, respectively. Since Entities may start or end Activities, and Agents may be Entities,
      then Agents may also start or end Activities.
      </p>

        <div id="narrative-example-expanded-1"class="exampleOuter">
           <p>The following examples illustrate the expanded terms by elaborating the <a href="#narrative-example-simple-1">crime chart example</a> from the previous section.
              After aggregating the dataset and creating the chart, Derek published a post to exhibit his work.
           </p>
           <p>
              <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-1">Example 2</a>:
           </p>

           <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix my:   &lt;http://www.example.org/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://www.example.org#&gt; .
@base         &lt;http://www.example.com/derek-bundle.ttl&gt; .

&lt;&gt; 
   a prov:Bundle, prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :postEditor;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2011-07-16T02:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:derek
   a prov:Person, prov:Agent; ## prov:Agent is inferred from prov:Person
   foaf:givenName       "Derek";
   foaf:mbox            &lt;mailto:derek@example.org&gt;;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :national_newspaper_inc;
.

:national_newspaper_inc 
   a prov:Organization, prov:Agent;        ## prov:Agent is inferred from prov:Organization
   foaf:name "National Newspaper, Inc.";
.

:postEditor 
   a prov:SoftwareAgent, prov:Agent;       ## prov:Agent is inferred from prov:SoftwareAgent
   foaf:name "Post Editor 3000";
.   

:more-crime-happens-in-cities
   a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
   sioc:latest_version   :post9821v2;
   sioc:previous_version :post9821v1;
.

## Version 1 of the post

:post9821v1
   a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;   
   prov:specializationOf  :more-crime-happens-in-cities; ## PERMALINK to the latest revision.
   sioc:title             "More crime happens in cities";
   prov:value             "I was currius...";            ## The text of this version (with a typo).
   prov:generatedAtTime   "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy    :publicationActivity1123;
   prov:wasInfluencedBy   :aggregatedByRegions; ## This blog was influenced by Derek's data analysis.
   prov:hadPrimarySource  :crimeData;           ## Derek's blog derives from the crime data originally
                                                ## gathered by the government.
   prov:invalidatedAtTime "2011-07-16T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:publicationActivity1123 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime     "2011-07-16T01:01:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasStartedBy      :derek;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :postEditor;
   prov:generated         :post9821v1;
   prov:endedAtTime       "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasEndedBy        :derek;
.

:aggregatedByRegions
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:atLocation &lt;file://Users/aggr.txt&gt;;
.
&lt;file://Users/aggr.txt&gt; a prov:Location .

:crimeData
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :government;
.
:government 
   a prov:Organization, prov:Agent;
.

## Version 2 of the post

:post9821v2
   a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
   prov:specializationOf :more-crime-happens-in-cities; ## PERMALINK to the latest revision.
   prov:value            "I was curious...";            ## The text of this version (with fixed typo).
   prov:generatedAtTime  "2011-07-16T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasRevisionOf    :post9821v1;
   prov:alternateOf      :post9821v1;
.</pre>
        </div>
      
         <p>Agent <code>:derek</code>, acting again on behalf of the <code>:national_newspaper_inc</code> organization,
         used the <code>:postEditor</code> tool to publish a post about his recent data analysis <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code>.
         The blog editing tool tracked Derek's actions as PROV-O assertions and published them as a Bundle (the current file <code>&lt;&gt;</code>).
         The tool recorded that <code>:derek</code> started and ended the publishing activity (<code>:publicationActivity1123</code>)
         that generated the post <code>:post9821v1</code>. The post
         included a permanent link where the content of the latest version is available
         (<code>:more-crime-happens-in-cities</code>) in addition to a textual snapshot of the current version (using prov:value).
         Derek also included additional domain-specific descriptions of the post, such as its title.
         </p>

         <p>Shortly after publishing the post, Derek noticed a typographical error in his narrative.
         Because the fix would be minimal, he did not record the activity that led to the new version.
         Instead, he related the new version (<code>:post9821v2</code>) as a revision of the previous (<code>:post9821v1</code>).
         Since both versions of the blog are forms of the long-standing blog permalink <code>:more-crime-happens-in-cities</code>,
         the revisions are alternates of one another and each is a <a href="#specializationOf" class="qname">prov:specializationOf</a> of <code>:more-crime-happens-in-cities</code>.
         </p>     

         <div id="expanded-example-illustration-1" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">

               <img src="diagrams/expanded-terms-example-bundlePost.svg" style="width: 95%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 60em" alt="PROV-O Starting Point terms">

               <div class="figcaption"><a href="#expanded-example-illustration-1">Figure 4</a>.
                  An illustration of the PROV-O assertions in <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-1">Example 2</a>, where Derek<br>
                  published two versions of a blog for the National Newspaper, Inc.<br>
                  The diagrams in this document depict Entities as yellow ovals, Activities as blue rectangles,<br>
                  and Agents as orange pentagons. The responsibility properties are shown in pink.
               </div>
         </div>



       <div id="narrative-example-expanded-2"class="exampleOuter">
           <p>Shortly after Derek published his blog post, Monica adapted the text for a wider audience in a new post (<code>:post9822</code>).
            This rewrite is an alternate, abbreviated view of the same topic that Derek wrote about and was created from his original text.
            Since the provenance produced by the activities of Derek and Monica corresponded to different user views, the system
            automatically published it in a different <a href="#Bundle" class="qname">prov:Bundle</a>.
            The tool also asserted provenance about the bundle that it produced (e.g., the date of creation, its creator, and the fact that it Derek's bundle was used).
            Because a bundle is a kind of entity, all provenance assertions that can be made about entities can also be made about bundles.
            The use of bundles enables the creation of provenance of provenance.
            </p>     
            <p>
               <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-2">Example 3</a>:
            </p>
            <pre  class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://www.example.org#&gt; .
@base         &lt;http://www.example.com/monica-bundle.ttl&gt; .

&lt;&gt;
   a prov:Bundle, prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :postEditor;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom  &lt;http://www.example.com/derek-bundle.ttl&gt; .
   prov:generatedAtTime "2011-07-16T03:03:03Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:monica
   a prov:Person, prov:Agent;
   foaf:givenName "Monica";
   foaf:mbox      &lt;mailto:monica@example.org&gt;;
.

## Revised post for a different audience is a new resource.

:post9822
   a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
   sioc:title "More crime happens in cities (for dummies)";
   prov:wasAttributedTo  :monica,
                         :postEditor;
   prov:alternateOf      :more-crime-happens-in-cities;    ## This post is an alternate of Derek's blog.
   prov:value            "A quick overview of Derek's..."; ## Snapshot with the content of this version
   prov:wasRevisionOf    :post9821v2;                      ## Monica rewrote Derek's version 2 to create hers.
.</pre>
        </div>
      
         <div id="narrative-example-expanded-3"  class="exampleOuter" >
            <p>After some time, John wrote his own conclusions in his own post (<code>:post19201</code>) quoting the previous two posts. 
               Each quote that John makes (<code>:quote_from_monica</code> and <code>:quote_from_derek</code>) is a new entity derived from the 
               previous blogs and is annotated with the time that the quote was taken.
               The provenance of John's blog notes that his post is the result of the quotes that he took from Derek and Monica.
               The blog post is also derived from Derek's <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code> dataset because John inspected it and found a 
               concern that he discusses in his blog. All the provenance statements related to John's post are grouped in a new <span class="repeated">prov:Bundle</span>.
            </p>
            <p>
               <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-3">Example 4</a>:
            </p>
            <pre  class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://www.example.org#&gt; .
@base         &lt;http://www.example.com/john-bundle.ttl&gt; .

&lt;&gt; 
   a prov:Bundle, prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :postEditor;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom &lt;http://www.example.com/derek-bundle.ttl&gt;,
                       &lt;http://www.example.com/monica-bundle.ttl&gt;;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-08-08T08:08:08Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:publicationActivity1124
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :postEditor,
                        :john;
   prov:generated :post19201;
.

:post19201
   a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :john;
   prov:value "I'm not so sure that...";
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :quote_from_derek,
                       :quote_from_monica,
                       :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :publicationActivity1124;
.

:john 
   a prov:Person, prov:Agent;
   foaf:name "John";
.

:quote_from_derek
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value "Analysis of the datasets demonstrates that there is more crime.";
   prov:wasQuotedFrom   :more-crime-happens-in-cities;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-08-08T01:01:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.
   
:quote_from_monica
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value "In summary, there are clearly more crimes in the country.";
   prov:wasQuotedFrom   :post9822;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-08-08T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.</pre>
         </div>
      
   
         <div id="narrative-example-expanded-4" class="exampleOuter" >
            <p>Unfortunately, there was a problem in the servers where <code>:post19201</code> was being stored, and all the data related to the post was lost permanently.
            Thus, the system invalidated the entity automatically and notified John about the error.
            </p>     
            <p>
               <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-4">Example 5</a>:
            </p>
            <pre  class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .

:post19201
   a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
   prov:invalidatedAtTime "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasInvalidatedBy :hard_disk_failure;
.

:hard_disk_failure
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:endedAtTime "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.</pre>
         </div>
     </div>

<!-- incorporate https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/rev/e3ecc51f4598 -->
     <div id="description-qualified-terms" class="section">
       <h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Qualified Terms</h3>

       <p>The Qualified Terms category is the result of
         applying the <strong>Qualification Pattern</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-LD-Patterns-QR">LD-Patterns-QR</a></cite>] to the simple (unqualified)
         relations available in the <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">Starting Point</a> and 
         <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">Expanded</a> categories.  
         The terms in this category are for users who wish to provide further details about the provenance-related influence among
         Entities, Activities, and Agents.
       </p>

       <p>The Qualification Pattern restates an unqualified influence 
         relation by using an intermediate class that represents the influence between two resources. 
         This new instance, in turn, can be annotated with additional descriptions of the influence that one resource had upon another.
         The following two tables list the influence relations that can be qualified using the Qualification Pattern, along with the properties used to qualify them. 

         For example, the second row of the first table indicates that to elaborate how an <span class="repeated">prov:Activity</span>
         <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> a particular <span class="repeated">prov:Entity</span>, one creates an instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span>
         that indicates the influencing entity with the <span class="repeated">prov:entity</span> property.
         Meanwhile, the influenced <span class="repeated">prov:Activity</span> indicates the <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span> with the property 
         <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedUsage</span>.
         The resulting structure that qualifies the an Activity's usage of an Entity is illustrated in <a href="#qualified-terms-figure">Figure 4a</a> below.
       </p>

      <div id="qualified-forms-starting-point" style="padding: 10px">
         <p>Seven <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Point</a> relations can be further described using the Qualification Pattern.
            They are listed in the following normative table.
         </p>
         <div style="text-align: center">
            <table class="qualified-forms">
  <caption><a href="#qualified-forms-starting-point">Table 2</a>: Qualification Property and Qualified Influence Class used to qualify a Starting-point Property.</caption>
  <tbody><tr>
    <th><span title="Influenced Class">Influenced Class</span></th>
    <th><span title="Unqualified Influence">Unqualified Influence</span></th>
    <th><span title="Influencing Class">Influencing Class</span></th>
    <th><span title="Qualification Property">Qualification Property</span></th>
    <th><span title="Qualified Influence">Qualified Influence</span></th>
    <th><span title="Influencer Property">Influencer Property</span></th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity" class="owlproperty">prov:activity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAttributedTo</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution" href="#Attribution" class="owlclass">prov:Attribution</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent" class="owlproperty">prov:agent</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used" class="owlproperty">prov:used</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedUsage</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlclass">prov:Usage</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInformedBy</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication" href="#Communication" class="owlclass">prov:Communication</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity" class="owlproperty">prov:activity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlclass">prov:Association</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent" class="owlproperty">prov:agent</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf" class="owlproperty">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation" href="#Delegation" class="owlclass">prov:Delegation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent" class="owlproperty">prov:agent</a></td>
  </tr>
</tbody></table>

         </div>
      </div>

      <div id="qualified-forms-expanded" style="padding: 10px">
         <p>Seven <a href="#description-expanded-terms">Expanded</a> relations can be further described using the Qualification Pattern.
            They are listed in the following normative table.
         </p>
         <div style="text-align: center">
            <table class="qualified-forms">
  <caption><a href="#qualified-forms-expanded">Table 3</a>: Qualification Property and Qualified Influence Class used to qualify an Expanded Property.</caption>
  <tbody><tr>
    <th><span title="Influenced Class">Influenced Class</span></th>
    <th><span title="Unqualified Influence">Unqualified Influence</span></th>
    <th><span title="Influencing Class">Influencing Class</span></th>
    <th><span title="Qualification Property">Qualification Property</span></th>
    <th><span title="Qualified Influence">Qualified Influence</span></th>
    <th><span title="Influencer Property">Influencer Property</span></th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td style="text-align: center">
        <a title="provEntity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a> or
        <a title="provActivity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a> or
        <a title="provAgent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>    </td>
    <td><a title="provwasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a></td>
    <td style="text-align: center">
        <a title="provEntity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a> or
        <a title="provActivity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a> or
        <a title="provAgent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>    </td>
    <td><a title="provqualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a></td>
    <td><a title="provInfluence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a></td>
    <td><a title="provinfluencer" href="#influencer" class="owlproperty">prov:influencer</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:hadPrimarySource</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource" href="#PrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:PrimarySource</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation" href="#Quotation" class="owlclass">prov:Quotation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf" class="owlproperty">prov:wasRevisionOf</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedRevision</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision" href="#Revision" class="owlclass">prov:Revision</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity" class="owlproperty">prov:activity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasStartedBy</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedStart</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasEndedBy</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedEnd</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a></td>
    <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  </tr>
</tbody></table>

         </div>
      </div>


      <p>The qualification classes and properties shown in the previous two tables can also be found in the normative <a href="#cross-reference">cross reference</a> 
        in the next section of this document. 

         All influence classes (e.g. <span class="repeated">prov:Association</span>, <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span>) are extensions of 
         <a class="qname" href="#Influence">prov:Influence</a> and either 
         <a class="qname" href="#EntityInfluence">prov:EntityInfluence</a>, 
         <a class="qname" href="#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>, or
         <a class="qname" href="#AgentInfluence">prov:AgentInfluence</a>, which determine the property used to cite the influencing resource (either
         <a class="qname" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>,
         <a class="qname" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>, or
         <a class="qname" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>, respectively). 
         Because <span class="repeated">prov:Influence</span> is a broad relation, its most specific subclasses (e.g. <span class="repeated">prov:Communication</span>, 
         <span class="repeated">prov:Delegation</span>, <span class="repeated">prov:End</span>, <span class="repeated">prov:Revision</span>, etc.) should be used when applicable.

         </p><div id="narrative-example-qualified-1"  class="exampleOuter" >
            <p>
               <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-1">Example 6</a>:
            </p>
            <p>
               For example, given the unqualified statement:
               </p><pre class="example">:e1 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :a1;
.

:a1 a prov:Activity .</pre>
            <p></p>
         </div>

         <p>One can find that <a class="qname" href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a> 
            can be qualified using the qualification property <a class="qname" href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a>,
            the class <a class="qname" href="#Generation">prov:Generation</a> (a subclass of <a class="qname" href="#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>),
            and the property <a class="qname" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>.
            From this, the influence relation above can be restated with the <em>qualification pattern</em> as:
         </p>

         <div id="narrative-example-qualified-2"  class="exampleOuter" >
            <p>
               <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-2">Example 7</a>:
            </p>
            <pre class="example">:e1 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy      :a1;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration :e1Gen; # Add the qualification.
.

:e1Gen 
   a prov:Generation;
   prov:activity            :a1;    # Cite the influencing Activity.
   ex:foo                   :bar;   # Describe the Activity :a1's influence upon the Entity :e1.
.

:a1 a prov:Activity .</pre>
         </div>

         <p>
            The asserter can thus attach additional properties to <code>:e1Gen</code> to describe the generation of <code>:e1</code> by <code>:a1</code>.
         </p>

         <p>
            As can be seen in this example, qualifying an influence relation provides a second form (e.g. <code>:e1 prov:qualifiedGeneration :e1Gen</code>) to express an equivalent influence relation 
            (e.g. <code>:e1 prov:wasGeneratedBy :a1</code>).
            It is correct and acceptable for an implementer to use either qualified or unqualified forms as they choose (or both), 
            and a consuming application should be prepared to recognize either form. 
            Consuming applications <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> recognize both qualified and unqualified forms, and treat the qualified form as implying the unqualified form.
            Because the qualification form is more verbose, the unqualified form should be favored in cases where additional properties are not provided.
            When the qualified form is expressed, including the equivalent unqualified form can facilitate PROV-O consumption, and is thus encouraged.
        </p>
            <!-- To simplify client queries, 
            any qualified relation SHOULD be accompanied by the equivalent unqualified statement. 
            Unqualified properties SHOULD NOT have the equivalent qualified form
            asserted unless it adds additional information. -->

      <p>In addition to the previous two tables, <a href="#qualified-terms-figure">Figure 4</a> 
         illustrates the classes and properties needed to apply the qualification pattern to ten of the fourteen qualifiable influence relations. 

         For example, while <a class="qname" href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a>, 
         <a class="qname" href="#Usage">prov:Usage</a>, and <a class="qname" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a> are used to qualify 
         <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> relations, 
   
         <a class="qname" href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a>, <a class="qname" href="#Association">prov:Association</a>, 
         and <a class="qname" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a> are used to qualify <span class="repeated">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span> 
         relations. This pattern applies to the twelve other influence relations that can be qualified.
      </p>

      <p>In subfigure <strong>a</strong> the <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedUsage</span> property parallels the <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> property and references an instance of 
      <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span>, which in turn provides attributes of the <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> relation between the Activity and Entity. 
      The <span class="repeated">prov:entity</span> property is used to cite the Entity that was used by the Activity. 
      In this case, the time that the Activity used the Entity is provided using the <a href="#atTime" class="qname">prov:atTime</a> property and a literal 
      <span class="repeated">xsd:dateTime</span> value. The <span class="repeated">prov:atTime</span> property can be used to describe any 
      <a href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="qname">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a> (including 
      <a href="#Start" class="qname">prov:Start</a>, 
      <a href="#Generation" class="qname">prov:Generation</a>, 
      <a href="#Usage" class="qname">prov:Usage</a>, 
      <a href="#Invalidation" class="qname">prov:Invalidation</a>, and
      <a href="#End" class="qname">prov:End</a>).
      </p>

      <p>Similarly in subfigure <strong>j</strong>, the <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedAssociation</span> property parallels the 
      <span class="repeated">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span> property and references an instance of 
      <span class="repeated">prov:Association</span>, which in turn provides attributes of the 
      <span class="repeated">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span> relation between the Activity and Agent. The 
      <span class="repeated">prov:agent</span> property is used to cite the Agent that influenced the Activity. 
      In this case, the plan of actions and steps that the Agent used to achieve its goals is provided using the 
      <a href="#hadPlan" class="qname">prov:hadPlan</a> property and an instance of <a href="#Plan" class="qname">prov:Plan</a>. Further, the 
      <a href="#hadRole" class="qname">prov:hadRole</a> property and <a href="#Role" class="qname">prov:Role</a> 
      class can be used to describe the function that the agent served with respect to the Activity. 
      Both <span class="repeated">prov:Plan</span> and <span class="repeated">prov:Role</span> are left to be extended by applications.
      </p>

       <div id="qualified-terms-figure" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
            <!-- When publishing to w3c: replace prov-o-diagrams/ with diagrams/ -->
            <!--img src="prov-o-diagrams/Qualified-Association.png"-->
            <img src="diagrams/qualified-patterns.svg" style="width: 70%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 70em" alt="Express association between an activity and an agent using a binary relationship and an alternatie qualified relationship">
            <div class="figcaption"><a href="#qualified-terms-figure">Figure 4</a>: 
            Illustration of the properties and classes to use (<span style="color: blue">in blue</span>)
            to qualify the 
            <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">starting point</a> and 
            <a href="#description-expanded-terms">expanded</a> influence relations (<strong>dotted black</strong>). <br>
            The diagrams in this document depict Entities as ovals, Activities as rectangles, and Agents as pentagons.
            <a href="#Quotation">Quotation</a>, <a href="#Revision">Revision</a>, and <a href="#PrimarySource">PrimarySource</a> 
             are omitted because they are special forms of <a href="#Derivation">Derivation</a> and follow the same pattern as subfigure <strong>g</strong>.</div>
       </div>




      <p>The following two examples show the result of applying the Usage and Association patterns to the chart-making example from <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Section 3.1</a>.
      </p>

      <div id="narrative-example-qualified-3"  class="exampleOuter" >
         <p>
            <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-3">Example 8</a>:
         </p>
          <div class="exampleOuter">
             <div><b>Qualified Usage</b></div>
               <p>The <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedUsage</span> property parallels the <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> property to provide an additional description to <code>:illustrationActivity</code>. The instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span> cites the data used (<code>:aggregatedByRegions</code>) and the time the activity used it (<code>2011-07-14T03:03:03Z</code>).
             </p>
                <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .

:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity;                ## Using Starting Point terms,
   prov:used :aggregatedByRegions; ##   the illustration activity used the aggregated data (to create the bar chart).
.

:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .

:illustrationActivity      
   prov:qualifiedUsage [                                ## Qualify how the :illustrationActivity
      a prov:Usage;                                     ##   used
      prov:entity :aggregatedByRegions;                 ##     the Entity :aggregatedByRegions

      prov:atTime "2011-07-14T03:03:03Z"^^xsd:dateTime; ## Qualification: The aggregated data was used 
                                                        ##   at a particular time to create the bar chart..
   ];
.</pre>
          </div>
      </div>

      <div id="narrative-example-qualified-4"  class="exampleOuter" >
         <p>
            <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-4">Example 9</a>:
         </p>
        <div class="exampleOuter">
           <div><b>Qualified Association</b></div>
            <p>The <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedAssociation</span> property parallels the 
            <span class="repeated">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span> property to provide an additional description about the <code>:illustrationActivity</code> that Derek influenced. 
            The instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Association</span> cites the influencing agent (<code>:derek</code>) that followed the instructions (<code>:tutorial_blog</code>). 
            Further, Derek served the role of <code>:illustrationist</code> during the activity.
            </p>
              <pre class="example">@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .

:illustrationActivity
   a prov:Activity;                ## Using Starting Point terms,
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;  ##   the illustration activity was associated with Derek in some way.
.

:derek a prov:Agent .

:illustrationActivity
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [       ## Qualify how the :illustrationActivity
      a prov:Association;            ##   was associated with
      prov:agent   :derek            ##     the Agent Derek.

      prov:hadRole :illustrationist; ## Qualification: The role that Derek served.
      prov:hadPlan :tutorial_blog;   ## Qualification: The plan (or recipe, instructions)
                                     ##   that Derek followed when creating the graphical chart.
   ];
.

:tutorial_blog   a prov:Plan, prov:Entity .
:illustrationist a prov:Role .</pre>
        </div>
      </div>


       <p>This section finishes with two more examples of qualification as applied to the chart-making example from <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Section 3.1</a>.
       </p>


      <div id="narrative-example-qualified-5"  class="exampleOuter" >
         <p>
            <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-5">Example 10</a>:
         </p>
        <div class="exampleOuter">
           <div><b>Qualified Generation</b></div>
            <p>The <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedGeneration</span> property parallels the <span class="repeated">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span> property to provide an additional description to <code>:bar_chart</code>. The instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Generation</span> cites the time (2011-07-14T15:52:14Z) that the activity (<code>:illustrationActivity</code>) generated the chart (<code>:bar_chart</code>).
            </p>
              <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;                              ## Using Starting Point terms,
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrationActivity;  ##   the chart was generated in an illustration activity.
.

:illustrationActivity a prov:Activity .

:bar_chart
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [                           ## Qualify how the :bar_chart
      a prov:Generation;                                ##   was generated by
      prov:activity :illustrationActivity;              ##     the Activity :illustrationActivity.

      prov:atTime "2011-07-14T15:52:14Z"^^xsd:dateTime; ## Qualification: The Activity generated
                                                        ##   the bar_chart at a particular time.
   ];
.</pre>
        </div>
      </div>

      <div id="narrative-example-qualified-6"  class="exampleOuter" >
         <p>
            <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-6">Example 11</a>:
         </p>
        <div class="exampleOuter">
           <div><b>Qualified Derivation</b></div>
           <p>The <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedDerivation</span> property parallels the <span class="repeated">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span> 
              property to provide an additional description to <code>:bar_chart</code>. The instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Derivation</span> 
              cites the activity (<code>:illustrationActivity</code>) and the Usages and Generations that the activity conduced to create the <code>:bar_chart</code>.
           </p>
           <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;                             ## Using Starting Point terms,
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;  ##   the chart was derived from the aggregated dataset.
.

:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .

:bar_chart
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [                      ## Qualify
      a prov:Derivation;                           ##   how :bar_chart was derived from
      prov:entity        :aggregatedByRegions;     ##     the dataset Entity :aggregatedByRegions.

      prov:hadActivity   :aggregating_activity;    ## Qualification: The activity that derived the :bar_chart.
      prov:hadUsage      :use_of_aggregatedData;   ## Qualification: How the activity used :aggregatedByRegions.
      prov:hadGeneration :generation_of_bar_chart; ## Qualification: How the activity generated the :bar_chart.
   ];
.</pre>
        </div>
      </div>

     </div>


    </div>

 

   <div id="cross-reference" class="normative section">
      <!-- prov:tracedTo [ prov:wasGeneratedBy [ a prov:Activity; 
           dcterms:description "python eg-24-prov-o-html-examples.py http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/ontology/ProvenanceOntology.owl" ] ] ] -->
      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Cross reference&nbsp;for&nbsp;PROV-O&nbsp;classes&nbsp;and&nbsp;properties</h2>
      <p>This section provides details for each class and property defined by the PROV Ontology, grouped by the categories described above:
      </p>     
      <ul>
         <li><a href="#cross-reference-starting-point-terms">Starting Point Terms</a></li>
         <li><a href="#cross-reference-expanded-terms">Expanded Terms</a></li>
         <li><a href="#cross-reference-qualified-terms">Qualified Terms</a></li>
      </ul>

      <p>
      The superscripts <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup> and <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup> denote that a property is an OWL <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-syntax/#Object_Properties">object property</a> or <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-syntax/#Data_Properties">data property</a>, respectively.
      </p>

      <p>Each PROV-O term in this cross reference links to the corresponding PROV-DM concept. The PROV-DM's table 
         <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n">Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</a> 
         provides an overview of the correspondences between PROV-O and PROV-DM.

      </p>

      <p>
         The qualification classes and properties shown in <a href="#qualified-forms-starting-point">Table 2</a> and 
         <a href="#qualified-forms-expanded">Table 3</a> of the previous section can also be found in each entry of this cross reference.
         If the property can be qualified, the <strong>can be qualified with</strong>
         header indicates the qualifying property and influence class that should be used.
         Conversely, the <strong>qualifies</strong> headers in the listings for qualification terms indicate the unqualified property that they qualify.
         In the OWL file itself, the annotation properties <span class="qname repeated">prov:qualifiedForm</span> and <span class="qname repeated">prov:unqualifiedForm</span>
         provide the same linkages between the unqualified properties and their qualifiying terms.
      </p>

      <p>Most examples shown in this cross reference are encoded using the Turtle RDF serialization. 
         When it is convenient to do so (e.g., when an example describes a <span class="qname repeated">prov:Bundle</span>), it may use the [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-TRIG">TRIG</a></cite>] syntax. 
         Although this document does not specify how to encode Bundles in RDF, TriG's named graph construct is used only to illustrate the concept of 
         creating a named set of PROV assertions. Note that <a href="#compliance">all examples are non-normative</a>.
      </p>

      <div id="cross-reference-starting-point-terms" class="section">
         <h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Starting Point Terms</h3>
         <p>The classes and properties that provide a basis for all other PROV-O terms are discussed in <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Section 3.1</a>.</p>
         
<div class="prov-starting-point owl-classes at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li>
      <a href="#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Activity">prov:Activity</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Agent">prov:Agent</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="prov-starting-point owl-properties at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#startedAtTime">prov:startedAtTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#used">prov:used</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#endedAtTime">prov:endedAtTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

         <div class="prov-starting-point owl-classes crossreference">

  <div id="Entity" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x1--------class--prov-entity-----------------back-to-starting-point-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg1">(1)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Entity"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity">prov:Entity</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>An entity is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. </p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
@prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity;
   dcterms:title "Aggregated statistics from the crime file"^^xsd:string;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :derek;
.

:derek a prov:Agent .
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime" href="#invalidatedAtTime">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf" href="#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime" href="#generatedAtTime">prov:generatedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf" href="#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#value" href="#value">prov:value</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision">prov:qualifiedRevision</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated" href="#generated">prov:generated</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf" href="#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated" href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used">prov:used</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember" href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf" href="#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>has subclasses</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection" href="#Collection" class="owlclass">prov:Collection</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Plan" href="#Plan" class="owlclass">prov:Plan</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle" href="#Bundle" class="owlclass">prov:Bundle</a>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-entity">entity</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Activity" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x2--------class--prov-activity-----------------back-to-starting-point-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg2">(2)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Activity"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity">prov:Activity</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:graduation
   a prov:Activity, :Graduation;
   prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-15T13:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used          :ms_smith;
   prov:generated     :doctor_smith;
   prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-15T14:30:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
.
:ms_smith     a prov:Entity .
:doctor_smith a prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated" href="#generated">prov:generated</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd">prov:qualifiedEnd</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used">prov:used</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated" href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#endedAtTime" href="#endedAtTime">prov:endedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart">prov:qualifiedStart</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#startedAtTime" href="#startedAtTime">prov:startedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Activity">Activity</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Agent" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x3--------class--prov-agent-----------------back-to-starting-point-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg3">(3)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Agent"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent">prov:Agent</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>An agent is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. </p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com#&gt; .

:derek
   a prov:Agent, prov:Person;
   foaf:givenName      "Derek"^^xsd:string;
   foaf:mbox           &lt;mailto:derek@example.org&gt;;
   foaf:homePage       &lt;http://derek.example.com&gt;;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :national_newspaper_inc;
.

:national_newspaper_inc
   a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
   foaf:name "National Newspaper, Inc.";
. 
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>has subclasses</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Organization" href="#Organization" class="owlclass">prov:Organization</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Person" href="#Person" class="owlclass">prov:Person</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#SoftwareAgent" href="#SoftwareAgent" class="owlclass">prov:SoftwareAgent</a>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-agent">agent</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>
</div>
<div class="prov-starting-point owl-properties crossreference" >
  <div id="wasGeneratedBy" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x4--------property--prov-wasgeneratedby-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg4">(4)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasGeneratedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrating;
.

:illustrating a prov:Activity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasDerivedFrom" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x5--------property--prov-wasderivedfrom-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg5">(5)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasDerivedFrom"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity, ex:Barchart;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;
.

:aggregatedByRegions
   a prov:Entity, ex:Dataset;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The more specific subproperties of prov:wasDerivedFrom (i.e., prov:wasQuotedFrom, prov:wasRevisionOf, prov:hadPrimarySource) should be used when applicable.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:hadPrimarySource</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf" class="owlclass">prov:wasRevisionOf</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Derivation">Derivation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasAttributedTo" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x6--------property--prov-wasattributedto-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg6">(6)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasAttributedTo"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:geneSequencing
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-25T01:30:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used              :drosophilaSample-84;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :lab-technician-GH-32;
   prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-25T03:40:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:drosophilaSample-84  
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :lab-technician-FE-56;
.

:lab-technician-GH-32 a prov:Agent .
:lab-technician-FE-56 a prov:Agent .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution" href="#Attribution" class="owlclass">prov:Attribution</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribution">attribution</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="startedAtTime" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x7--------property--prov-startedattime-dp-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg7">(7)</span>
      Property: <a href="#startedAtTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#startedAtTime">prov:startedAtTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#startedAtTime</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Start is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as trigger. The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as starter, that generated the trigger.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:geneSequencing
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-25T01:30:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used              :drosophilaSample-84;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :lab-technician-GH-32;
   prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-25T03:40:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:drosophilaSample-84  a prov:Entity .
:lab-technician-GH-32 a prov:Agent .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an activity started. See also prov:endedAtTime.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime" class="owlproperty">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Start">Start</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="used" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x8--------property--prov-used-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg8">(8)</span>
      Property: <a href="#used"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used">prov:used</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Usage is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:sortActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used       :datasetA;
   prov:generated  :datasetB;
.

:datasetA a prov:Entity.
:datasetB a prov:Entity.

# See qualified Usage for example on how the role of :datasetA can be described for this Activity
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>A prov:Entity that was used by this prov:Activity. For example, :baking prov:used :spoon, :egg, :oven .</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlclass">prov:Usage</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedUsage</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Usage">Usage</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasInformedBy" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x9--------property--prov-wasinformedby-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg9">(9)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasInformedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Communication is the exchange of an entity by two activities, one activity using the entity generated by the other.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:writing-celebrity-gossip 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasInformedBy :voicemail-interception;
.

:voicemail-interception a prov:Activity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>An activity a2 is dependent on or informed by another activity a1, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by a1 and used by a2.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication" href="#Communication" class="owlclass">prov:Communication</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Communication">Communication</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="endedAtTime" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x10--------property--prov-endedattime-dp-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg10">(10)</span>
      Property: <a href="#endedAtTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#endedAtTime">prov:endedAtTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#endedAtTime</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>End is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as trigger. The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as ender that generated the trigger.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:geneSequencing
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-25T01:30:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used              :drosophilaSample-84;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :lab-technician-GH-32;
   prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-25T03:40:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:drosophilaSample-84  a prov:Entity .
:lab-technician-GH-32 a prov:Agent .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an activity ended. See also prov:startedAtTime.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime" class="owlproperty">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-End">End</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasAssociatedWith" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x11--------property--prov-wasassociatedwith-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg11">(11)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasAssociatedWith"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>An activity association is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:illustrating
   a prov:Activity; 
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
.

:derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>An prov:Agent that had some (unspecified) responsibility for the occurrence of this prov:Activity.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlclass">prov:Association</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Association">Association</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="actedOnBehalfOf" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x12--------property--prov-actedonbehalfof-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg12">(12)</span>
      Property: <a href="#actedOnBehalfOf"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Delegation is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent) to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work.

For example, a student acted on behalf of his supervisor, who acted on behalf of the department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what degree.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:derek
   a prov:Agent;
   foaf:givenName "Derek"^^xsd:string;
   foaf:mbox      &lt;mailto:derek@example.org&gt;;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :national_newspaper_inc; 
.

:national_newspaper_inc 
   a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
   foaf:name "National Newspaper, Inc.";
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>An object property to express the accountability of an agent towards another agent. The subordinate agent acted on behalf of the responsible agent in an actual activity. </p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation" href="#Delegation" class="owlclass">prov:Delegation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-delegation">delegation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

</div>

      </div>

      <div id="cross-reference-expanded-terms" class="section">
         <h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Expanded Terms</h3>
         <p>The additional terms used to describe relations among Starting Point classes are discussed in <a href="#description-expanded-terms">Section 3.2</a>.</p>
         
<div class="prov-expanded owl-classes at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li>
      <a href="#Collection">prov:Collection</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#EmptyCollection">prov:EmptyCollection</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Bundle">prov:Bundle</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Person">prov:Person</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#SoftwareAgent">prov:SoftwareAgent</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Organization">prov:Organization</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Location">prov:Location</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="prov-expanded owl-properties at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#generatedAtTime">prov:generatedAtTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#value">prov:value</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#invalidatedAtTime">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#influenced">prov:influenced</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#generated">prov:generated</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

         <div class="prov-expanded owl-classes crossreference" >

  <div id="Collection" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x13--------class--prov-collection-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg13">(13)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Collection"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection">prov:Collection</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A collection is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be member of the collections.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
@prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:      &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
@prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:todays-us-supreme-court
   a prov:Collection, :RobertsCourt;

   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      
      # The generation is being qualified to be imprecise;
      # prov:generatedAtTime and prov:atTime specify exact instants in time.
      dcterms:date "2012"^^xsd:gYear; 
   ];                                 

   prov:hadMember
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/John_Glover_Roberts,_Jr.&gt;,
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Antonin_Scalia&gt;, 
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Anthony_Kennedy&gt;, 
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Clarence_Thomas&gt;, 
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg&gt;,
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Stephen_Breyer&gt;,     
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Samuel_Alito&gt;,      
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sonia_Sotomayor&gt;,  
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Elena_Kagan&gt;;   

   prov:wasDerivedFrom :the-first-us-supreme-court;

   dcterms:description :copied-string;
.

:copied-string
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value """2010–present: A. Scalia A. Kennedy C. Thomas R.B. Ginsburg 
                 S. Breyer S. Alito S. Sotomayor E. Kagan""";
   prov:wasQuotedFrom :page-by-composition;
.

:page-by-seat
   a prov:Entity, ex:WikipediaPage;
   prov:specializationOf &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-seat&gt;;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2011-08-31T12:51:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:page-by-composition
   a prov:Entity, ex:WikipediaPage;
   prov:specializationOf &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-composition&gt;;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-05-16T14:33:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember" href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>has subclass</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EmptyCollection" href="#EmptyCollection" class="owlclass">prov:EmptyCollection</a>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-collection">collection</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="EmptyCollection" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x14--------class--prov-emptycollection-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg14">(14)</span>
      Class: <a href="#EmptyCollection"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EmptyCollection">prov:EmptyCollection</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EmptyCollection</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>An empty collection is a collection without members.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.org/&gt; .

:c a prov:EmptyCollection . # The collection is believed to not contain members.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection" href="#Collection" class="owlclass">prov:Collection</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember" href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Bundle" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x15--------class--prov-bundle-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg15">(15)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Bundle"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle">prov:Bundle</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A bundle is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an Entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix my:      &lt;http://example.com/my#&gt; .
@prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/#&gt; .
@base &lt;http://www.example.com/example.ttl&gt; .

&lt;&gt; # A provenance file located at http://www.example.com/example.ttl
   a prov:Bundle;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-05-24T09:30:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bob;
.

:report1
   a my:Report, prov:Entity;
   my:version "1";
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-05-24T01:00:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bob;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>Note that there are kinds of bundles (e.g. handwritten letters, audio recordings, etc.) that are not expressed in PROV-O, but can be still be described by PROV-O.</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-bundle-entity">bundle-entity</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Person" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x16--------class--prov-person-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg16">(16)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Person"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Person">prov:Person</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Person</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Agents of type Person are people.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;
   a prov:Person, prov:Agent;
   foaf:depiction &lt;http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg&gt;;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-agent">agent</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="SoftwareAgent" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x17--------class--prov-softwareagent-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg17">(17)</span>
      Class: <a href="#SoftwareAgent"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#SoftwareAgent">prov:SoftwareAgent</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#SoftwareAgent</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A software agent is running software.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# Googlebot is Google's web crawling bot; 
# it can initiate and participate in web-crawling activities.

:googlebot
   a prov:SoftwareAgent;
   rdfs:label "Googlebot"^^xsd:string;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-agent">agent</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Organization" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x18--------class--prov-organization-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg18">(18)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Organization"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Organization">prov:Organization</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Organization</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Agents of type Organization are social institutions such as companies, societies etc.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> 
   a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
   foaf:name "World Wide Web Consortium";
. 
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-agent">agent</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Location" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x19--------class--prov-location-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg19">(19)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Location"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Location">prov:Location</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Location</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A location can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column. As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate, address, landmark, and so forth.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# A Location can be a path or a geographical location.

:post9821 
   a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;   
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :publicationActivity1123;
   prov:atLocation     :more-crime-happens-in-cities;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      prov:activity    :publicationActivity1123;
      prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime; 
      prov:atLocation &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid&gt;;
   ];
.

:publicationActivity1123      a prov:Activity.
:more-crime-happens-in-cities a prov:Location.
&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid&gt; a prov:Location. 
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-location">attribute-location</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>
</div>
<div class="prov-expanded owl-properties crossreference" >
  <div id="alternateOf" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x20--------property--prov-alternateof-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg20">(20)</span>
      Property: <a href="#alternateOf"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>Two alternate entities present aspects of the same thing. These aspects may be the same or different, and the alternate entities may or may not overlap in time.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bbc a prov:Agent .

:london_forecast_0412 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy [
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-12T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
   prov:alternateOf :london_forecast_043;
.

:london_forecast_0413 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy [
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-13T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
   prov:alternateOf :london_forecast_0412;
.

## :london_forecast_0412 and :london_forecast_0413 are both 
## specialization of the more general entity :london_forecast

:london_forecast 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
.

:london_forecast_0412
   prov:specializationOf :london_forecast;
.
:london_forecast_0413
   prov:specializationOf :london_forecast;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf" href="#specializationOf" class="owlclass">prov:specializationOf</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-alternate">alternate</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="specializationOf" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x21--------property--prov-specializationof-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg21">(21)</span>
      Property: <a href="#specializationOf"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>An entity that is a specialization of another shares all aspects of the latter, and additionally presents more specific aspects of the same thing as the latter. In particular, the lifetime of the entity being specialized contains that of any specialization. Examples of aspects include a time period, an abstraction, and a context associated with the entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:london_forecast_0412 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy [
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-12T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.

:london_forecast_0413 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy [
      a prov:Activity;
      prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-13T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.

:london_forecast 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
.

## :london_forecast_0412 and :london_forecast_0413 are both 
## specialization of the more general entity :london_forecast

:london_forecast_0412  
   prov:alternateOf      :london_forecast_0413;
   prov:specializationOf :london_forecast;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf" href="#alternateOf" class="owlclass">prov:alternateOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-specialization">specialization</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="generatedAtTime" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x22--------property--prov-generatedattime-dp-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg22">(22)</span>
      Property: <a href="#generatedAtTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime">prov:generatedAtTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# A widget was generated 1:35:23 PM on April 3, 2012 UTC

:widget-789532
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-04-03T13:35:23Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

# The above statement is equivalent to:
# :widget-789532 prov:qualifiedGeneration [ prov:atTime "2012-04-03T13:35:23Z"^^xsd:dateTime ] .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an entity was completely created and is available for use.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime" class="owlproperty">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="hadPrimarySource" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x23--------property--prov-hadprimarysource-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg23">(23)</span>
      Property: <a href="#hadPrimarySource"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>A primary source for a topic refers to something produced by some agent with direct experience and knowledge about the topic, at the time of the topic's study, without benefit from hindsight.

Because of the directness of primary sources, they 'speak for themselves' in ways that cannot be captured through the filter of secondary sources. As such, it is important for secondary sources to reference those primary sources from which they were derived, so that their reliability can be investigated.

A primary source relation is a particular case of derivation of secondary materials from their primary sources. It is recognized that the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and should be done according to conventions accepted within the application's domain.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix foaf:    &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix lang:    &lt;http://lexvo.org/id/iso639-3/&gt; .
@prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
@prefix frbr:    &lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#&gt; .
@prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

## Having an primary source is a particular case of derivation.

&lt;http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/996&gt;
   a prov:Entity, frbr:Work;
   dcterms:title          "Don Quixote";
   prov:wasAttributedTo   :ormsby;
   dcterms:language       lang:eng;
   prov:hadPrimarySource &lt;http://cultura.linkeddata.es/BNE/resource/C1001/XX2197892&gt;;
.

#### The English version book is a translation that is based on the original Spanish book

&lt;http://cultura.linkeddata.es/BNE/resource/C1001/XX2197892&gt;
    a prov:Entity, frbr:Work;
    prov:wasAttributedTo :cervantes;
    dcterms:language     lang:spa;
.

:cervantes
   a prov:Person;
   foaf:name "Miguel de Cervantes";
.

:ormsby
   a prov:Person;
   foaf:name "John Ormsby";
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource" href="#PrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:PrimarySource</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-primary-source">primary-source</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="value" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x24--------property--prov-value-dp-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg24">(24)</span>
      Property: <a href="#value"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#value">prov:value</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#value</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>Provides a value that is a direct representation of an entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:copied-string
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value 
      """2010–present: A. Scalia A. Kennedy C. Thomas R.B. Ginsburg 
         S. Breyer S. Alito S. Sotomayor E. Kagan""";
   prov:wasQuotedFrom 
      &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-composition&gt;;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-value">attribute-value</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasQuotedFrom" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x25--------property--prov-wasquotedfrom-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg25">(25)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasQuotedFrom"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>A quotation is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone who may or may not be its original author. Quotation is a particular case of derivation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bl-dagstuhl
   a prov:Entity;

   prov:value """During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus
   based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be
   formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused
   formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.
   This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across
   systems and through databases and be able to understand the
   mathematical properties of this interconnection.""";

   prov:wasQuotedFrom &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;;
.

&lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;
   a prov:Entity;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>An entity is derived from an original entity by copying, or 'quoting', some or all of it.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation" href="#Quotation" class="owlclass">prov:Quotation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-quotation">quotation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasRevisionOf" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x26--------property--prov-wasrevisionof-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg26">(26)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasRevisionOf"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>A revision is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. The implication here is that the resulting entity contains substantial content from the original. Revision is a particular case of derivation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:post9821v1
   a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;
   prov:wasRevisionOf :post9821;
   rdfs:comment ":post9821v1 is a post, which is a revision of the original post :post9821.";
.    
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>A revision is a derivation that revises an entity into a revised version.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision" href="#Revision" class="owlclass">prov:Revision</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedRevision</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-revision">revision</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="invalidatedAtTime" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x27--------property--prov-invalidatedattime-dp-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg27">(27)</span>
      Property: <a href="#invalidatedAtTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime">prov:invalidatedAtTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, ex:Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;;
   prov:invalidatedAtTime "1998-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an entity was invalidated (i.e., no longer usable).</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime" class="owlproperty">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation">Invalidation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasInvalidatedBy" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x28--------property--prov-wasinvalidatedby-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg28">(28)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasInvalidatedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, :Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;;
   prov:wasInvalidatedBy :Swissair_Flight_111_crash; #The painting was destroyed in an airplane crash
.

&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt; 
   a prov:Agent;
   foaf:depiction &lt;http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg&gt;;
.

:Swissair_Flight_111_crash 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Swissair_Flight_111&gt;;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation">Invalidation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="hadMember" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x29--------property--prov-hadmember-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg29">(29)</span>
      Property: <a href="#hadMember"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember">prov:hadMember</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A collection is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be member of the collections.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
@prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:      &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
@prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:todays-us-supreme-court
   a prov:Collection, ex:RobertsCourt;
   dcterms:description [
      a prov:Entity;
      prov:value """2010–present: A. Scalia A. Kennedy C. Thomas R.B. Ginsburg S. 
                  Breyer S. Alito S. Sotomayor E. Kagan""";
      prov:wasQuotedFrom :page-by-composition;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      
      # Since we need to be imprecise, we can't use prov:generatedAtTime or prov:atTime
      dcterms:date "2012"^^xsd:gYear;
   ];

   prov:wasDerivedFrom :the-first-us-supreme-court;

   prov:hadMember
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/John_Glover_Roberts,_Jr.&gt;,
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Antonin_Scalia&gt;, 
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Anthony_Kennedy&gt;, 
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Clarence_Thomas&gt;, 
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg&gt;,
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Stephen_Breyer&gt;,     
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Samuel_Alito&gt;,      
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sonia_Sotomayor&gt;,  
      &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Elena_Kagan&gt;;   
.

:page-by-seat
   a prov:Entity, ex:WikipediaPage;
   prov:specializationOf &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-seat&gt;;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2011-08-31T12:51:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:page-by-composition
   a prov:Entity, ex:WikipediaPage;
   prov:specializationOf &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-composition&gt;;
   prov:generatedAtTime "2012-05-16T14:33:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection" href="#Collection" class="owlclass">prov:Collection</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-collection">collection</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasStartedBy" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x30--------property--prov-wasstartedby-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg30">(30)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasStartedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Start is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as trigger. The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as starter, that generated the trigger.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# Use prov:qualifiedStart to see when and where the activity was started

:experiment
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasStartedBy :researcher;
.

:researcher a prov:Agent .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>Start is when an activity is deemed to have started. A start may refer to an entity, known as trigger, that initiated the activity.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedStart</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Start">Start</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="wasEndedBy" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x31--------property--prov-wasendedby-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg31">(31)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasEndedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>End is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as trigger. The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as ender that generated the trigger.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:experiment 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasEndedBy :inconsistentResult;
   prov:qualifiedEnd [
      a prov:End;
      prov:entity     :inconsistentResult;
      prov:atTime    "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation :scienceLab_003;
   ];
.

:inconsistentResult a prov:Entity .
:scienceLab_003     a prov:Location .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>End is when an activity is deemed to have ended. An end may refer to an entity, known as trigger, that terminated the activity.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedEnd</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-End">End</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="invalidated" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x32--------property--prov-invalidated-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg32">(32)</span>
      Property: <a href="#invalidated"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated">prov:invalidated</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:swissair_Flight_111_crash 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used        &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Swissair_Flight_111&gt;;
   prov:invalidated :the-Painter;
.

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, ex:Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;;
   
   # Inferred from prov:invalidated
   prov:wasInvalidatedBy :swissair_Flight_111_crash;   
.

&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt; 
   a prov:Agent;
   foaf:depiction &lt;http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg&gt;;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced" href="#influenced" class="owlclass">prov:influenced</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has inverse</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation">Invalidation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="influenced" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x33--------property--prov-influenced-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg33">(33)</span>
      Property: <a href="#influenced"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced">prov:influenced</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Influence is the capacity of an entity, activity, or agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, or delegation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix w3:   &lt;http://example.com/w3/&gt; .
@prefix tr:   &lt;http://example.com/tech-report/&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# prov:influenced is a top-level property that links any
# Entity, Activity, or Agent to any other 
# Entity, Activity, or Agent that it had an effect upon.

w3:Consortium 
   a prov:Agent;
   prov:influenced tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has inverse</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated" href="#generated" class="owlclass">prov:generated</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated" href="#invalidated" class="owlclass">prov:invalidated</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-influence">influence</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="atLocation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x34--------property--prov-atlocation-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg34">(34)</span>
      Property: <a href="#atLocation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation">prov:atLocation</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A location can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column. As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate, address, landmark, and so forth.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# A Location can be a path or a geographical location.

:post9821 
   a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;   
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :publicationActivity1123;
   prov:atLocation     :more-crime-happens-in-cities;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      prov:activity    :publicationActivity1123;
      prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime; 
      prov:atLocation &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid&gt;;
   ];
.

:publicationActivity1123      a prov:Activity .
:more-crime-happens-in-cities        a prov:Location .
&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid&gt; a prov:Location .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The Location of any resource.</p>
      </div>
      <div class="comment "><p>This property has multiple RDFS domains to suit multiple OWL Profiles. See <a href="#owl-profile">PROV-O OWL Profile</a>.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Location" href="#Location" class="owlclass">prov:Location</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-location">attribute-location</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="generated" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x35--------property--prov-generated-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg35">(35)</span>
      Property: <a href="#generated"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated">prov:generated</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:proteinDigestion
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:generated :peptideSample1;
.

:peptideSample1 a prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced" href="#influenced" class="owlclass">prov:influenced</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has inverse</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

</div>

      </div>

      <div id="cross-reference-qualified-terms" class="section">
         <h3><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Qualified Terms</h3>
         <p>The terms used to qualify the Starting Point and Expanded properties are discussed in <a href="#description-qualified-terms">Section 3.3</a>.</p>
         
<div class="prov-qualified owl-classes at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li>
      <a href="#Influence">prov:Influence</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#EntityInfluence">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Usage">prov:Usage</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Start">prov:Start</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#End">prov:End</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Derivation">prov:Derivation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#PrimarySource">prov:PrimarySource</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Quotation">prov:Quotation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Revision">prov:Revision</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Generation">prov:Generation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Communication">prov:Communication</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Invalidation">prov:Invalidation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#AgentInfluence">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Attribution">prov:Attribution</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Association">prov:Association</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Plan">prov:Plan</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Delegation">prov:Delegation</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#InstantaneousEvent">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
    </li>
    <li>
      <a href="#Role">prov:Role</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

<div class="prov-qualified owl-properties at-a-glance">
  <ul class="hlist">
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedDerivation">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedQuotation">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedRevision">prov:qualifiedRevision</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedAttribution">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedInvalidation">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedStart">prov:qualifiedStart</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedCommunication">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedEnd">prov:qualifiedEnd</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadPlan">prov:hadPlan</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a>
    </li>
    <li class="datatype-property">
      <a href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>
    </li>
    <li class="object-property">
      <a href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a>
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

         <div class="prov-qualified owl-classes crossreference" >

  <div id="Influence" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x36--------class--prov-influence-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg36">(36)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Influence"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence">prov:Influence</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Influence is the capacity of an entity, activity, or agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, or delegation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix my:   &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# Although a domain extension (e.g. ':wasConductedBy') is not defined by PROV-O,
# the relation between a surgery and an agent can still be qualified
# by reusing prov:Influence and one of its three subclasses 
# (depending on the type of influencer):
# AgentInfluence, EntityInfluence, and ActivityInfluence.

my:wasConductedBy rdfs:subPropertyOf prov:wasAssociatedWith .

:conductingSurgery_1
   a prov:Activity;
   
   # This unqualified influence is unknown in PROV, 
   # but would be a subproperty of wasAssociatedWith.
   my:wasConductedBy :bob;     
   
   # Even though PROV systems do not understand my:wasConductedBy, 
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [ 
      # they can recognize that the unknown relation 
      # is being qualified with a prov:hadRole.
      a prov:Association,     
        prov:AgentInfluence,   # Inferred
        prov:Influence;        # Inferred
      prov:agent   :bob;       # The object of my:wasConductedBy
      prov:hadRole my:surgeon;
   ];
.

:bob       a prov:Agent .
my:surgeon a prov:Role .
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>Because prov:Influence is a broad relation, its most specific subclasses (e.g. prov:Communication, prov:Delegation, prov:End, prov:Revision, etc.) should be used when applicable.</p>
    </dd>
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Influence provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasInfluencedBy relation from some influenced Activity, Entity, or Agent to the influencing Activity, Entity, or Agent. For example, :stomach_ache prov:wasInfluencedBy :spoon; prov:qualifiedInfluence [ a prov:Influence; prov:entity :spoon; :foo :bar ] . Because prov:Influence is a broad relation, the more specific relations (Communication, Delegation, End, etc.) should be used when applicable.</p>
    </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>has subclasses</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence" href="#ActivityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence" href="#AgentInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence" href="#EntityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-influence">influence</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="EntityInfluence" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x37--------class--prov-entityinfluence-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg37">(37)</span>
      Class: <a href="#EntityInfluence"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence">prov:EntityInfluence</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence</p>
    <div class="editors definition"><p>EntityInfluence is the capacity of an entity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, derivation, or other. </p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:sortActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used :rawData;
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage, 
        prov:EntityInfluence; ## Instances of Start, End, Usage, Derivation, and Invalidation
      prov:entity  :datasetA; ## qualify the influenced of an Entity (cited by prov:entity).
      prov:hadRole :inputToBeSorted;
   ];
   prov:generated :sortedData;
.

:rawData    a prov:Entity .
:sortedData a prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>EntityInfluence provides additional descriptions of an Entity's binary influence upon any other kind of resource. Instances of EntityInfluence use the prov:entity property to cite the influencing Entity.</p>
    </dd>
    <dd class="comment"><p>It is not recommended that the type EntityInfluence be asserted without also asserting one of its more specific subclasses.</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>has subclasses</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlclass">prov:Usage</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Usage" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x38--------class--prov-usage-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg38">(38)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Usage"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage">prov:Usage</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Usage is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:sortActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime  "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime; 
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity    :datasetA;         ## The entity used by the prov:Usage
      prov:hadRole   :inputToBeSorted;  ## the role of the entity in this prov:Usage        
   ];
   prov:generated :datasetB;
.

:datasetA        a prov:Entity .
:datasetB        a prov:Entity .
:inputToBeSorted a prov:Role .

## The role of :datasetA cannot be expressed using only starting-point terms:

:sortActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:used       :datasetA;
   prov:generated  :datasetB;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Usage provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:used relation from some prov:Activity to an prov:Entity that it used. For example, :keynote prov:used :podium; prov:qualifiedUsage [ a prov:Usage; prov:entity :podium; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence" href="#EntityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>  <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage" href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used" class="owlproperty">prov:used</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Usage">Usage</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Start" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x39--------class--prov-start-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg39">(39)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Start"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start">prov:Start</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Start is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as trigger. The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as starter, that generated the trigger.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

### Start can be used to qualify wasStartedBy with time and location information.
### In this example, a consistency checking activity is started by the update of a data record.

:consistency_checking
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasStartedBy :updated_data_record;
   prov:qualifiedStart [
      a prov:Start;
      prov:entity       :updated_data_record;
      prov:atTime       "2011-07-06T01:48:36Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation   :scienceLab_003;
      prov:hadActivity  :syntax_checking;
   ];
.

:updated_data_record a prov:Entity .

### There is an explicit process of checking the syntax of the updated data record

:syntax_checking
   a   prov:Activity ;
   prov:startedAtTime      "2011-07-06T01:48:36Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:endedAtTime        "2011-07-06T02:12:36Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith  :syntax_checker ;
.

:syntax_checker   a   prov:SoftwareAgent .</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Start provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasStartedBy relation from some started prov:Activity to an prov:Entity that started it. For example, :foot_race prov:wasStartedBy :bang; prov:qualifiedStart [ a prov:Start; prov:entity :bang; :foo :bar; prov:atTime '2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00'^^xsd:dateTime ] .</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence" href="#EntityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>  <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart">prov:qualifiedStart</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasStartedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Start">Start</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="End" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x40--------class--prov-end-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg40">(40)</span>
      Class: <a href="#End"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End">prov:End</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>End is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as trigger. The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as ender that generated the trigger.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

### End can be used to qualify wasEndedBy with time and location information.
### In this example, an experiment is stopped because an intermediate inconsitent resul.

:experiment 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasEndedBy :inconsistentResult;
   prov:qualifiedEnd [
      a prov:End;
      prov:entity       :inconsistentResult;
      prov:atTime       "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation   :scienceLab_003;
      prov:hadActivity  :analyse_intermediate_result ; 
   ];
.
   
:inconsistentResult a prov:Entity .

### An implicit process analyzes the intermediate result to confirm its expected consistency

analyse_intermediate_result
   a   prov:Activity ;
   prov:startedAtTime   "2011-07-15T12:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:endedAtTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:End provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasEndedBy relation from some ended prov:Activity to an prov:Entity that ended it. For example, :ball_game prov:wasEndedBy :buzzer; prov:qualifiedEnd [ a prov:End; prov:entity :buzzer; :foo :bar; prov:atTime '2012-03-09T08:05:08-05:00'^^xsd:dateTime ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence" href="#EntityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>  <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd">prov:qualifiedEnd</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasEndedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-End">End</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Derivation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x41--------class--prov-derivation-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg41">(41)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Derivation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation">prov:Derivation</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# The simplest (and least detailed) form of derivation.
:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;  
.

# The simple form can be accompanied by a qualified form:
# which provides more details about how :bar_chart was 
# derived from :aggregatedRegions.

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;  
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [                  
      a prov:Derivation;                      
      prov:entity      :aggregatedByRegions;  
                          
      # Derivations can cite the influencing Activity in doing the derivation.
      prov:hadActivity   :create_the_chart;

      # They can also cite the Usage and Generation that the Activity 
      # performed to generate :bar_chart.
      prov:hadUsage      :data_loading;
      prov:hadGeneration :plot_the_chart;
   ];
.

### The process during which the chart was created, from loading the data to the software, to process the data and plot the chart.
### Additional metadata was recorded, like when it started (before the usage), ended (after the generation of the chart) and who was associated with it.

:create_the_chart 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
   prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-03T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-03T00:00:10Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

### The final chart was plotted

:plot_the_chart
   a prov:Generation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
   prov:atTime "2012-04-03T00:00:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

### The data was getting used to create the chart

:data_loading
   a prov:Usage;
   prov:atTime "2012-04-03T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>The more specific forms of prov:Derivation (i.e., prov:Revision, prov:Quotation, prov:PrimarySource) should be asserted if they apply.</p>
    </dd>
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Derivation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasDerivedFrom relation from some derived prov:Entity to another prov:Entity from which it was derived. For example, :chewed_bubble_gum prov:wasDerivedFrom :unwrapped_bubble_gum; prov:qualifiedDerivation [ a prov:Derivation; prov:entity :unwrapped_bubble_gum; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence" href="#EntityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage" href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration" href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>has subclasses</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision" href="#Revision" class="owlclass">prov:Revision</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource" href="#PrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:PrimarySource</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation" href="#Quotation" class="owlclass">prov:Quotation</a>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Derivation">Derivation</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="PrimarySource" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x42--------class--prov-primarysource-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg42">(42)</span>
      Class: <a href="#PrimarySource"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource">prov:PrimarySource</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A primary source for a topic refers to something produced by some agent with direct experience and knowledge about the topic, at the time of the topic's study, without benefit from hindsight.

Because of the directness of primary sources, they 'speak for themselves' in ways that cannot be captured through the filter of secondary sources. As such, it is important for secondary sources to reference those primary sources from which they were derived, so that their reliability can be investigated.

A primary source relation is a particular case of derivation of secondary materials from their primary sources. It is recognized that the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and should be done according to conventions accepted within the application's domain.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:myPost 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:hadPrimarySource :donQuixote;
   prov:qualifiedPrimarySource [
      a prov:PrimarySource;
      prov:entity :donQuixote;
      :confidenceValue "6"^^xsd:integer;
      rdfs:comment """Not sure if Don Quixote was the original source, 
                      so asserting a confidence value of 6 out of 10.""";
   ];
.

:donQuixote a prov:Entity.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:PrimarySource provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:hadPrimarySource relation from some secondary prov:Entity to an earlier, primary prov:Entity. For example, :blog prov:hadPrimarySource :newsArticle; prov:qualifiedPrimarySource [ a prov:PrimarySource; prov:entity :newsArticle; :foo :bar ] .</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration" href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage" href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:hadPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-primary-source">primary-source</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Quotation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x43--------class--prov-quotation-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg43">(43)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Quotation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation">prov:Quotation</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A quotation is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone who may or may not be its original author. Quotation is a particular case of derivation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:dagstuhl-quote
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value   "why would people record and share provenance in the first place?";
   prov:wasQuotedFrom &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;;
   prov:qualifiedQuotation [
      a prov:Quotation;
      prov:entity     &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;;
      ex:fromSection 2;
   ];
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://data.semanticweb.org/person/luc-moreau&gt;;
.

&lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt; 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://data.semanticweb.org/person/paul-groth&gt;;
.

&lt;http://data.semanticweb.org/person/luc-moreau&gt; a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
&lt;http://data.semanticweb.org/person/paul-groth&gt; a prov:Person, prov:Agent .

</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Quotation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasQuotedFrom relation from some taken prov:Entity from an earlier, larger prov:Entity. For example, :here_is_looking_at_you_kid prov:wasQuotedFrom :casablanca_script; prov:qualifiedQuotation [ a prov:Quotation; prov:entity :casablanca_script; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration" href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage" href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-quotation">quotation</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Revision" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x44--------class--prov-revision-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg44">(44)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Revision"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision">prov:Revision</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A revision is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. The implication here is that the resulting entity contains substantial content from the original. Revision is a particular case of derivation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:draft2 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasRevisionOf    :draft1;
   prov:qualifiedRevision [
      a prov:Revision;
      prov:entity        :draft1;
      ex:peerReviewed     false;
   ];

   prov:wasAssociatedWith :edward;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent          :edward;
      prov:hadRole        :editor;
   ];
.

:draft1 a prov:Entity .

:edward 
   a prov:Person, prov:Agent;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Revision provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasRevisionOf relation from some newer prov:Entity to an earlier prov:Entity. For example, :draft_2 prov:wasRevisionOf :draft_1; prov:qualifiedRevision [ a prov:Revision; prov:entity :draft_1; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration" href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage" href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision">prov:qualifiedRevision</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf" class="owlproperty">prov:wasRevisionOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-revision">revision</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="ActivityInfluence" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x45--------class--prov-activityinfluence-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg45">(45)</span>
      Class: <a href="#ActivityInfluence"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence</p>
    <div class="editors definition"><p>ActivitiyInfluence is the capacity of an activity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of generation, invalidation, communication, or other.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy      :illustrating;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration :making-bar-chart;
. 

:making-bar-chart
   a prov:Generation, 
     prov:ActivityInfluence;  ## Instances of Generation, Invalidation and Communication qualify
   prov:activity :illustrating; ## the influence of an Activity (cited by prov:activity)
   rdfs:comment "Ended up with bar chart as line chart looked ugly."@en;
.

:illustrating a prov:Activity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>It is not recommended that the type ActivityInfluence be asserted without also asserting one of its more specific subclasses.</p>
    </dd>
    <dd class="comment"><p>ActivityInfluence provides additional descriptions of an Activity's binary influence upon any other kind of resource. Instances of ActivityInfluence use the prov:activity property to cite the influencing Activity.</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>has subclasses</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication" href="#Communication" class="owlclass">prov:Communication</a>
      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Generation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x46--------class--prov-generation-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg46">(46)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Generation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation">prov:Generation</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix bbc:  &lt;http://www.bbc.co.uk/&gt; .
@prefix eg:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bbcNews2012-04-03 
   a prov:Entity, eg:DailyNews;
   rdfs:comment """The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 contained a reference 
                   to a given news item, but the BBC news home page on 
                   the next day did not.""";

   prov:wasGeneratedBy :publishingActivity;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
      prov:atTime "2012-04-03T00:00:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:activity :publishingActivity;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedInvalidation [
      a prov:Invalidation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
      prov:atTime "2012-04-03T23:59:59Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.

:publishingActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Generation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasGeneratedBy relation from a generated prov:Entity to the prov:Activity that generated it. For example, :cake prov:wasGeneratedBy :baking; prov:qualifiedGeneration [ a prov:Generation; prov:activity :baking; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence" href="#ActivityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>  <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration" href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Communication" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x47--------class--prov-communication-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg47">(47)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Communication"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication">prov:Communication</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Communication is the exchange of an entity by two activities, one activity using the entity generated by the other.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:writing-celebrity-gossip 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasInformedBy          :voicemail-interception;
   prov:qualifiedCommunication :informing-the-journalist;
.

:informing-the-journalist 
   a prov:Communication;
   prov:activity   :voicemail-interception;
   ex:mediaType "email";
.

:voicemail-interception a prov:Activity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Communication provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasInformedBy relation from an informed prov:Activity to the prov:Activity that informed it. For example, :you_jumping_off_bridge prov:wasInformedBy :everyone_else_jumping_off_bridge; prov:qualifiedCommunication [ a prov:Communication; prov:activity :everyone_else_jumping_off_bridge; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence" href="#ActivityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInformedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Communication">Communication</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Invalidation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x48--------class--prov-invalidation-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg48">(48)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Invalidation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation">prov:Invalidation</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix wgs:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, :Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;;

   prov:wasInvalidatedBy :swissair_Flight_111_crash;
   prov:qualifiedInvalidation [
      a prov:Invalidation;
      prov:activity    :swissair_Flight_111_crash;
      prov:atTime      "1998-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation  &lt;http://purl.org/twc/location/Swissair-Flight-111-crash&gt;;
   ];
. 

&lt;http://purl.org/twc/location/Swissair-Flight-111-crash&gt;
   a prov:Location;
   wgs:lat   44.409167;
   wgs:long -63.973611;
.

&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt; 
   a prov:Agent;
   foaf:depiction &lt;http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg&gt;;
.

:swissair_Flight_111_crash 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used          &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Swissair_Flight_111&gt;;
   prov:startedAtTime "1998-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:atLocation    &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Atlantic_ocean&gt;;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Invalidation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasInvalidatedBy relation from an invalidated prov:Entity to the prov:Activity that invalidated it. For example, :uncracked_egg prov:wasInvalidatedBy :baking; prov:qualifiedInvalidation [ a prov:Invalidation; prov:activity :baking; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence" href="#ActivityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>  <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation">Invalidation</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="AgentInfluence" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x49--------class--prov-agentinfluence-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg49">(49)</span>
      Class: <a href="#AgentInfluence"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence">prov:AgentInfluence</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence</p>
    <div class="editors definition"><p>AgentInfluence is the capacity of an agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of attribution, association, delegation, or other.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:illustrating
    a prov:Activity; 
    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
       a prov:Association, 
         prov:AgentInfluence; ## Instances of Generation, Invalidation and Communication qualify
       prov:agent   :derek;   ## the influence of an Agent (cited by prov:agent)
       prov:hadRole :illustrationist
    ];
.

:derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .

:illustratonist a prov:Role .
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>AgentInfluence provides additional descriptions of an Agent's binary influence upon any other kind of resource. Instances of AgentInfluence use the prov:agent property to cite the influencing Agent.</p>
    </dd>
    <dd class="comment"><p>It is not recommended that the type AgentInfluence be asserted without also asserting one of its more specific subclasses.</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>has subclasses</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation" href="#Delegation" class="owlclass">prov:Delegation</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlclass">prov:Association</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution" href="#Attribution" class="owlclass">prov:Attribution</a>
      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Attribution" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x50--------class--prov-attribution-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg50">(50)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Attribution"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution">prov:Attribution</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.

When an entity e is attributed to agent ag, entity e was generated by some unspecified activity that in turn was associated to agent ag. Thus, this relation is useful when the activity is not known, or irrelevant.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Fallingwater&gt;
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Edgar_J._Kaufmann&gt;,
                        &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Frank_Lloyd_Wright&gt;,
                        :western-Pennsylvania-Conservancy;
   prov:qualifiedAttribution [
      a prov:Attribution;
      prov:agent &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Edgar_J._Kaufmann&gt;;
      ex:hadRole :owner;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAttribution [
      a prov:Attribution;
      prov:agent &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Frank_Lloyd_Wright&gt;;
      ex:hadRole :architect;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAttribution [
      a prov:Attribution;
      prov:agent :western-Pennsylvania-Conservancy;
      ex:hadRole :conserver;
   ];
.

&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Edgar_J._Kaufmann&gt;  a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Frank_Lloyd_Wright&gt; a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
:western-Pennsylvania-Conservancy a prov:Organization, prov:Agent . 
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Attribution provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasAttributedTo relation from an prov:Entity to some prov:Agent that had some responsible for it. For example, :cake prov:wasAttributedTo :baker; prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution; prov:entity :baker; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence" href="#AgentInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAttributedTo</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribution">attribution</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Association" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x51--------class--prov-association-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg51">(51)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Association"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association">prov:Association</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>An activity association is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:illustrating
    a prov:Activity; 
    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek, 
                           :steve;
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent   :derek;
        prov:hadRole :illustrationist;
    ];
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent   :steve;
        prov:hadRole :stylist;
        prov:hadPlan :style-guide;
        rdfs:comment "Steve helped Derek conform with the publisher's style guide."@en;
    ];
.

:derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .
:steve a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .

:illustratonist a prov:Role .
:stylist        a prov:Role .

:style-guide a prov:Plan, prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Association provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasAssociatedWith relation from an prov:Activity to some prov:Agent that had some responsiblity for it. For example, :baking prov:wasAssociatedWith :baker; prov:qualifiedAssociation [ a prov:Association; prov:agent :baker; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence" href="#AgentInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPlan" href="#hadPlan">prov:hadPlan</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Association">Association</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Plan" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x52--------class--prov-plan-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg52">(52)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Plan"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Plan">prov:Plan</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Plan</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A plan is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:illustrating 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation :steve-checking-style-guide;
.

:steve-checking-style-guide
   a prov:Association;
   prov:agent   :steve;
   prov:hadPlan :style-guide;
   rdfs:comment "Steve followed the publisher's style guide"@en;
. 

:style-guide
   a prov:Plan, prov:Entity;
   rdfs:comment "Use blue graphs for positive spin, red for negative"@en;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>There exist no prescriptive requirement on the nature of plans, their representation, the actions or steps they consist of, or their intended goals. Since plans may evolve over time, it may become necessary to track their provenance, so plans themselves are entities. Representing the plan explicitly in the provenance can be useful for various tasks: for example, to validate the execution as represented in the provenance record, to manage expectation failures, or to provide explanations.</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPlan" href="#hadPlan">prov:hadPlan</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Association">Association</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Delegation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x53--------class--prov-delegation-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg53">(53)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Delegation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation">prov:Delegation</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>Delegation is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent) to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work.

For example, a student acted on behalf of his supervisor, who acted on behalf of the department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what degree.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

### In this example, Frank (an insurance agent) acts on behalf of his company for performing
### a policy sale
 
:policySale
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :insuranceAgent_Frank;
.

:insuranceAgent_Frank
   a prov:Person;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :insuranceCompany_A;
   prov:qualifiedDelegation [
      a prov:Delegation;
      prov:agent        :insuranceCompany_A;
      ex:rewardScheme   "commission";
      prov:hadActivity  :policySale ;
   ];
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Delegation provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:actedOnBehalfOf relation from a performing prov:Agent to some prov:Agent for whom it was performed. For example, :mixing prov:wasAssociatedWith :toddler . :toddler prov:actedOnBehalfOf :mother; prov:qualifiedDelegation [ a prov:Delegation; prov:entity :mother; :foo :bar ].</p>
    </dd>

      <dt>is subclass of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence" href="#AgentInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
      </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf" class="owlproperty">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-delegation">delegation</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="InstantaneousEvent" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x54--------class--prov-instantaneousevent-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg54">(54)</span>
      Class: <a href="#InstantaneousEvent"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent">prov:InstantaneousEvent</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>The PROV data model is implicitly based on a notion of instantaneous events (or just events), that mark transitions in the world. Events include generation, usage, or invalidation of entities, as well as starting or ending of activities. This notion of event is not first-class in the data model, but it is useful for explaining its other concepts and its semantics.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix bbc:  &lt;http://www.bbc.co.uk/&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bbcNews2012-04-03 
   a prov:Entity, :DailyNews;
   rdfs:comment """The BBC news home page on 2012-04-03 contained 
                   a reference to a given news item, but the BBC news 
                   home page on the next day did not.""";

   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
      prov:atTime "2012-04-03T00:00:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedInvalidation [
      a prov:Invalidation, prov:InstantaneousEvent;
      prov:atTime "2012-04-03T23:59:59Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   ];
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">
    <dd class="comment"><p>An instantaneous event, or event for short, happens in the world and marks a change in the world, in its activities and in its entities. The term 'event' is commonly used in process algebra with a similar meaning. Events represent communications or interactions; they are assumed to be atomic and instantaneous.</p>
    </dd>
      <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt></dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd><dt>has subclasses</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a>
        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlclass">prov:Usage</a>
      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>

  <div id="Role" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x55--------class--prov-role-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
      <span class="xref" id="eg55">(55)</span>
      Class: <a href="#Role"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role">prov:Role</span></a>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role</p>
    <div class="definition"><p>A role is the function of an entity or agent with respect to an activity, in the context of a usage, generation, invalidation, association, start, and end.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:divideActivity 
   a prov:Activity;   
   prov:used :variableA, :variableB;

   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity  :variableA;
      prov:hadRole :dividend;          
   ];
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity  :variableB;
      prov:hadRole :divisor;          
   ];

   prov:generated :result_112234;
.

:variableA 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value 10;
.
:variableB 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value 2;
.

:dividend a prov:Role.
:divisor  a prov:Role.

:result_112234 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value 5;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :divideActivity;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <dl class="description">

      <dt>in range of</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-role">attribute-role</a>      </dd>
    </dl>
  </div>
</div>
<div class="prov-qualified owl-properties crossreference" >
  <div id="wasInfluencedBy" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x56--------property--prov-wasinfluencedby-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg56">(56)</span>
      Property: <a href="#wasInfluencedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Influence is the capacity of an entity, activity, or agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, or delegation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used              :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
   prov:wasInformedBy     :aggregationActivity;
.

:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasInfluencedBy :aggregatedByRegions, # prov:wasInfluencedBy is a superproperty of
                        :derek,               # many of the direct binary
                        :aggregationActivity; # PROV-O properties.
.

:aggregationActivity a prov:Activity .  
:derek               a prov:Agent .
:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>Because prov:wasInfluencedBy is a broad relation, its more specific subproperties (e.g. prov:wasInformedBy, prov:actedOnBehalfOf, prov:wasEndedBy, etc.) should be used when applicable.</p>
      </div>
      <div class="comment "><p>This property has multiple RDFS domains to suit multiple OWL Profiles. See <a href="#owl-profile">PROV-O OWL Profile</a>.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember" href="#hadMember" class="owlclass">prov:hadMember</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo" class="owlclass">prov:wasAttributedTo</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith" class="owlclass">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used" class="owlclass">prov:used</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf" class="owlclass">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInformedBy</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasStartedBy</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasEndedBy</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-influence">influence</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedInfluence" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x57--------property--prov-qualifiedinfluence-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg57">(57)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedInfluence"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Influence is the capacity of an entity, activity, or agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, or delegation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix my:   &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# Although domain extension 'my:wasConductedBy' is not defined by PROV-O,
# the relation between a surgery and an agent can still be qualified
# by reusing prov:Influence and one of its three subclasses:
# AgentInfluence, EntityInfluence, and ActivityInfluence
# (depending on the type of the influencing object).

:conductingSurgery_1
   a prov:Activity;

   # This unqualified influence is unknown in PROV;
   # it would be a subproperty of prov:wasAssociatedWith.
   my:wasConductedBy    :bob;
   prov:wasInfluencedBy :bob;  
   prov:qualifiedInfluence [   
      # Even though PROV systems do not understand my:wasConductedBy, 
      # they will at least understand that :bob influenced the 
      # surgery in some way.
      a prov:Influence;      # Inferred
      prov:agent   :bob;     # The object of my:wasConductedBy

      # Domain extension properties may be used to describe the
      # influences that an Entity, Activity, or Agent
      # have upon another Entity, Activity, or Agent.
      my:degree .72;
   ];
.

:bob a prov:Agent .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>Because prov:qualifiedInfluence is a broad relation, the more specific relations (qualifiedCommunication, qualifiedDelegation, qualifiedEnd, etc.) should be used when applicable.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedRevision</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedUsage</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedStart</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedEnd</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-influence">influence</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedGeneration" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x58--------property--prov-qualifiedgeneration-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg58">(58)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedGeneration"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrating;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration [
      a prov:Generation;
      prov:activity :illustrating;
      rdfs:comment "Ended up with bar chart as line chart looked ugly."@en;
   ];
.

:illustrating a prov:Activity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Activity prov:generated Entity :e, then it can qualify how it performed the Generation using prov:qualifiedGeneration [ a prov:Generation;  prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedDerivation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x59--------property--prov-qualifiedderivation-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg59">(59)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedDerivation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation">prov:qualifiedDerivation</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:entity :aggregatedByRegions; 
      
      ## More details about the activity underpinning the derivation        
      prov:hadGeneration :chat_plotting; 
      prov:hadActivity   :chart_creation ;
   ];
.

### The process of creating the chart, from loading the data, to process it, and plot it to end users

:chart_creation
    a    prov:Activity ;
    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
    prov:startedAtTime  "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
    prov:endedAtTime "2011-07-16T03:00:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

#### Now the chart is plotted

:chat_plotting
    a    prov:Generation ;
    prov:atTime    "2011-07-16T03:00:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Entity prov:wasDerivedFrom Entity :e, then it can qualify how it was derived using prov:qualifiedDerivation [ a prov:Derivation;  prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Derivation">Derivation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedPrimarySource" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x60--------property--prov-qualifiedprimarysource-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg60">(60)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedPrimarySource"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A primary source for a topic refers to something produced by some agent with direct experience and knowledge about the topic, at the time of the topic's study, without benefit from hindsight.

Because of the directness of primary sources, they 'speak for themselves' in ways that cannot be captured through the filter of secondary sources. As such, it is important for secondary sources to reference those primary sources from which they were derived, so that their reliability can be investigated.

A primary source relation is a particular case of derivation of secondary materials from their primary sources. It is recognized that the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and should be done according to conventions accepted within the application's domain.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
@prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:      &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:temperatureDisplay
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:hadPrimarySource :sensorReading20120510;
   prov:qualifiedPrimarySource [
      a prov:PrimarySource;
      prov:entity        :sensorReading20120510;
      ex:precisionLoss true;
      rdfs:comment """The displayed temperature does not show the full precision 
                      available in the reading.""";
   ];
.

:sensorReading20120510 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :temperatureSensor;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Entity prov:hadPrimarySource Entity :e, then it can qualify how using prov:qualifiedPrimarySource [ a prov:PrimarySource; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource" href="#PrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:PrimarySource</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:hadPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-primary-source">primary-source</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedQuotation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x61--------property--prov-qualifiedquotation-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg61">(61)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedQuotation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation">prov:qualifiedQuotation</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A quotation is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone who may or may not be its original author. Quotation is a particular case of derivation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix my:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab/my#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bl-dagstuhl
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:value """During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus
   based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be
   formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused
   formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.
   This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across
   systems and through databases and be able to understand the
   mathematical properties of this interconnection.""";
   prov:wasQuotedFrom &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;;
   prov:qualifiedQuotation [
      a prov:Quotation;
      prov:entity &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;;
      my:fromSection 1;
   ];
.

&lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://data.semanticweb.org/person/paul-groth&gt;;
.

&lt;http://data.semanticweb.org/person/luc-moreau&gt; a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
&lt;http://data.semanticweb.org/person/paul-groth&gt; a prov:Person, prov:Agent .

</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Entity prov:wasQuotedFrom Entity :e, then it can qualify how using prov:qualifiedQuotation [ a prov:Quotation;  prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation" href="#Quotation" class="owlclass">prov:Quotation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-quotation">quotation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedRevision" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x62--------property--prov-qualifiedrevision-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg62">(62)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedRevision"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision">prov:qualifiedRevision</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A revision is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. The implication here is that the resulting entity contains substantial content from the original. Revision is a particular case of derivation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:draft2 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasRevisionOf :draft1;
   prov:qualifiedRevision [
      a prov:Revision;
      prov:entity :draft1
   ];
   prov:wasAttributedTo :eddie;
.

:draft1 a prov:Entity .
:eddie  a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Entity prov:wasRevisionOf Entity :e, then it can qualify how it was revised using prov:qualifiedRevision [ a prov:Revision;  prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision" href="#Revision" class="owlclass">prov:Revision</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf" class="owlproperty">prov:wasRevisionOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-revision">revision</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedAttribution" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x63--------property--prov-qualifiedattribution-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg63">(63)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedAttribution"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution">prov:qualifiedAttribution</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.

When an entity e is attributed to agent ag, entity e was generated by some unspecified activity that in turn was associated to agent ag. Thus, this relation is useful when the activity is not known, or irrelevant.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

## When the role of the agent is not known or does not matter:

:nationalRegionsList 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasAttributedTo :civil_action_group;
.

:civil_action_group a prov:Agent .

## If we want to express the role of the agent:

:nationalRegionsList 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:qualifiedAttribution [
      a prov:Attribution;
      prov:agent :civil_action_group;
      ex:hadRole :owner;
   ]
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Entity prov:wasAttributedTo Agent :ag, then it can qualify how it was influenced using prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution;  prov:agent :ag; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution" href="#Attribution" class="owlclass">prov:Attribution</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAttributedTo</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribution">attribution</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedInvalidation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x64--------property--prov-qualifiedinvalidation-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg64">(64)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedInvalidation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:the-Painter 
   a prov:Entity, ex:Painting;
   rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
   prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;;

   prov:wasInvalidatedBy :swissair_Flight_111_crash;
   prov:qualifiedInvalidation [
      a prov:Invalidation;
      prov:activity    :swissair_Flight_111_crash;
      prov:atTime      "1998-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation  &lt;http://purl.org/twc/location/Swissair-Flight-111-crash&gt;;
   ];
. 

:swissair_Flight_111_crash a prov:Activity .
&lt;http://purl.org/twc/location/Swissair-Flight-111-crash&gt; a prov:Location .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Entity prov:wasInvalidatedBy Activity :a, then it can qualify how it was invalidated using prov:qualifiedInvalidation [ a prov:Invalidation;  prov:activity :a; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation">Invalidation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedStart" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x65--------property--prov-qualifiedstart-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg65">(65)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedStart"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart">prov:qualifiedStart</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Start is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as trigger. The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as starter, that generated the trigger.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# Start can be used to qualify wasStartedBy with time and location information.

:consistency_checking
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasStartedBy :updated_data_record;
   prov:qualifiedStart [
      a prov:Start;
      prov:entity       :updated_data_record;
      prov:atTime       "2011-07-06T01:48:36Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation   :scienceLab_003;
      prov:hadActivity  :syntax_checking;
   ];
.

:updated_data_record a prov:Entity .

### There is an explicit process of checking the syntax of the updated data record

:syntax_checking
   a   prov:Activity ;
   prov:startedAtTime      "2011-07-06T01:48:36Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:endedAtTime        "2011-07-06T02:12:36Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith  :syntax_checker ;
.

:syntax_checker   a   prov:SoftwareAgent .</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Activity prov:wasStartedBy Entity :e1, then it can qualify how it was started using prov:qualifiedStart [ a prov:Start;  prov:entity :e1; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasStartedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Start">Start</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedUsage" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x66--------property--prov-qualifiedusage-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg66">(66)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedUsage"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Usage is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:newsPublication
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:used                    :tsunami_image;
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity               :tsunami_image;
      ex:hasCopyrightPermission :licensedUse;  
      ex:hasOwner               :reuters;
   ];
.

:tsunami_image a prov:Entity .
:reuters       a prov:Agent .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Activity prov:used Entity :e, then it can qualify how it used it using prov:qualifiedUsage [ a prov:Usage; prov:entity :e; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlclass">prov:Usage</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used" class="owlproperty">prov:used</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Usage">Usage</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedCommunication" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x67--------property--prov-qualifiedcommunication-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg67">(67)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedCommunication"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication">prov:qualifiedCommunication</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Communication is the exchange of an entity by two activities, one activity using the entity generated by the other.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:writing-celebrity-gossip 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :journalist;
   prov:wasInformedBy     :voicemail-interception;
   prov:qualifiedCommunication [
      a prov:Communication;
      prov:activity :voicemail-interception;
      rdfs:comment """The journalist was informed by the private 
                      investigator, but we don't know how or what he was told."""@en;
   ];
.

:voicemail-interception 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :private-investigator;
.

:private-investigator a prov:Agent .
:journalist           a prov:Agent .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Activity prov:wasInformedBy Activity :a, then it can qualify how it was influenced using prov:qualifiedCommunication [ a prov:Communication;  prov:activity :a; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication" href="#Communication" class="owlclass">prov:Communication</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication" href="#Communication" class="owlclass">prov:Communication</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Communication">Communication</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedAssociation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x68--------property--prov-qualifiedassociation-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg68">(68)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedAssociation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>An activity association is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:illustrating
    a prov:Activity; 
    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek, 
                           :steve;
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent   :derek;
        prov:hadRole :illustrationist;
        rdfs:comment "Derek made the illustration"@en
    ];
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent   :steve;
        prov:hadRole :stylist;
        prov:hadPlan :style-guide;
        rdfs:comment "Steve helped Derek conform with the publisher's style guide."@en 
    ];
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent   :derek;
        prov:hadRole :stylist;
        rdfs:comment "But Derek also did some styling of his own."@en 
    ] .

:derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent .
:steve a prov:Person, prov:Agent .

:illustratonist a prov:Role .
:stylist        a prov:Role .

:style-guide a prov:Plan, prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Activity prov:wasAssociatedWith Agent :ag, then it can qualify the Association using prov:qualifiedAssociation [ a prov:Association;  prov:agent :ag; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlclass">prov:Association</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Association">Association</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedEnd" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x69--------property--prov-qualifiedend-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg69">(69)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedEnd"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd">prov:qualifiedEnd</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>End is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as trigger. The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as ender that generated the trigger.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

### End can be used to qualify wasEndedBy with time and location information

:experiment 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasEndedBy :inconsistentResult;
   prov:qualifiedEnd [
      a prov:End;
      prov:entity       :inconsistentResult;
      prov:atTime       "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
      prov:atLocation   :scienceLab_003;
      prov:hadActivity  :analyse_intermediate_result ; 
   ];
.
   
:inconsistentResult a prov:Entity .

### An implicit process of analysing the intermediate result to confirm its expected consistency

analyse_intermediate_result
   a   prov:Activity ;
   prov:startedAtTime   "2011-07-15T12:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:endedAtTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Activity prov:wasEndedBy Entity :e1, then it can qualify how it was ended using prov:qualifiedEnd [ a prov:End;  prov:entity :e1; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasEndedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-End">End</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="qualifiedDelegation" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x70--------property--prov-qualifieddelegation-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg70">(70)</span>
      Property: <a href="#qualifiedDelegation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Delegation is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent) to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work.

For example, a student acted on behalf of his supervisor, who acted on behalf of the department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what degree.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:traffic-stop
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :chauffeur, 
                          :traffic-officer-34;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent :chauffeur;
      
      # The chauffeur was the one violating traffic rules.
      prov:hadRole :violator; 
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent :traffic-officer-34;
      
      # The officer was the one enforcing the traffic rules.
      prov:hadRole :enforcer; 
   ];
.

:chauffeur       
   a prov:Person;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :celebrity-in-car;
   prov:qualifiedDelegation [
      a prov:Delegation;
      prov:agent :celebrity-in-car;
      
      # The celebrity employed the chauffeur during the enforcement.
      prov:hadRole :employer; 
      prov:hadActivity  :driving-during-the-year ;
   ];
.

#The chaffeur was employed for a whole year as a driver
:driving-during-the-year   a   prov:Activity ;
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :chaffeur;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:hadRole :driver;
   ];
   prov:startedAtTime "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:endedAtTime "2012-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;;
.

:traffic_officer_34 
   a prov:Person;
   prov:actedOnBehalfOf :city-of-Paris;
   prov:qualifiedDelegation [
      a prov:Delegation;
      prov:agent :city-of-Paris;
      
      # The city of Paris employed the officer during the enforcement.
      prov:hadRole :employer; 
      prov:hadActivity      :control-city-traffic ;
   ];
.

:control-city-traffic   a   prov:Activity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>If this Agent prov:actedOnBehalfOf Agent :ag, then it can qualify how with prov:qualifiedResponsibility [ a prov:Responsibility;  prov:agent :ag; :foo :bar ].</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation" href="#Delegation" class="owlclass">prov:Delegation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf" class="owlproperty">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-delegation">delegation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="influencer" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x71--------property--prov-influencer-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg71">(71)</span>
      Property: <a href="#influencer"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer">prov:influencer</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-7"><p>This property is used as part of the qualified influence pattern. Subclasses of prov:Influence use these subproperties to reference the resource (Entity, Agent, or Activity) whose influence is being qualified.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:illustrationActivity 
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:qualifiedUsage         :illustration_usage;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation   :illustration_association;
   prov:qualifiedCommunication :illustration_communication;
.

:illustration_usage
   a prov:Usage;
   prov:entity     :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:influencer :aggregatedByRegions; # Inferred
.

:illustration_association
   a prov:Association;
   prov:agent      :derek;
   prov:influencer :derek; # - - - - - - - Inferred
.

:illustration_communication
   a prov:Communication;
   prov:activity   :aggregationActivity;
   prov:influencer :aggregationActivity; # Inferred
.

:aggregationActivity a prov:Activity .  
:derek               a prov:Agent .
:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>Subproperties of prov:influencer are used to cite the object of an unqualified PROV-O triple whose predicate is a subproperty of prov:wasInfluencedBy (e.g. prov:used, prov:wasGeneratedBy). prov:influencer is used much like rdf:object is used.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent" class="owlclass">prov:agent</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlclass">prov:entity</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity" class="owlclass">prov:activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-influence">influence</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="p_entity" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x72--------property--prov-entity-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg72">(72)</span>
      Property: <a href="#p_entity"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity">prov:entity</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-7"><p>The prov:entity property references an prov:Entity which influenced a resource. This property applies to an prov:EntityInfluence, which is given by a subproperty of prov:qualifiedInfluence from the influenced prov:Entity, prov:Activity or prov:Agent.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:world-literature-homework-submission-32 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:hadPrimarySource :donQuixote;
   prov:qualifiedPrimarySource [
      a prov:PrimarySource;
      prov:entity :donQuixote;
      # Other attributes of the relationship
   ];
.

:donQuixote a prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer" class="owlclass">prov:influencer</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence" href="#EntityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="hadUsage" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x73--------property--prov-hadusage-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg73">(73)</span>
      Property: <a href="#hadUsage"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Usage is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
:digestedProteinSample1
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :proteinSample;
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:hadUsage [
         a prov:Usage;
         prov:entity :Trypsin;
        prov:hadRole :treatmentEnzyme;
      ];
   ];
   prov:entity :proteinSample;
.
:proteinSample a prov:Entity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The _optional_ Usage involved in an Entity's Derivation.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlclass">prov:Usage</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Usage">Usage</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="hadGeneration" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x74--------property--prov-hadgeneration-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg74">(74)</span>
      Property: <a href="#hadGeneration"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity, ex:Chart;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom   :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:entity        :aggregatedByRegions;
      prov:hadGeneration :illustration;
   ];
.

:aggregatedByRegions a ex:Dataset .

:illustration
   a prov:Generation,
     prov:InstantaneousEvent;
   prov:activity :illustrationActivity;
   prov:atTime   "2012-04-03T00:00:11Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.

:illustrationActivity
   a prov:Activity;
   prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-03T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-03T00:00:25Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The _optional_ Generation involved in an Entity's Derivation.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="p_activity" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x75--------property--prov-activity-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg75">(75)</span>
      Property: <a href="#p_activity"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity">prov:activity</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-7"><p>The prov:activity property references an prov:Activity which influenced a resource. This property applies to an prov:ActivityInfluence, which is given by a subproperty of prov:qualifiedInfluence from the influenced prov:Entity, prov:Activity or prov:Agent.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:making-bar-chart
   a prov:Generation, 
     prov:ActivityInfluence;
   prov:activity :illustrating;
   rdfs:comment "Ended up with bar chart as line chart looked ugly."@en;
.

:illustrating a prov:Activity .

:bar_chart 
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrating;
   prov:qualifiedGeneration :making-bar-chart;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer" class="owlclass">prov:influencer</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence" href="#ActivityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="p_agent" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x76--------property--prov-agent-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg76">(76)</span>
      Property: <a href="#p_agent"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent">prov:agent</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-7"><p>The prov:agent property references an prov:Agent which influenced a resource. This property applies to an prov:AgentInfluence, which is given by a subproperty of prov:qualifiedInfluence from the influenced prov:Entity, prov:Activity or prov:Agent.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:world_flight_1937
   a prov:Activity;

   prov:wasAssociatedWith &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amelia_Earhart&gt;,
                          &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Purdue_University&gt;,
                          &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Lockheed_Aircraft_Company&gt;;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amelia_Earhart&gt;;
      prov:hadRole :pilot;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Purdue_University&gt;;
      prov:hadRole :financer;
   ];
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Lockheed_Aircraft_Company&gt;;
      prov:hadRole :plane_builder;
   ];

   rdfs:seeAlso &lt;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelia_Earhart#1937_world_flight&gt;;
.

&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amelia_Earhart&gt;            a prov:Person,       prov:Agent .
&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Purdue_University&gt;         a prov:Organization, prov:Agent .
&lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Lockheed_Aircraft_Company&gt; a prov:Organization, prov:Agent .

</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <dl>

        <dt>has super-properties</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer" class="owlclass">prov:influencer</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence" href="#AgentInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="hadPlan" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x77--------property--prov-hadplan-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg77">(77)</span>
      Property: <a href="#hadPlan"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPlan">prov:hadPlan</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPlan</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A plan is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:illustrating
   a prov:Activity; 
   prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek, 
                          :steve;
   prov:qualifiedAssociation [
      a prov:Association;
      prov:agent   :steve;
      prov:hadRole :stylist;
      prov:hadPlan :style-guide;
      rdfs:comment "Steve followed the style guide"@en;
   ];
.

:style-guide
   a prov:Plan, prov:Entity;
   rdfs:comment "Use blue graphs for positive spin, red for negative"@en;
.
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The _optional_ Plan adopted by an Agent in Association with some Activity. Plan specifications are out of the scope of this specification.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlclass">prov:Association</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Plan" href="#Plan" class="owlclass">prov:Plan</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Association">Association</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="hadActivity" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x78--------property--prov-hadactivity-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg78">(78)</span>
      Property: <a href="#hadActivity"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

# The activity that which used, generated, invalidated 
# or was responsible for the entity. In this qualified Derivation 
# prov:hadActivity references the activity that generated the bar chart.

:bar_chart
   a prov:Entity;
   prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;
   prov:wasGeneratedBy :make_bar_chart;
   prov:qualifiedDerivation [
      a prov:Derivation;
      prov:entity      :aggregatedByRegions;
      prov:hadActivity :make_bar_chart; # references same activity as prov:wasGeneratedBy
   ];
.

:aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .
:make_bar_chart      a prov:Activity .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The _optional_ Activity of an Influence, which used, generated, invalidated, or was the responsibility of some Entity. This property is _not_ used by ActivityInfluence (use prov:activity instead).</p>
      </div>
      <div class="comment "><p>This property has multiple RDFS domains to suit multiple OWL Profiles. See <a href="#owl-profile">PROV-O OWL Profile</a>.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation" href="#Delegation" class="owlclass">prov:Delegation</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Activity">Activity</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="atTime" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x79--------property--prov-attime-dp-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg79">(79)</span>
      Property: <a href="#atTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime">prov:atTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>The PROV data model is implicitly based on a notion of instantaneous events (or just events), that mark transitions in the world. Events include generation, usage, or invalidation of entities, as well as starting or ending of activities. This notion of event is not first-class in the data model, but it is useful for explaining its other concepts and its semantics.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:Timearticle20120430_publication
   a prov:InstantaneousEvent;
   prov:atTime "2012-04-30T20:40:40"^^xsd:dateTime;
. 
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an InstantaneousEvent occurred, in the form of xsd:dateTime.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>qualifies</dt>
      <dd>
        <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime" href="#invalidatedAtTime" class="owlproperty">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div id="hadRole" class="entity">
    <h3 id="x80--------property--prov-hadrole-op-----------------back-to-qualified-properties">
      <span class="xref" id="eg80">(80)</span>
      Property: <a href="#hadRole"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole">prov:hadRole</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
      <span class="backlink">
         back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified properties</a>
      </span>
    </h3>
    <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole</p>
    <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A role is the function of an entity or agent with respect to an activity, in the context of a usage, generation, invalidation, association, start, and end.</p>
    </div>

    <div class="example">
      <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
      <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
@prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
@prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .

:divideActivity 
   a prov:Activity;   

   prov:used         :variableA;
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity    :variableA;
      prov:hadRole   :dividend;          
   ];
   
   prov:used         :variableB;
   prov:qualifiedUsage [
      a prov:Usage;
      prov:entity    :variableB;
      prov:hadRole   :divisor;          
   ];
.
   
:variableA a prov:Entity .
:variableB a prov:Entity .

:dividend a prov:Role .
:divisor  a prov:Role .
</pre>
    </div>

    <div class="description">
      <div class="comment "><p>The _optional_ Role that an Entity assumed in the context of an Activity. For example, :baking prov:used :spoon; prov:qualified [ a prov:Usage; prov:entity :spoon; prov:hadRole roles:mixing_implement ].</p>
      </div>
      <div class="comment "><p>This property has multiple RDFS domains to suit multiple OWL Profiles. See <a href="#owl-profile">PROV-O OWL Profile</a>.</p>
      </div>
      <dl>

        <dt>has domain</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlclass">prov:Association</a>
               or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
            </li>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

        <dt>has range</dt>
        <dd>
          <ul>
            <li>
              <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role" href="#Role" class="owlclass">prov:Role</a>
            </li>
          </ul>
        </dd>

      <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
      <dd>
         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-role">attribute-role</a>      </dd>

      </dl>
    </div>
  </div>

</div>

      </div>

      <div id="cross-reference-index" class="section">
         <h3><span class="secno">4.4 </span>Term Index</h3>
         <p>The PROV-O terms in this cross reference are shown below alphabetically, along with their entry number.</p>
         <div>
  <table>
    <caption id="xref-table"><a href="#cross-reference-index">Table 4</a>: Term Index.</caption> 
    <tbody><tr>
      <th>PROV-O Term</th>
      <th>Position within Cross Reference</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#actedOnBehalfOf">actedOnBehalfOf</a></td>
      <td><a href="#actedOnBehalfOf">Entry 12</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Activity">Activity</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Activity">Entry 2</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#p_activity">activity</a></td>
      <td><a href="#p_activity">Entry 75</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#ActivityInfluence">ActivityInfluence</a></td>
      <td><a href="#ActivityInfluence">Entry 45</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Agent">Agent</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Agent">Entry 3</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#p_agent">agent</a></td>
      <td><a href="#p_agent">Entry 76</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#AgentInfluence">AgentInfluence</a></td>
      <td><a href="#AgentInfluence">Entry 49</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#alternateOf">alternateOf</a></td>
      <td><a href="#alternateOf">Entry 20</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Association">Association</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Association">Entry 51</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#atLocation">atLocation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#atLocation">Entry 34</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#atTime">atTime</a></td>
      <td><a href="#atTime">Entry 79</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Attribution">Attribution</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Attribution">Entry 50</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Bundle">Bundle</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Bundle">Entry 15</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Collection">Collection</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Collection">Entry 13</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Communication">Communication</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Communication">Entry 47</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Delegation">Delegation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Delegation">Entry 53</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Derivation">Derivation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Derivation">Entry 41</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#EmptyCollection">EmptyCollection</a></td>
      <td><a href="#EmptyCollection">Entry 14</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#End">End</a></td>
      <td><a href="#End">Entry 40</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#endedAtTime">endedAtTime</a></td>
      <td><a href="#endedAtTime">Entry 10</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Entity">Entity</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Entity">Entry 1</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#p_entity">entity</a></td>
      <td><a href="#p_entity">Entry 72</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#EntityInfluence">EntityInfluence</a></td>
      <td><a href="#EntityInfluence">Entry 37</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#generated">generated</a></td>
      <td><a href="#generated">Entry 35</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#generatedAtTime">generatedAtTime</a></td>
      <td><a href="#generatedAtTime">Entry 22</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Generation">Generation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Generation">Entry 46</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadActivity">hadActivity</a></td>
      <td><a href="#hadActivity">Entry 78</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadGeneration">hadGeneration</a></td>
      <td><a href="#hadGeneration">Entry 74</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadMember">hadMember</a></td>
      <td><a href="#hadMember">Entry 29</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadPlan">hadPlan</a></td>
      <td><a href="#hadPlan">Entry 77</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadPrimarySource">hadPrimarySource</a></td>
      <td><a href="#hadPrimarySource">Entry 23</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadRole">hadRole</a></td>
      <td><a href="#hadRole">Entry 80</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadUsage">hadUsage</a></td>
      <td><a href="#hadUsage">Entry 73</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Influence">Influence</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Influence">Entry 36</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#influenced">influenced</a></td>
      <td><a href="#influenced">Entry 33</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#influencer">influencer</a></td>
      <td><a href="#influencer">Entry 71</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#InstantaneousEvent">InstantaneousEvent</a></td>
      <td><a href="#InstantaneousEvent">Entry 54</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#invalidated">invalidated</a></td>
      <td><a href="#invalidated">Entry 32</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#invalidatedAtTime">invalidatedAtTime</a></td>
      <td><a href="#invalidatedAtTime">Entry 27</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Invalidation">Invalidation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Invalidation">Entry 48</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Location">Location</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Location">Entry 19</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Organization">Organization</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Organization">Entry 18</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Person">Person</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Person">Entry 16</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Plan">Plan</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Plan">Entry 52</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#PrimarySource">PrimarySource</a></td>
      <td><a href="#PrimarySource">Entry 42</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedAssociation">qualifiedAssociation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedAssociation">Entry 68</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedAttribution">qualifiedAttribution</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedAttribution">Entry 63</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedCommunication">qualifiedCommunication</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedCommunication">Entry 67</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedDelegation">qualifiedDelegation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedDelegation">Entry 70</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedDerivation">qualifiedDerivation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedDerivation">Entry 59</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedEnd">qualifiedEnd</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedEnd">Entry 69</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedGeneration">qualifiedGeneration</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedGeneration">Entry 58</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedInfluence">qualifiedInfluence</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedInfluence">Entry 57</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedInvalidation">qualifiedInvalidation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedInvalidation">Entry 64</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">qualifiedPrimarySource</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">Entry 60</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedQuotation">qualifiedQuotation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedQuotation">Entry 61</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedRevision">qualifiedRevision</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedRevision">Entry 62</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedStart">qualifiedStart</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedStart">Entry 65</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedUsage">qualifiedUsage</a></td>
      <td><a href="#qualifiedUsage">Entry 66</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Quotation">Quotation</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Quotation">Entry 43</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Revision">Revision</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Revision">Entry 44</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Role">Role</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Role">Entry 55</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#SoftwareAgent">SoftwareAgent</a></td>
      <td><a href="#SoftwareAgent">Entry 17</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#specializationOf">specializationOf</a></td>
      <td><a href="#specializationOf">Entry 21</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Start">Start</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Start">Entry 39</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#startedAtTime">startedAtTime</a></td>
      <td><a href="#startedAtTime">Entry 7</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#Usage">Usage</a></td>
      <td><a href="#Usage">Entry 38</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#used">used</a></td>
      <td><a href="#used">Entry 8</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#value">value</a></td>
      <td><a href="#value">Entry 24</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasAssociatedWith">wasAssociatedWith</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasAssociatedWith">Entry 11</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasAttributedTo">wasAttributedTo</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasAttributedTo">Entry 6</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasDerivedFrom">wasDerivedFrom</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasDerivedFrom">Entry 5</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasEndedBy">wasEndedBy</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasEndedBy">Entry 31</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasGeneratedBy">wasGeneratedBy</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasGeneratedBy">Entry 4</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasInfluencedBy">wasInfluencedBy</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasInfluencedBy">Entry 56</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasInformedBy">wasInformedBy</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasInformedBy">Entry 9</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasInvalidatedBy">wasInvalidatedBy</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasInvalidatedBy">Entry 28</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasQuotedFrom">wasQuotedFrom</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasQuotedFrom">Entry 25</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasRevisionOf">wasRevisionOf</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasRevisionOf">Entry 26</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasStartedBy">wasStartedBy</a></td>
      <td><a href="#wasStartedBy">Entry 30</a></td>
    </tr>
  </tbody></table>
</div>

      </div>

   </div>

    <!--section class="appendix">
          <h2>Changes Since First Public Working Draft</h2>
          <ul>
          <li>2012-01-18: hadParticipant was replaced with wasAssociatedWith. Restyled domain/range diagrams.</li>
          <li>2012-01-17: Recipe changed to Plan, linked to Association
              (formerly Control)</li>
          <li>2012-01-16: Added Agent subclasses Person, Organization
          and SoftwareAgent
          <li>2012-01-16: Added alternateOf and specializationOf
         <li>2012-01-18: Replaced wasControlledBy with wasAssociatedWith relation
        <li>2012-01-19: Added wasStartedBy and wasEndedBy relations
          </ul>  
    </section-->

    <div id="owl-profile" class="appendix informative section">
      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">A. </span>PROV-O OWL Profile</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>

      <p>To encourage widespread adoption, PROV-O's design is intentionally minimal and lightweight. 
      Because the OWL 2 RL profile is aimed at RDF applications that require scalable reasoning without sacrificing too much expressive power [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-PRIMER">OWL2-PRIMER</a></cite>], 
      it served as a baseline for all axioms included in PROV-O. The PROV-O axioms that do not suit the OWL 2 RL profile are listed in 
      <a href="#owl-rl-violations">Table 5</a>. 

      All five use an anonymous <em>class union</em> for the domain or range of a property, while OWL 2 RL requires the classes to be explicitly named. 
      Although introducing "placeholder" classes would have suited the
      OWL 2 RL profile, these additional "abstract" classes would have been irrelevant 
      to the modeling of provenance information, increased the size of PROV-O unnecessarily, and exposed a potential to confuse users.
      All five axioms listed in the following table <em>use a non-superclass expression in a position that requires a superclass expression</em> 
      and do not conform to the OWL 2 RL Profile.
      </p>

<!-- The following table is generated by executing the following from a checked out version of http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/file/tip/ontology
        java -jar bin/profilechecker.jar ProvenanceOntology.owl OWL2RLProfile 2>&1 | python bin/rlplus-justify.py
-->
<div style="text-align: center">
  <table id="owl-rl-violations">
    <caption><a href="#owl-rl-violations">Table 5</a>: All OWL Axioms in PROV-O that do not conform to the OWL-RL profile.</caption>
    <tbody><tr>
      <th>Non OWL-RL PROV-O Axiom
    </th></tr>
    <tr>
      <td><a href="#atLocation" class="qname">prov:atLocation</a> rdfs:domain <span class="name">[ owl:unionOf (prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity prov:InstantaneousEvent) ]</span></td>
    </tr> <!-- 1 -->

    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> rdfs:domain <span class="name">[ owl:unionOf (prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity) ]</span></td>
    </tr> <!-- 5 -->

    <tr>
      <td><a href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> rdfs:range <span class="name">[ owl:unionOf (prov:Activity prov:Agent prov:Entity) ]</span></td>
    </tr> <!-- 2 -->

    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadActivity" class="qname">prov:hadActivity</a> rdfs:domain <span class="name">[ owl:unionOf (prov:Delegation prov:Derivation prov:Start prov:End) ]</span></td>
    </tr> <!-- 3 -->

    <tr>
      <td><a href="#hadRole" class="qname">prov:hadRole</a> rdfs:domain <span class="name">[ owl:unionOf (prov:Association prov:InstantaneousEvent) ]</span></td>
    </tr> <!-- 4 -->

  </tbody></table>
</div>
         <p>
         To provide guidance for OWL 2 RL environments that ignore the union domain axioms, some 
         property domains or ranges have also been defined with the closest
         common superclass for the classes in the union, as shown in the following table.
         </p>

         <div style="text-align: center">
           <table id="owl-rl-extra-domains">
             <caption><a href="#owl-rl-extra-domains">Table 6</a>: Intersecting OWL2 RL compatible domains/ranges</caption>
             <tbody><tr>
               <th>Property</th> <th>Direction</th> <th>Domain/range</th>
             </tr>
             <tr>
               <td><a href="#atLocation" class="qname">prov:atLocation</a></td>
               <td>rdfs:domain</td>
               <td>(implied: <span class="name">owl:Thing</span>)</td>
             </tr>

             <tr>
               <td><a href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a></td>
               <td>rdfs:domain / rdfs:range</td>
               <td>(implied: <span class="name">owl:Thing</span>)
             </td></tr> 

             <tr>
               <td><a href="#hadActivity" class="qname">prov:hadActivity</a></td>
               <td>rdfs:domain</td>
               <td><a href="#Influence" class="qname">prov:Influence</a></td>
             </tr> 

             <tr>
               <td><a href="#hadRole" class="qname">prov:hadRole</a></td>
               <td>rdfs:domain</td>
               <td><a href="#Influence" class="qname">prov:Influence</a></td>
             </tr> 
           </tbody></table>
         </div>

         <p>
         Multiple RDFS domains and ranges [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-SCHEMA">RDF-SCHEMA</a></cite>] for a property are 
         <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210/#ch_range">interpreted as an intersection</a>,
         and thus the above do not provide any additional
         information in an OWL 2 DL or OWL 2 Full profile, which also understands
         the unions. The more general domain should not be
         interpreted as saying, e.g., 
         "<span class="qname">prov:hadActivity</span> can be used with any <span class="qname">prov:Influence</span>", 
         but as 
         "Anything using <span class="qname">prov:hadActivity</span> is (at least) a prov:Influence". 
         </p>
    </div>

    <div class="appendix section" id="inverse-names">
      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">B. </span>Names of inverse properties</h2>
      <p>To maximize interoperability, PROV-O intentionally avoids defining too many properties' inverses. 
         In fact, it only defines two (<a class="qname" href="#generated">prov:generated</a> and <a class="qname" href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a>). 
        When all inverses are defined for all properties, modelers may choose from two logically equivalent properties when making each assertion. 
      Although the two options may be logically equivalent, developers consuming the assertions may need to exert extra effort to handle both 
      (e.g., by either adding an OWL reasoner or writing code and queries to handle both cases). 
      This extra effort can be reduced by preferring one inverse over another.
      </p>

     <div  class="exampleOuter" >
        <p>For example, the first PROV-O statement (below) could just as easily be asserted as the second statement. 
            But if a client queries using <a class="qname" href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> when <span class="repeated">:hadDerivation</span> 
            was used in the assertion, no results will be returned unless OWL reasoning is applied (or the size of the query is doubled).
        </p>
        <pre class="example">&lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/&gt;  prov:wasDerivedFrom &lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/&gt; .

   # These two statements are equivalent if prov:wasDerivedFrom is an inverse of :hadDerivation.
   # But extra effort is required to handle both cases (if one is not already using OWL reasoning).
   # We cannot assume that everybody is using OWL reasoning.
   # We do not want people to write more code and query than necessary.

&lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/&gt;     :hadDerivation  &lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/&gt;  .</pre>
     </div>

   <p>So, PROV-O avoids this situation by encouraging modelers to use one property instead of its inverse; the preferred property to use is the one defined in the PROV-O ontology. Those asserting and querying for the preferred property avoid the need for OWL reasoning, additional code, and larger queries while maintaining the same level of interoperability.
   </p>

   <p>However, the <strong>absence</strong> of defined inverses can lead to a <strong>different</strong> risk to interoperability. 
      Because modelers are free to create their own properties to suit their needs, 
      they may be motivated to assert the inverse of any PROV-O property defined herein.
   </p>

     <div  class="exampleOuter" >
        <p>For example, since PROV-O does not define the inverse of <a class="qname" href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a>, 
         and if three developers would rather model their assertions in the opposite direction, the following set of assertions might be found in the future web of provenance. 
         These assertions are not in an interoperable form without the use of an OWL reasoner, additional code, or larger queries.
        </p>
        <pre class="example"># If PROV-O's properties' inverses are not defined, modelers may be motivated to introduce their own inverse property name.
# The following three statements are equivalent if their predicates are all inverses of prov:wasDerivedFrom.

&lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/&gt;    my:hadDerivation  &lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/&gt;  .
&lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/&gt;  your:ledTo          &lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/&gt;  .
&lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/&gt; their:derivedTo      &lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/&gt;  .</pre>
     </div>

   <p>To balance these two interoperability risks, this document reserves the names of the PROV-O inverses.
      The name of a property's inverse is determined by appending the value of its <span class="repeated">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#inverse</span> 
      annotation to the PROV namespace (<span class="repeated">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span>). 
      Modelers wishing to use inverses of the properties defined by PROV-O <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> use those reserved by this document.
   </p>

     <div  class="exampleOuter" >
        <p>For example, the same three modelers above that defined <code>my:hadDerivation</code>, <code>your:ledTo</code>, and <code>their:derivedTo</code> should instead look for the <span class="repeated">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#inverse</span> annotation on <a class="qname" href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> to determine that they should use the property <span class="repeated">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadDerivation</span>. 
        </p>
        <pre class="example">@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .

# Each PROV-O property is annotated with the local name of its inverse.

prov:wasDerivedFrom
   a owl:ObjectProperty;
   rdfs:isDefinedBy &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt;;
   prov:inverse     "hadDerivation";
   rdfs:domain  prov:Entity;
   rdfs:range   prov:Entity;
.

# Instead of defining their own, modelers should use the
# recommended inverse local name within the PROV namespace:

&lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-dm/&gt; prov:hadDerivation &lt;http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/&gt;  .

# Following this recommendation avoids a proliferation of inverse definitions, 
# while encouraging the use of one inverse over another.
# This increases interoperability.</pre>
     </div>

      <p>The following table lists the recommended inverse names that should be used if a modeler does not want to use the recommended PROV-O property. 
      For convenience, <a href="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-o-inverses">this file</a> lists the resulting inverse properties.
      </p>


<div id="inverse-names-table">
<table class="inverse-names">
 <caption><a href="#inverse-names-table">Table 5</a>: Names of inverses</caption>
 <tr>
 <th>Domain</th>
 <th>PROV-O Property</th>
 <th>Recommended inverse name</th>
 <th>Range</th>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlproperty">prov:Agent</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf" class="owlproperty">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a></td>
 <td>prov:hadDelegate</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlproperty">prov:Agent</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence" href="#ActivityInfluence" class="owlproperty">prov:ActivityInfluence</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity" class="owlproperty">prov:activity</a></td>
 <td>prov:activityOfInfluence</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence" href="#AgentInfluence" class="owlproperty">prov:AgentInfluence</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent" class="owlproperty">prov:agent</a></td>
 <td>prov:agentOfInfluence</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlproperty">prov:Agent</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf" href="#alternateOf" class="owlproperty">prov:alternateOf</a></td>
 <td>prov:alternateOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td>union</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation" class="owlproperty">prov:atLocation</a></td>
 <td>prov:locationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Location" href="#Location" class="owlproperty">prov:Location</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence" href="#EntityInfluence" class="owlproperty">prov:EntityInfluence</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
 <td>prov:entityOfInfluence</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated" href="#generated" class="owlproperty">prov:generated</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasGeneratedBy</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td>union</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity" class="owlproperty">prov:hadActivity</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasActivityOfInfluence</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlproperty">prov:Derivation</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadGeneration" href="#hadGeneration" class="owlproperty">prov:hadGeneration</a></td>
 <td>prov:generatedAsDerivation</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlproperty">prov:Generation</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection" href="#Collection" class="owlproperty">prov:Collection</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember" href="#hadMember" class="owlproperty">prov:hadMember</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasMemberOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlproperty">prov:Association</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPlan" href="#hadPlan" class="owlproperty">prov:hadPlan</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasPlanOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Plan" href="#Plan" class="owlproperty">prov:Plan</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:hadPrimarySource</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasPrimarySourceOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td>union</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole" class="owlproperty">prov:hadRole</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasRoleIn</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role" href="#Role" class="owlproperty">prov:Role</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlproperty">prov:Derivation</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadUsage" href="#hadUsage" class="owlproperty">prov:hadUsage</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasUsedInDerivation</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlproperty">prov:Usage</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced" href="#influenced" class="owlproperty">prov:influenced</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasInfluencedBy</td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlproperty">prov:Influence</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer" class="owlproperty">prov:influencer</a></td>
 <td>prov:hadInfluence</td>
 <td>union</td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated" href="#invalidated" class="owlproperty">prov:invalidated</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasInvalidatedBy</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedAssociationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlproperty">prov:Association</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedAttributionOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution" href="#Attribution" class="owlproperty">prov:Attribution</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedCommunicationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication" href="#Communication" class="owlproperty">prov:Communication</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlproperty">prov:Agent</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedDelegationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation" href="#Delegation" class="owlproperty">prov:Delegation</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedDerivationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlproperty">prov:Derivation</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedEnd</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedEndOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlproperty">prov:End</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedGenerationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlproperty">prov:Generation</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td>union</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedInfluenceOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence" href="#Influence" class="owlproperty">prov:Influence</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedInvalidationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlproperty">prov:Invalidation</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedSourceOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource" href="#PrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:PrimarySource</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedQuotationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation" href="#Quotation" class="owlproperty">prov:Quotation</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedRevision</a></td>
 <td>prov:revisedEntity</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision" href="#Revision" class="owlproperty">prov:Revision</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedStart</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedStartOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlproperty">prov:Start</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedUsage</a></td>
 <td>prov:qualifiedUsingActivity</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlproperty">prov:Usage</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf" href="#specializationOf" class="owlproperty">prov:specializationOf</a></td>
 <td>prov:generalizationOf</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used" class="owlproperty">prov:used</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasUsedBy</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a></td>
 <td>prov:wasAssociateFor</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlproperty">prov:Agent</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAttributedTo</a></td>
 <td>prov:contributed</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlproperty">prov:Agent</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a></td>
 <td>prov:hadDerivation</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasEndedBy</a></td>
 <td>prov:ended</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a></td>
 <td>prov:generated</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td>union</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a></td>
 <td>prov:influenced</td>
 <td>union</td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInformedBy</a></td>
 <td>prov:informed</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a></td>
 <td>prov:invalidated</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a></td>
 <td>prov:quotedAs</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf" class="owlproperty">prov:wasRevisionOf</a></td>
 <td>prov:hadRevision</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlproperty">prov:Activity</a></td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasStartedBy</a></td>
 <td>prov:started</td>
 <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlproperty">prov:Entity</a></td>
 </tr>
</table>
</div>




       </div>


    <div class="appendix informative section" id="changes-since-wd-prov-o-20120724">
      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">C. </span>Changes since WD-prov-o-20120724</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
      <ul>
         <li>Restated <a href="#hadRole" class="qname">prov:hadRole</a>'s domain to 'Association or InstantaneousEvent' 
             instead of the original that enumerated the subclasses of InstantaneousEvent 
             ('Association or End or Generation or Invalidation or Start or Usage').
         </li>

         <li>Renamed prov:Source to <a href="#PrimarySource" class="qname">prov:PrimarySource</a>
             and prov:qualifiedSource to <a href="#qualifiedPrimarySource" class="qname">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a>.
         </li>

         <li>Examples have been rewritten to avoid usage of TriG named
         graph syntax except for when showing bundles in 
         prov:asInBundle and prov:mentionOf (since removed to a separate Note). A citation to TriG was added.
         </li>

         <li>Some examples have been elaborated to use resource names
         like <code>:illustration_usage</code> rather than
         <code>:usage_1</code>.
         </li>

         <li>Fixed naming mismatch by changing prov:hadOriginalSource to <a href="#hadPrimarySource" class="qname">prov:hadPrimarySource</a>.
         
         </li><li>Rephrased definitions for <a href="#EntityInfluence" class="qname">prov:EntityInfluence</a>, 
            <a href="#ActivityInfluence" class="qname">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>, and <a href="#AgentInfluence" class="qname">prov:AgentInfluence</a> 
            to align with the definition of their superclass <a href="#Influence" class="qname">prov:Influence</a>.
         </li>

         <li>Updated definitions for <a href="#Start" class="qname">prov:Start</a> and 
            <a href="#End" class="qname">prov:End</a> from PROV-DM.
         </li>

         <li>The property chain for <a href="#wasInformedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInformedBy</a> was fixed from 
                "qualifiedCommunication o entity subproperty of wasInformedBy" 
             to "<a href="#qualifiedCommunication" class="qname">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a> o <a href="#p_activity" class="qname">prov:activity</a> subproperty of wasInformedBy"</li>

         <li>Removed prov:mentionOf and prov:asInBundle, which have been relocated to its own Note.</li>
   
         <li>Added comments encouraging the use of the more specific forms of <a href="#Influence" class="qname">prov:Influence</a>.</li>

         <li>Added uniform references to other "dated" PROV documents.</li>

         <li>Added <a href="#namespace-table">prefix namespace table</a>.</li>

         <li>Added <a href="#compliance">Compliance with this document</a> section.</li>

         <li>Corrected Turtle syntax for RL violations in <a href="#owl-profile">PROV-O OWL Profile</a> section. They were missing owl:unionOf.</li>

         <li>Updated attributions for the tools used to produce this document in <a href="#acknowledgements">Acknowledgements</a> section.</li>

         <li>Reworked the <a href="#description-expanded-terms">Expanded Terms</a> narrative and examples to better highlight each term.</li>
      </ul>
    </div>


      <div class="appendix informative section" id="changes-since-cr-prov-o-20121211">
            <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">D. </span>Changes since CR-prov-o-20121211</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
            <ul>
               <li>Updated exemplar in cross reference entry <a href="#hadGeneration" class="qname">prov:hadGeneration</a> to include <a href="#p_activity" class="qname">prov:activity</a> property.</li>
               <li>Reordered class and predicate terms from alphabetical to a more natural narrative-based order.</li>
               <li>Added <a href="#cross-reference-index">Term Index</a> to aid reading this document in printed form.</li>
               <li>Fixed typo 'iteself' to 'itself'.</li>
               <li>Removed inaccurate property characteristics (AsymmetricProperty, IrreflexiveProperty) 
                   in third example of <a href="#inverse-names">Appendix B</a>.</li>
               <li>Added note to <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Point Terms</a> stating that 
                   rdf:type and rdfs:label are used to express PROV-DM's prov:type and prov:label.</li>
               <li>Updated prov:value's out-of-date definition to conform to PROV-DM's (i.e., "Provides a value that is a direct representation of an entity.".</li>
               <li>Updated prov:wasDerivedFrom's out-of-date definition to conform to PROV-DM's 
                  (i.e., "A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.".</li>
               <li>Added xsd:dateType datatypes to exemplar in Invalidation and invalidatedAtTime.</li>
               <li>Fixed some incorrect wasAttributedTo/wasAssociatedWith in the cross reference exemplars.</li>
            </ul>
      </div>

    <div class="appendix informative section" id="acknowledgements">
      <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">E. </span>Acknowledgements</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>

      <p>This document has been produced by the PROV Working Group, and its contents reflect extensive discussion within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to Sandro Hawke (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym>) and Ivan Herman (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym>), <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> contacts for the PROV Working Group.</p>

      <p> The editors acknowledge valuable contributions from the following:
         Tom Baker,
         David Booth,
         Robert Freimuth,
         Satrajit Ghosh,
         Ralph Hodgson,
         Renato Iannella,
         Jacek Kopecky,
         James Leigh,
         Jacco van Ossenbruggen,
         Alan Ruttenberg,
         Reza Samavi, and
         Antoine Zimmermann.
      </p>

      <p>Members of the PROV Working Group at the time of publication of this document were:

         Ilkay Altintas (Invited expert),
         Reza B'Far (Oracle Corporation),
         Khalid Belhajjame (University of Manchester),
         James Cheney (University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics),
         Sam Coppens (IBBT),
         David Corsar (University of Aberdeen, Computing Science),
         Stephen Cresswell (The National Archives),
         Tom De Nies (IBBT),
         Helena Deus (DERI Galway at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland),
         Simon Dobson (Invited expert),
         Martin Doerr (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
         Kai Eckert (Invited expert),
         Jean-Pierre EVAIN (European Broadcasting Union, EBU-UER),
         James Frew (Invited expert),
         Irini Fundulaki (Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas(FORTH)),
         Daniel Garijo (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid),
         Yolanda Gil (Invited expert),
         Ryan Golden (Oracle Corporation),
         Paul Groth (Vrije Universiteit),
         Olaf Hartig (Invited expert),
         David Hau (National Cancer Institute, NCI),
         Sandro Hawke (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym>),
         Jörn Hees (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) Gmbh),
         Ivan Herman, (<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym>/<acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym>),
         Ralph Hodgson (TopQuadrant),
         Hook Hua (Invited expert),
         Trung Dong Huynh (University of Southampton),
         Graham Klyne (University of Oxford),
         Michael Lang (Revelytix, Inc.),
         Timothy Lebo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
         James McCusker (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
         Deborah McGuinness (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute),
         Simon Miles (Invit