ontology/Overview.html
author Paul Groth <p.t.groth@vu.nl>
Fri, 07 Jun 2013 20:21:19 +0200
changeset 6412 600c6fd1fdb4
parent 5704 125a55502110
permissions -rw-r--r--
minor updates to address dong's comments
     1 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN' 'http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd'>
     2 <html lang="en" dir="ltr">
     3 <head>
     4     <title>PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</title>
     5     <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
     6     <link rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hasProvenance" href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/provenance/prov-o">
     7 
     8     <style type="text/css">
     9       /* prov:wasQuotedFrom http://speronitomcat.web.cs.unibo.it:8080/LODE/owl.css */
    10       .RFC2119 {
    11         text-transform: lowercase;
    12         font-style: italic;
    13       }
    14       .nonterminal {
    15           font-weight: bold;
    16           font-family: sans-serif;
    17           font-size: 95%;
    18       }
    19       #abstract br {
    20          /* doesn't work right SOMETIMES 
    21          margin-bottom: 1em;   */
    22       }
    23       .name {
    24           font-family: monospace;
    25       }
    26       .buttonpanel {
    27           margin-top: 1ex;
    28           margin-bottom: 1ex;
    29           padding-left: 1ex;
    30           padding-right: 1ex;
    31           padding-top: 1ex;
    32           padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
    33           border: 1px dotted black; 
    34       }
    35       .grammar {
    36           margin-top: 1ex;
    37           margin-bottom: 1ex;
    38           padding-left: 1ex;
    39           padding-right: 1ex;
    40           padding-top: 1ex;
    41           padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
    42           border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
    43           font-family: monospace;
    44       }
    45       .image {
    46           text-align: center;
    47       }
    48       .centered {
    49           text-align: center;
    50           padding-top: 4ex;
    51           padding-bottom: 4ex;
    52       }
    53       .centered table {
    54           margin: 0 auto;
    55           text-align: left;
    56       }
    57       .caption {
    58           font-weight: bold;
    59       }
    60       .indent {
    61           margin-left: 20px;
    62       }
    63       .atrisknote {
    64           padding: 5px;
    65           margin-top: 10px;
    66           margin-bottom: 10px;
    67           border: solid 2px blue;
    68           background-color: #FFA;
    69       }
    70       .atrisknotehead {
    71           font-style: italic; 
    72       }
    73 
    74       /* Stying the examples. */
    75 
    76       .anexample:before {
    77           content: "Example:";
    78           font-family: sans-serif;
    79           font-size: 1.6ex;
    80           font-weight: bold;
    81       }
    82       .anexample {
    83           margin-top: 1ex;
    84           margin-bottom: 1ex;
    85           padding-left: 1ex;
    86           padding-right: 1ex;
    87           padding-top: 1ex;
    88           padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
    89           border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
    90           background-color: #f9f9f9;
    91       }
    92       .anexample table {
    93           background-color: #f9f9f9;
    94       }
    95 
    96       /* Styling the parts in the functional-style syntax. */
    97 
    98       div.fss {
    99           margin-top: 10px; 
   100           margin-bottom: 10px; 
   101           margin-left: 20px; 
   102           margin-right: 20px; 
   103           font-family: monospace;
   104       }
   105       table.fss {
   106           margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px; 
   107           padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; 
   108           width: 100%;
   109       }
   110       table.fss caption.fss {
   111           font-size: 1.5ex;
   112           font-weight: bold;
   113           text-align: left;
   114           padding-left: 10px;
   115       }
   116       table.fss td:first-child {
   117           font-family: monospace;
   118           padding-left: 20px;
   119           padding-right: 20px;
   120           width: 60%;
   121       }
   122 
   123       /* Styling the parts in the RDF syntax. */
   124 
   125       div.rdf{
   126           margin-top: 10px; 
   127           margin-bottom: 10px; 
   128           margin-left: 20px; 
   129           margin-right: 20px; 
   130           font-family: monospace;
   131       }
   132       table.rdf {
   133           margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px; 
   134           padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; 
   135           width: 100%;
   136       }
   137       table.rdf caption.rdf {
   138           font-size: 1.5ex;
   139           font-weight: bold;
   140           text-align: left;
   141           padding-left: 10px;
   142       }
   143       table.rdf td:first-child {
   144           font-family: monospace;
   145           padding-left: 20px;
   146           padding-right: 20px;
   147           width: 60%;
   148       }
   149 
   150       /* Styling the XML syntax. */
   151 
   152       div.xmlsyn {
   153           margin-top: 10px; 
   154           margin-bottom: 10px; 
   155           margin-left: 20px; 
   156           margin-right: 20px; 
   157           font-family: monospace;
   158       }
   159       div.axioms {
   160           margin-top: 10px; 
   161           margin-bottom: 10px; 
   162           margin-left: 20px; 
   163           margin-right: 20px; 
   164       }
   165 
   166       /* Other styles. */
   167 
   168       table.complexity td {
   169           text-align: center;
   170       }
   171       table.allname td {
   172          font-family: monospace;
   173       }
   174       table.canonicalparsing {
   175           margin-left: 20px;
   176           border-style: none;
   177       }
   178       table.canonicalparsing td {
   179           vertical-align: top;
   180           padding: 2px 2px 2px 2px;
   181       }
   182       table.canonicalparsing td.two {
   183           padding-left: 30px;
   184       }
   185 
   186       /* The following are classes for templates used in the editing process. */
   187 
   188       .review {
   189           padding: 5px;
   190           border: solid 1px black;
   191           margin-left: 10%;
   192           margin-top: 10px;
   193           margin-bottom: 10px;
   194           background-color: #FFA;
   195           font-size: smaller;
   196       }
   197       .reviewauthor {
   198           font-size: smaller;
   199           font-style: italic;
   200       }
   201       .ednote {
   202           padding: 5px;
   203           border: solid 1px black;
   204           margin-top: 10px;
   205           margin-bottom: 10px;
   206       }
   207       .ednotehead {
   208          font-weight: bold;
   209       }
   210 
   211       /* override mediawiki's beautiful DL styling... */
   212       dl {
   213           background: white;
   214           width: 100%;
   215           border: none;
   216           margin-top: 0;
   217           margin-bottom: 0;
   218           padding-top: 0;
   219           padding-bottom: 0;
   220       }
   221 
   222       div {
   223           margin-top: 0;
   224           margin-bottom: 0;
   225       }
   226       #fulltitle {
   227         font-size: 140%; 
   228         font-weight: bold;
   229       }
   230 
   231       .xml {
   232        color: red
   233       }
   234 
   235       .rdbms{
   236       color: red
   237       }
   238 
   239       /* just copying from wiki, so it stays through TR. Currently
   240         affects Primer, at least */
   241       pre {
   242         background-color:#F9F9F9;
   243         border:1px dashed #2F6FAB;
   244         color:black;
   245         line-height:1.1em;
   246         padding:1em;
   247       }
   248     </style>
   249 
   250     <style type="text/css">
   251       /* prov:wasQuotedFrom http://speronitomcat.web.cs.unibo.it:8080/LODE/Primer.css . */
   252 
   253       /* define a class "noprint" for sections which don't get printed */  
   254       .noprint { display: none; }
   255 
   256       /* our syntax menu for switching */
   257       div.syntaxmenu {
   258         border: 1px dotted black;
   259         padding:0.5em;
   260         margin: 1em; 
   261       }
   262 
   263       @media print {
   264          div.syntaxmenu { display:none; }
   265       }
   266 
   267       /* use tab-like headers for syntax examples */
   268       div.exampleheader {
   269         font-size: 90%;
   270         float: left;
   271         background: #F9F9F9;
   272         color: #2F6FAB;
   273         border: 1px dashed #2F6FAB;
   274         border-bottom: 0px;
   275         padding-top: 2px;
   276       }
   277 
   278       div.exampleheader span.exampleheader {
   279         background: #F9F9F9;
   280         padding-top: 0px;
   281         padding-right: 10px;
   282         padding-left: 10px;
   283         padding-bottom: 3px;
   284         padding-top: 0px;
   285       }
   286 
   287       /* Also copy MediaWiki style here, so it will not look different when exported */
   288       div.fssyntax pre, div.rdfxml pre, div.owlxml pre, div.turtle pre, div.manchester pre  {
   289         background-color: #F9F9F9;
   290         border: 1px dashed #2F6FAB;
   291         color: black;
   292         line-height: 1.1em;
   293         padding: 1em;
   294         clear: both;
   295         margin-left: 0em;
   296       }
   297       /* (further styles directly embedded in header template) */
   298     </style>
   299 
   300     <style type="text/css">
   301       /* prov:wasDerivedFrom http://speronitomcat.web.cs.unibo.it:8080/LODE/rec.css . */
   302 
   303       /* Style for a "Recommendation" */
   304 
   305       /*
   306          Copyright 1997-2003 W3C (MIT, ERCIM, Keio). All Rights Reserved.
   307          The following software licensing rules apply:
   308          http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-software */
   309 
   310       /* $Id: base.css,v 1.25 2006/04/18 08:42:53 bbos Exp $ */
   311 
   312       body {
   313         padding: 2em 1em 2em 70px;
   314         margin: 0;
   315         font-family: sans-serif;
   316         color: black;
   317         background: white;
   318         background-position: top left;
   319         background-attachment: fixed;
   320         background-repeat: no-repeat;
   321       }
   322       :link { color: #00C; background: transparent }
   323       :visited { color: #609; background: transparent }
   324       a:active { color: #C00; background: transparent }
   325 
   326       a:link img, a:visited img { border-style: none } /* no border on img links */
   327 
   328       a img { color: white; }        /* trick to hide the border in Netscape 4 */
   329       @media all {                   /* hide the next rule from Netscape 4 */
   330         a img { color: inherit; }    /* undo the color change above */
   331       }
   332 
   333       th, td { /* ns 4 */
   334         font-family: sans-serif;
   335       }
   336 
   337       h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 { text-align: left }
   338       /* background should be transparent, but WebTV has a bug */
   339       h1, h2, h3 { color: #005A9C; background: white }
   340       h1 { font: 170% sans-serif }
   341       h2 { font: 140% sans-serif }
   342       h3 { font: 120% sans-serif }
   343       h4 { font: bold 100% sans-serif }
   344       h5 { font: italic 100% sans-serif }
   345       h6 { font: small-caps 100% sans-serif }
   346 
   347       .hide { display: none }
   348 
   349       div.head { margin-bottom: 1em }
   350       div.head h1 { margin-top: 2em; clear: both }
   351       div.head table { margin-left: 2em; margin-top: 2em }
   352 
   353       p.copyright { font-size: small }
   354       p.copyright small { font-size: small }
   355 
   356       @media screen {  /* hide from IE3 */
   357       a[href]:hover { background: #ffa }
   358       }
   359 
   360       pre { margin-left: 2em }
   361       /*
   362       p {
   363         margin-top: 0.6em;
   364         margin-bottom: 0.6em;
   365       }
   366       */
   367       dt, dd { margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0 } /* opera 3.50 */
   368       dt { font-weight: bold }
   369 
   370       pre, code { font-family: monospace } /* navigator 4 requires this */
   371 
   372       ul.toc, ol.toc {
   373         list-style: disc;     /* Mac NS has problem with 'none' */
   374         list-style: none;
   375       }
   376 
   377       @media aural {  
   378         h1, h2, h3 { stress: 20; richness: 90 }
   379         .hide { speak: none }
   380         p.copyright { volume: x-soft; speech-rate: x-fast }
   381         dt { pause-before: 20% }
   382         pre { speak-punctuation: code } 
   383       }
   384 
   385       /*body {
   386         background-image: url(http://lode.sourceforge.net/img/LODELogo.png);
   387       }*/
   388     </style>
   389 
   390     <style type="text/css">
   391       /* prov:wasQuotedFrom http://speronitomcat.web.cs.unibo.it:8080/LODE/extra.css . */
   392 
   393       body {
   394           text-align: justify;    
   395       }
   396 
   397       h1 {
   398           line-height: 110%;    
   399       }
   400 
   401       .hlist {
   402           border: 1px solid navy;
   403           padding:5px;
   404           background-color: #F4FFFF; 
   405       }
   406 
   407       .hlist li {
   408           display: inline;
   409           display: inline-table;
   410           list-style-type: none;
   411           padding-right: 20px;
   412           
   413       }
   414 
   415       .entity {
   416           border: 1px solid navy;
   417           margin:5px 0px 5px 0px;
   418           padding: 5px;    
   419       }
   420 
   421       .type-c {
   422           cursor:help;
   423           color:orange;
   424       }
   425 
   426       .type-op {
   427           cursor:help;
   428           color:navy;    
   429       }
   430 
   431       .type-dp {
   432           cursor:help;
   433           color:green;    
   434       }
   435 
   436       .type-ap {
   437           cursor:help;
   438           color:maroon;    
   439       }
   440 
   441       .type-ni {
   442           cursor:help;
   443           color:brown;    
   444       }
   445 
   446       .logic {
   447           color:purple;
   448           font-weight:bold;    
   449       }
   450 
   451       h3 {
   452           margin-top: 3px;
   453           padding-bottom: 5px;
   454           border-bottom: 1px solid navy;
   455       }
   456 
   457       h2 {
   458           margin-top:40px;    
   459       }
   460 
   461       .dotted {
   462           border-bottom: 1px dotted gray;
   463       }
   464 
   465       dt {
   466           margin-top:5px;
   467       }
   468 
   469       .description {
   470           border-top: 1px dashed gray;
   471           border-bottom: 1px dashed gray;
   472           background-color: rgb(242, 243, 244);
   473           margin-top:5px;
   474           padding-bottom:5px;
   475       }
   476 
   477       .description dl {
   478           background-color: rgb(242, 243, 244);
   479       }
   480 
   481       .description ul {
   482           padding-left: 12px;
   483           margin-top: 0px;
   484       }
   485 
   486       .backlink {
   487           font-size:10pt;
   488           text-align:right;
   489           float:right;
   490           color:black;
   491           padding: 2px;
   492           border: 1px dotted navy;
   493           background-color: #F4FFFF;
   494       }
   495 
   496       .imageblock {
   497          text-align: center;
   498       }
   499 
   500       .imageblock img {
   501          border:1px solid gray;
   502       }
   503 
   504       .endnote {
   505          margin-top: 40px;
   506          border-top: 1px solid gray;
   507          padding-top: 10px;
   508          text-align: center;
   509          color:gray;
   510          font-size:50%;
   511       }
   512     </style>
   513     <!-- link rel="provenance" href="http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?format=turtle&uri=http://aquarius.tw.rpi.edu/prov-wg/prov-o"/ -->
   514 
   515     <!-- 
   516       === NOTA BENE ===
   517       For the three scripts below, if your spec resides on dev.w3 you can check them
   518       out in the same tree and use relative links so that they'll work offline,
   519      -->
   520 
   521    <!-- From DM -->
   522    
   523    <!-- From DM -->
   524    <style type="text/css">
   525       .note { font-size:small; margin-left:50px }
   526        table { text-align: center; vertical-align: middle }
   527 
   528       table.thinborder {
   529          border-width: 1px;
   530          border-spacing: 0px;
   531          border-style: none;
   532          border-color: gray;
   533          border-collapse: collapse;
   534       }
   535       table.thinborder th {
   536          border-width: 1px;
   537          padding: 0px;
   538          border-style: solid;
   539          border-color: gray;
   540       }
   541       table.thinborder td {
   542          border-width: 1px;
   543          padding: 2px;
   544          border-style: solid;
   545          border-color: gray;
   546          background-color: rgb(246,246,246);
   547       }
   548    </style>
   549 
   550    <style type="text/css">
   551       /* This CSS written by Tim Lebo for PROV-O HTML (all other CSS was taken from elsewhere) */
   552       table.qualified-forms {
   553          width: 75%;
   554       }
   555       ul.hlist {
   556          margin: 20px;
   557       }
   558       table {
   559          margin: 20px; 
   560          border:1px solid navy;
   561          background-color: #F4FFFF;
   562       }
   563       table th {
   564          background-color: LightGoldenRodYellow;
   565       }
   566       table tr {
   567          padding: 2px;
   568          border: 1px solid navy;
   569       }
   570       table td {
   571          text-align: left;
   572          padding-top: 5px;
   573          padding-bottom: 5px;
   574          padding-left: 15px;
   575          padding-right: 15px;
   576       }
   577       table td.prov-attribute {
   578          width: 20%
   579       }
   580       table.prov-detail a:visited {
   581           color:black; text-decoration:none; 
   582       }
   583       table.prov-detail a:link {
   584           color:black; text-decoration:none; 
   585       }
   586       .component-entities-activities {
   587          border:1px solid gray;
   588          background-color: #FFD4D4
   589       }
   590       .component-agents-responsibility {
   591          border:1px solid gray;
   592          background-color: #CCD9EE;
   593       }
   594       .component-derivations {
   595          border:1px solid gray;
   596          background-color: #CCEED9;
   597       }
   598       .component-collections {
   599          border:1px solid gray;
   600          background-color: #CED4D4;
   601       }
   602       .component-alternate {
   603          border:1px solid gray;
   604          background-color: #F4FFD9;
   605       }
   606       .component-annotations {
   607          border:1px solid gray;
   608          background-color: #FCE1CE;
   609       }
   610       span.repeated {
   611          font-family: monospace;
   612       }
   613       a.qname {
   614          font-family: monospace;
   615       }
   616       strong.crossreference {
   617          padding-right: 15px;
   618       }
   619       div.feature-at-risk {
   620          color: red;
   621       }
   622      </style>
   623 
   624      
   625      
   626    
   627     
   628   <style type="text/css">
   629 /*****************************************************************
   630  * ReSpec CSS
   631  * Robin Berjon (robin at berjon dot com)
   632  * v0.05 - 2009-07-31
   633  *****************************************************************/
   634 
   635 
   636 /* --- INLINES --- */
   637 em.rfc2119 { 
   638     text-transform:     lowercase;
   639     font-variant:       small-caps;
   640     font-style:         normal;
   641     color:              #900;
   642 }
   643 
   644 h1 acronym, h2 acronym, h3 acronym, h4 acronym, h5 acronym, h6 acronym, a acronym,
   645 h1 abbr, h2 abbr, h3 abbr, h4 abbr, h5 abbr, h6 abbr, a abbr {
   646     border: none;
   647 }
   648 
   649 dfn {
   650     font-weight:    bold;
   651 }
   652 
   653 a.internalDFN {
   654     color:  inherit;
   655     border-bottom:  1px solid #99c;
   656     text-decoration:    none;
   657 }
   658 
   659 a.externalDFN {
   660     color:  inherit;
   661     border-bottom:  1px dotted #ccc;
   662     text-decoration:    none;
   663 }
   664 
   665 a.bibref {
   666     text-decoration:    none;
   667 }
   668 
   669 code {
   670     color:  #ff4500;
   671 }
   672 
   673 
   674 /* --- WEB IDL --- */
   675 pre.idl {
   676     border-top: 1px solid #90b8de;
   677     border-bottom: 1px solid #90b8de;
   678     padding:    1em;
   679     line-height:    120%;
   680 }
   681 
   682 pre.idl::before {
   683     content:    "WebIDL";
   684     display:    block;
   685     width:      150px;
   686     background: #90b8de;
   687     color:  #fff;
   688     font-family:    initial;
   689     padding:    3px;
   690     font-weight:    bold;
   691     margin: -1em 0 1em -1em;
   692 }
   693 
   694 .idlType {
   695     color:  #ff4500;
   696     font-weight:    bold;
   697     text-decoration:    none;
   698 }
   699 
   700 /*.idlModule*/
   701 /*.idlModuleID*/
   702 /*.idlInterface*/
   703 .idlInterfaceID, .idlDictionaryID {
   704     font-weight:    bold;
   705     color:  #005a9c;
   706 }
   707 
   708 .idlSuperclass {
   709     font-style: italic;
   710     color:  #005a9c;
   711 }
   712 
   713 /*.idlAttribute*/
   714 .idlAttrType, .idlFieldType, .idlMemberType {
   715     color:  #005a9c;
   716 }
   717 .idlAttrName, .idlFieldName, .idlMemberName {
   718     color:  #ff4500;
   719 }
   720 .idlAttrName a, .idlFieldName a, .idlMemberName a {
   721     color:  #ff4500;
   722     border-bottom:  1px dotted #ff4500;
   723     text-decoration: none;
   724 }
   725 
   726 /*.idlMethod*/
   727 .idlMethType {
   728     color:  #005a9c;
   729 }
   730 .idlMethName {
   731     color:  #ff4500;
   732 }
   733 .idlMethName a {
   734     color:  #ff4500;
   735     border-bottom:  1px dotted #ff4500;
   736     text-decoration: none;
   737 }
   738 
   739 /*.idlParam*/
   740 .idlParamType {
   741     color:  #005a9c;
   742 }
   743 .idlParamName {
   744     font-style: italic;
   745 }
   746 
   747 .extAttr {
   748     color:  #666;
   749 }
   750 
   751 /*.idlConst*/
   752 .idlConstType {
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   935 /* --- EXAMPLES --- */
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   943 pre.example::before {
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   955 /* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
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   958     margin: 1em 0em 0em;
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   961 }
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   992 /* --- Best Practices --- */
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  1003 
  1004 span.practicelab   { background: #dfffff; }
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  1025 /* --- SYNTAX HIGHLIGHTING --- */
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  1033 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_keyword { color: #005a9c; font-weight: bold; }           /* language keywords */
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  1035 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_usertype { color: teal; }                             /* user defined types */
  1036 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_string { color: red; font-family: monospace; }        /* strings and chars */
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  1042 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_symbol { color: blue; }                            /* e.g., *, + */
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  1046 
  1047 /* Predefined variables and functions (for instance glsl) */
  1048 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_predef_var { color: #00008B; }
  1049 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_predef_func { color: #00008B; font-weight: bold; }
  1050 
  1051 /* for OOP */
  1052 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_classname { color: teal; }
  1053 
  1054 /* line numbers (not yet implemented) */
  1055 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_linenum { display: none; }
  1056 
  1057 /* Internet related */
  1058 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_url { color: blue; text-decoration: underline; font-family: monospace; }
  1059 
  1060 /* for ChangeLog and Log files */
  1061 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_date { color: blue; font-weight: bold; }
  1062 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_time, pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_file { color: #00008B; font-weight: bold; }
  1063 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_ip, pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_name { color: #006400; }
  1064 
  1065 /* for Prolog, Perl... */
  1066 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_variable { color: #006400; }
  1067 
  1068 /* for LaTeX */
  1069 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_italics { color: #006400; font-style: italic; }
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  1073 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_argument { color: #006400; }
  1074 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_optionalargument { color: purple; }
  1075 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_math { color: orange; }
  1076 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_bibtex { color: blue; }
  1077 
  1078 /* for diffs */
  1079 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_oldfile { color: orange; }
  1080 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_newfile { color: #006400; }
  1081 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_difflines { color: blue; }
  1082 
  1083 /* for css */
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  1085 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_property { color: blue; }
  1086 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_value { color: #006400; font-style: italic; }
  1087 
  1088 /* other */
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  1090 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_paren { color: red; }
  1091 pre.sh_sourceCode .sh_attribute { color: #006400; }
  1092 
  1093 </style><style type="text/css">
  1094 /* --- EDITORIAL NOTES --- */
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  1108     border: 1px solid #f00;
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  1112 
  1113 
  1114 .resolved {
  1115     padding:    1em;
  1116     margin: 1em 0em 0em;
  1117     border: 1px solid #f00;
  1118     background: #9BCD9B;
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  1120 
  1121 .resolved::before {
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  1127     border: 1px solid #f00;
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  1130 }
  1131 
  1132 
  1133 .inference {
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  1135     margin: 1em 0em 0em;
  1136     border: 1px solid #f00;
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  1139 
  1140 .inference::before {
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  1150 
  1151 .unamedconstraint {
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  1157 
  1158 
  1159 .unamedconstraint::before {
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  1164     font-weight:    bold;
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  1167     padding:    3px 1em;
  1168 }
  1169 
  1170 
  1171 
  1172 .constraint {
  1173     padding:    1em;
  1174     margin: 1em 0em 0em;
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  1178 
  1179 .constraint[id]::before {
  1180     content:    "Constraint: " attr(id);
  1181     width:  380px;  /* How can we compute the length of "Constraint: " attr(id) */
  1182 }
  1183 
  1184 
  1185 .constraint::before {
  1186     content:    "Constraint";
  1187     display:    block;
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  1190     font-weight:    bold;
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  1193     padding:    3px 1em;
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  1195 
  1196 
  1197 
  1198 .conditional {
  1199     color: blue;
  1200 }
  1201 
  1202 .grammar {
  1203     margin-top: 1ex;
  1204     margin-bottom: 1ex;
  1205     padding-left: 1ex;
  1206     padding-right: 1ex;
  1207     padding-top: 1ex;
  1208     padding-bottom: 0.6ex;
  1209     border: 1px dashed #2f6fab;
  1210     font-family: monospace;
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  1212 .nonterminal {
  1213     font-weight: bold;
  1214     font-family: sans-serif;
  1215     font-size: 95%;
  1216 }
  1217 
  1218 .name {
  1219     font-family: monospace;
  1220 }
  1221 
  1222 
  1223 .xmpl {
  1224     padding:    1em;
  1225     margin: 1em 0em 0em;
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  1227     background: #fff;
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  1229 
  1230 .xmpl::before {
  1231     content:    "Example";
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  1236     border: 1px solid #f00;
  1237     background: #fff;
  1238     padding:    3px 1em;
  1239 }
  1240 
  1241 /* added prov-wg lebot  */
  1242 
  1243 .hlist {
  1244     border: 1px solid navy;
  1245     padding:5px;
  1246     background-color: #F4FFFF; 
  1247 }
  1248 
  1249 .hlist li {
  1250     display: inline;
  1251     display: inline-table;
  1252     list-style-type: none;
  1253     padding-right: 20px;
  1254     
  1255 }
  1256 </style><link href="http://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/W3C-PR" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" charset="utf-8"></head>
  1257   <body style="display: inherit;"><div class="head"><p><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img width="72" height="48" src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C"></a></p><h1 class="title" id="title">PROV-O: The PROV Ontology</h1><h2 id="w3c-proposed-recommendation-12-march-2013"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Proposed Recommendation 12 March 2013</h2><dl><dt>This version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/</a></dd><dt>Latest published version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/">http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/</a></dd><dt>Implementation report:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-implementations-20130312/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-implementations-20130312/</a></dd><dt>Previous version:</dt><dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-prov-o-20121211/</a></dd><dt>Editors:</dt><dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo">Timothy Lebo</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA</dd>
  1258 <dd><a href="http://cci.case.edu/cci/index.php/Satya_Sahoo">Satya Sahoo</a>, Case Western Reserve University, USA</dd>
  1259 <dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/Deborah_L_McGuinness">Deborah McGuinness</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA</dd>
  1260 <dt>Contributors:</dt><dd><span>(In alphabetical order)</span></dd>
  1261 <dd><a href="http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Khalid_Belhajjame">Khalid Belhajjame</a>, University of Manchester, UK</dd>
  1262 <dd><a href="http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jcheney/">James Cheney</a>, University of Edinburgh, UK</dd>
  1263 <dd><a href="http://homepages.abdn.ac.uk/dcorsar/pages/">David Corsar</a>, University of Aberdeen, UK</dd>
  1264 <dd><a href="http://www.oeg-upm.net/index.php/en/phdstudents/28-dgarijo">Daniel Garijo</a>, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain</dd>
  1265 <dd><a href="http://soiland-reyes.com/stian/">Stian Soiland-Reyes</a>, University of Manchester, UK</dd>
  1266 <dd><a href="http://tw.rpi.edu/web/person/StephanZednik">Stephan Zednik</a>, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA</dd>
  1267 <dd><a href="http://users.ox.ac.uk/~zool0770/">Jun Zhao</a>, University of Oxford, UK</dd>
  1268 </dl><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 2011-2013 <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a> rules apply.</p><hr></div>
  1269 
  1270     <div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2>Abstract</h2>
  1271          <p>The PROV Ontology (PROV-O) expresses the PROV Data Model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] using the OWL2 Web Ontology Language (OWL2) [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>]. It provides a set of classes, properties, and restrictions that can be used to represent and interchange provenance information generated in different systems and under different contexts. 
  1272 It can also be specialized to create new classes and properties to model provenance information for different applications and domains.
  1273         The <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-prov-overview-20121211/">PROV Document Overview</a> describes the overall state of PROV, and should be read before other PROV documents.
  1274         </p>
  1275 
  1276 
  1277         <p style="text-align: center;">The namespace for all PROV-O terms is <span class="repeated">http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</span>.
  1278         </p>
  1279 
  1280         <p style="text-align: center;">The OWL encoding of the PROV Ontology is available <a href="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-o">here</a>.
  1281         </p>
  1282     </div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2>Status of This Document</h2><p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> technical reports index</a> at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em></p>
  1283        <h4 id="prov-family-of-documents">PROV Family of Documents</h4>
  1284        This document is part of the PROV family of documents, a set of documents defining various aspects that are necessary to achieve the vision of inter-operable
  1285        interchange of provenance information in heterogeneous environments such as the Web.  These documents are listed below. Please consult the [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>] for a guide to reading these documents.
  1286        <ul>
  1287        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-overview-20130312/">PROV-OVERVIEW</a> (To be published as Note), an overview of the PROV family of documents [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-OVERVIEW">PROV-OVERVIEW</a></cite>];</li>
  1288        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-primer-20130312/">PROV-PRIMER</a> (To be published as Note), a primer for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>];</li>
  1289        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-o-20130312/">PROV-O</a> (Proposed Recommendation), the PROV ontology, an OWL2 ontology allowing the mapping of PROV to RDF (this document);</li>
  1290        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-dm-20130312/">PROV-DM</a> (Proposed Recommendation), the PROV data model for provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>];</li>
  1291        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-n-20130312/">PROV-N</a> (Proposed Recommendation), a notation for provenance aimed at human consumption [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-N">PROV-N</a></cite>];</li>
  1292        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/PR-prov-constraints-20130312/">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a> (Proposed Recommendation), a set of constraints applying to the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-CONSTRAINTS">PROV-CONSTRAINTS</a></cite>];</li>
  1293        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-xml-20130312/">PROV-XML</a> (To be published as Note),  an XML schema for the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-XML">PROV-XML</a></cite>];</li>
  1294        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-aq-20130312/">PROV-AQ</a> (To be published as Note), the mechanisms for accessing and querying provenance [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>]; </li>
  1295        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dictionary-20130312/">PROV-DICTIONARY</a> (To be published as Note) introduces a specific type of collection, consisting of key-entity pairs [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DICTIONARY">PROV-DICTIONARY</a></cite>];</li>
  1296        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-dc-20130312/">PROV-DC</a> (To be published as Note) provides a mapping between PROV and Dublic Core Terms [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DC">PROV-DC</a></cite>];</li>
  1297        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-sem-20130312/">PROV-SEM</a> (To be published as Note), a declarative specification in terms of first-order logic of the PROV data model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-SEM">PROV-SEM</a></cite>];</li>
  1298        <li> <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-prov-links-20130312/">PROV-LINKS</a> (To be published as Note) introduces a mechanism to link across bundles [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-LINKS">PROV-LINKS</a></cite>].</li>
  1299        </ul>
  1300     
  1301        <h4 id="w3c-members-please-review-by-09-april-2013"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Members Please Review By 09 April 2013</h4>
  1302     
  1303        <p>The <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Director seeks review and feedback from <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Advisory Committee representatives by 09 April 2013. This will allow the Director to assess consensus and determine whether to issue this document as a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Recommendation.</p>
  1304     
  1305        <p>Others are encouraged by the Provenance Working Group to continue to send reports of implementation experience, and other feedback, to
  1306        <a href="mailto:public-prov-comments@w3.org">public-prov-comments@w3.org</a>
  1307                  (<a href="mailto:public-prov-comments-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
  1308                  <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). Open discussion among developers is also welcome at
  1309        <a href="mailto:public-prov-comments@w3.org">public-prov-comments@w3.org</a>
  1310                  (<a href="mailto:public-prov-comments-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
  1311               <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>).</p>
  1312     <p>This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/">Provenance Working Group</a> as a Proposed Recommendation. This document is intended to become a <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Recommendation. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to <a href="mailto:public-prov-comments@w3.org">public-prov-comments@w3.org</a> (<a href="mailto:public-prov-comments-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>, <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-prov-comments/">archives</a>). All feedback is welcome.</p><p>Publication as a Proposed Recommendation does not imply endorsement by the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.</p><p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>. <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/46974/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent disclosures</a> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the <acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> Patent Policy</a>.</p></div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#introduction" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#compliance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Compliance with this Document</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#notations" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#namespaces" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Namespaces</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#prov-o-at-a-glance" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV-O at a glance</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#description" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>The&nbsp;PROV-O&nbsp;Ontology&nbsp;Description</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#description-starting-point-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Starting Point Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#description-expanded-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Expanded Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#description-qualified-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Qualified Terms</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>Cross reference&nbsp;for&nbsp;PROV-O&nbsp;classes&nbsp;and&nbsp;properties</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference-starting-point-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Starting Point Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference-expanded-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Expanded Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference-qualified-terms" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Qualified Terms</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#cross-reference-index" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.4 </span>Term Index</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#owl-profile" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">A. </span>PROV-O OWL Profile</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#inverse-names" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">B. </span>Names of inverse properties</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-wd-prov-o-20120724" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">C. </span>Changes since WD-prov-o-20120724</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#changes-since-cr-prov-o-20121211" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">D. </span>Changes since CR-prov-o-20121211</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">E. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">F. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#normative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">F.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#informative-references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">F.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>
  1313   
  1314  
  1315     
  1316 
  1317 
  1318      <div id="introduction" class="section">    
  1319          <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">1. </span>Introduction</h2>  
  1320          <p>The PROV Ontology (PROV-O) defines the OWL2 Web Ontology Language encoding of the PROV Data Model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]. This document describes the set of classes, properties, and restrictions that constitute the PROV Ontology. This ontology specification provides the foundation to implement provenance applications in different domains that can represent, exchange, and integrate provenance information generated in different systems and under different contexts. Together with the PROV Access and Query [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-AQ">PROV-AQ</a></cite>] and PROV Data Model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>], this document forms a framework for provenance information interchange in domain-specific Web-based applications.
  1321          </p>
  1322         <p>
  1323          PROV-O is a lightweight ontology that can be adopted in a wide range of applications. 
  1324          With the exception of <a href="#owl-profile">five axioms</a>, PROV-O conforms to the OWL-RL profile [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-PRIMER">OWL2-PRIMER</a></cite>]. 
  1325          The PROV Ontology classes and properties are defined such that they can not only be used directly to represent provenance information, 
  1326          but also can be specialized for modeling application-specific provenance details in a variety of domains. 
  1327          Thus, the PROV Ontology is expected to be both directly usable in applications as well as serve as a <i>reference model</i> 
  1328          for creating domain-specific provenance ontologies and thereby facilitates interoperable provenance modeling. 
  1329          To demonstrate the use of PROV-O classes and properties, this document uses an example provenance scenario similar to the one introduced in the PROV-Primer [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-PRIMER">PROV-PRIMER</a></cite>].
  1330         </p>
  1331          <p> The PROV Data Model [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>] introduces a set of concepts to represent provenance information in a variety of application domains. This document maps the PROV Data Model to PROV Ontology using the OWL2 ontology language [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>]. 
  1332         </p>
  1333 
  1334         <p> We briefly introduce some of the OWL2 modeling terms that will be used to describe the PROV Ontology. 
  1335          An OWL2 <i>instance</i> is an individual object in a domain of discourse, for example a person named Alice or a car named KITT. 
  1336          A set of individuals sharing common characteristics constitutes a <i>class</i>.
  1337 
  1338          Person and Car are examples of classes representing the set of individual persons and cars respectively. 
  1339          The OWL2 object properties are used to link individuals, classes, or create a property hierarchy. 
  1340          For example, the object property "hasOwner" can be used to link car with person. 
  1341          The OWL2 datatype properties are used to link individuals or classes to data values, including XML Schema datatypes [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>].   
  1342         </p>
  1343 
  1344     <div id="compliance" class="section">    
  1345        <h3><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Compliance with this Document</h3>  
  1346       <p>For the purpose of compliance, the normative sections of this document are 
  1347          <a href="#compliance">Section 1.1</a>, 
  1348          <a href="#notations">Section 1.2</a>,
  1349          <a href="#description">Section 3</a>,
  1350          <a href="#cross-reference">Section 4</a>, and
  1351          <a href="#inverse-names">Appendix B</a>
  1352       </p>
  1353       <ul>
  1354          <li>Information in tables is normative if it appears in a normative section.</li>
  1355          <li>All figures and diagrams are informative.</li>
  1356          <li>All examples are informative.</li>
  1357       </ul>
  1358     </div>
  1359 
  1360     <div id="notations" class="section">    
  1361        <h3><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Notational Conventions</h3>  
  1362 
  1363         <p>The key words "<em class="rfc2119" title="must">must</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="must not">must not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="required">required</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall">shall</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="shall not">shall not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="should not">should not</em>", "<em class="rfc2119" title="recommended">recommended</em>",  "<em class="rfc2119" title="may">may</em>", and       "<em class="rfc2119" title="optional">optional</em>" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RFC2119">RFC2119</a></cite>].</p>
  1364     </div>
  1365 
  1366       <div class="informative section" id="namespaces">
  1367          <h3><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Namespaces</h3><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
  1368          <p>The following namespace prefixes are used throughout this document.
  1369 
  1370          </p><div style="text-align: left;">
  1371             <table class="thinborder" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
  1372             <caption id="namespace-table"><a href="#namespace-table">Table 1</a>: Prefix and Namespaces used in this specification</caption> <!-- Table 1-->
  1373             <tbody><tr><td><a><b>prefix</b></a></td><td><b>namespace IRI</b></td> <td><b>definition</b></td></tr>
  1374 
  1375             <tr><td><a>rdf</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</td><td>The RDF namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-RDF-CONCEPTS">RDF-CONCEPTS</a></cite>]</td></tr>
  1376 
  1377             <tr><td><a>xsd</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#</td><td>XML Schema Namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-XMLSCHEMA11-2">XMLSCHEMA11-2</a></cite>]</td></tr>
  1378 
  1379             <tr><td><a>owl</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#</td><td>The OWL namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-OWL2-OVERVIEW">OWL2-OVERVIEW</a></cite>]</td></tr>
  1380 
  1381             <tr><td><a>prov</a></td><td>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#</td>
  1382                 <td>The PROV namespace [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-PROV-DM">PROV-DM</a></cite>]</td></tr>
  1383 
  1384             <tr><td><a>(others)</a></td><td>(various)</td><td>All other namespace prefixes are used in examples only. <br> 
  1385                   In particular, IRIs starting with "http://example.com" represent<br> some application-dependent IRI [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-IRI">IRI</a></cite>]</td></tr>
  1386             </tbody></table>
  1387          </div>
  1388       </div>
  1389    </div>
  1390 
  1391    <div id="prov-o-at-a-glance" class="informative section">
  1392       <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">2. </span>PROV-O at a glance</h2><p><em>This section is non-normative.</em></p>
  1393 
  1394       <p>PROV-O users may only need to use parts of the entire ontology, depending on their needs and according to how much detail they want to include in their provenance information. For this, the PROV-O terms (classes and properties) are grouped into three categories to provide an incremental introduction to the ontology: Starting Point terms, Expanded terms, and terms for Qualifying relationships.
  1395       </p>
  1396 
  1397       <div id="prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">
  1398          <p><strong>Starting Point classes and properties</strong> provide the basis for the rest of the PROV Ontology and thus it is recommended that readers become comfortable with how to apply these terms before continuing to the remaining categories. These terms are used to create simple provenance descriptions that can be elaborated using terms from other categories. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Section 3.1</a>.</p>
  1399          
  1400 <div class="prov-starting-point owl-classes at-a-glance">
  1401   <ul class="hlist">
  1402     <li>
  1403       <a href="#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
  1404     </li>
  1405     <li>
  1406       <a href="#Activity">prov:Activity</a>
  1407     </li>
  1408     <li>
  1409       <a href="#Agent">prov:Agent</a>
  1410     </li>
  1411   </ul>
  1412 </div>
  1413 
  1414 <div class="prov-starting-point owl-properties at-a-glance">
  1415   <ul class="hlist">
  1416     <li class="object-property">
  1417       <a href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>
  1418     </li>
  1419     <li class="object-property">
  1420       <a href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a>
  1421     </li>
  1422     <li class="object-property">
  1423       <a href="#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</a>
  1424     </li>
  1425     <li class="datatype-property">
  1426       <a href="#startedAtTime">prov:startedAtTime</a>
  1427     </li>
  1428     <li class="object-property">
  1429       <a href="#used">prov:used</a>
  1430     </li>
  1431     <li class="object-property">
  1432       <a href="#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</a>
  1433     </li>
  1434     <li class="datatype-property">
  1435       <a href="#endedAtTime">prov:endedAtTime</a>
  1436     </li>
  1437     <li class="object-property">
  1438       <a href="#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a>
  1439     </li>
  1440     <li class="object-property">
  1441       <a href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>
  1442     </li>
  1443   </ul>
  1444 </div>
  1445 
  1446       </div>
  1447 
  1448       <div id="prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">
  1449          <p><strong>Expanded classes and properties</strong> provide additional terms that can be used to relate classes in the Starting Point category. The terms in this category are applied in the same way as the terms in the Starting Point category. Many of the terms in this category are subclasses or subproperties of those in the Starting Point category. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in <a href="#description-expanded-terms">Section 3.2</a>.</p>
  1450          
  1451 <div class="prov-expanded owl-classes at-a-glance">
  1452   <ul class="hlist">
  1453     <li>
  1454       <a href="#Collection">prov:Collection</a>
  1455     </li>
  1456     <li>
  1457       <a href="#EmptyCollection">prov:EmptyCollection</a>
  1458     </li>
  1459     <li>
  1460       <a href="#Bundle">prov:Bundle</a>
  1461     </li>
  1462     <li>
  1463       <a href="#Person">prov:Person</a>
  1464     </li>
  1465     <li>
  1466       <a href="#SoftwareAgent">prov:SoftwareAgent</a>
  1467     </li>
  1468     <li>
  1469       <a href="#Organization">prov:Organization</a>
  1470     </li>
  1471     <li>
  1472       <a href="#Location">prov:Location</a>
  1473     </li>
  1474   </ul>
  1475 </div>
  1476 
  1477 <div class="prov-expanded owl-properties at-a-glance">
  1478   <ul class="hlist">
  1479     <li class="object-property">
  1480       <a href="#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</a>
  1481     </li>
  1482     <li class="object-property">
  1483       <a href="#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a>
  1484     </li>
  1485     <li class="datatype-property">
  1486       <a href="#generatedAtTime">prov:generatedAtTime</a>
  1487     </li>
  1488     <li class="object-property">
  1489       <a href="#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</a>
  1490     </li>
  1491     <li class="datatype-property">
  1492       <a href="#value">prov:value</a>
  1493     </li>
  1494     <li class="object-property">
  1495       <a href="#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a>
  1496     </li>
  1497     <li class="object-property">
  1498       <a href="#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</a>
  1499     </li>
  1500     <li class="datatype-property">
  1501       <a href="#invalidatedAtTime">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a>
  1502     </li>
  1503     <li class="object-property">
  1504       <a href="#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>
  1505     </li>
  1506     <li class="object-property">
  1507       <a href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a>
  1508     </li>
  1509     <li class="object-property">
  1510       <a href="#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</a>
  1511     </li>
  1512     <li class="object-property">
  1513       <a href="#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</a>
  1514     </li>
  1515     <li class="object-property">
  1516       <a href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a>
  1517     </li>
  1518     <li class="object-property">
  1519       <a href="#influenced">prov:influenced</a>
  1520     </li>
  1521     <li class="object-property">
  1522       <a href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a>
  1523     </li>
  1524     <li class="object-property">
  1525       <a href="#generated">prov:generated</a>
  1526     </li>
  1527   </ul>
  1528 </div>
  1529 
  1530       </div>
  1531 
  1532       <div id="prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">
  1533          <p><strong>Qualified classes and properties</strong> provide elaborated information about binary relations asserted using Starting Point and Expanded properties. The terms in this category are applied using a pattern that differs from those in the Starting Point and Expanded categories. While the relations from the previous two categories are applied as direct, binary assertions, the terms in this category are used to provide additional attributes of the binary relations. The pattern used in this category allows users to provide elaborate details that are not available using only Starting Point and Expanded terms. The classes and properties in this category are listed below and are discussed in <a href="#description-qualified-terms">Section 3.3</a>.</p>
  1534          
  1535 <div class="prov-qualified owl-classes at-a-glance">
  1536   <ul class="hlist">
  1537     <li>
  1538       <a href="#Influence">prov:Influence</a>
  1539     </li>
  1540     <li>
  1541       <a href="#EntityInfluence">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
  1542     </li>
  1543     <li>
  1544       <a href="#Usage">prov:Usage</a>
  1545     </li>
  1546     <li>
  1547       <a href="#Start">prov:Start</a>
  1548     </li>
  1549     <li>
  1550       <a href="#End">prov:End</a>
  1551     </li>
  1552     <li>
  1553       <a href="#Derivation">prov:Derivation</a>
  1554     </li>
  1555     <li>
  1556       <a href="#PrimarySource">prov:PrimarySource</a>
  1557     </li>
  1558     <li>
  1559       <a href="#Quotation">prov:Quotation</a>
  1560     </li>
  1561     <li>
  1562       <a href="#Revision">prov:Revision</a>
  1563     </li>
  1564     <li>
  1565       <a href="#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
  1566     </li>
  1567     <li>
  1568       <a href="#Generation">prov:Generation</a>
  1569     </li>
  1570     <li>
  1571       <a href="#Communication">prov:Communication</a>
  1572     </li>
  1573     <li>
  1574       <a href="#Invalidation">prov:Invalidation</a>
  1575     </li>
  1576     <li>
  1577       <a href="#AgentInfluence">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
  1578     </li>
  1579     <li>
  1580       <a href="#Attribution">prov:Attribution</a>
  1581     </li>
  1582     <li>
  1583       <a href="#Association">prov:Association</a>
  1584     </li>
  1585     <li>
  1586       <a href="#Plan">prov:Plan</a>
  1587     </li>
  1588     <li>
  1589       <a href="#Delegation">prov:Delegation</a>
  1590     </li>
  1591     <li>
  1592       <a href="#InstantaneousEvent">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
  1593     </li>
  1594     <li>
  1595       <a href="#Role">prov:Role</a>
  1596     </li>
  1597   </ul>
  1598 </div>
  1599 
  1600 <div class="prov-qualified owl-properties at-a-glance">
  1601   <ul class="hlist">
  1602     <li class="object-property">
  1603       <a href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a>
  1604     </li>
  1605     <li class="object-property">
  1606       <a href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a>
  1607     </li>
  1608     <li class="object-property">
  1609       <a href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a>
  1610     </li>
  1611     <li class="object-property">
  1612       <a href="#qualifiedDerivation">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a>
  1613     </li>
  1614     <li class="object-property">
  1615       <a href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a>
  1616     </li>
  1617     <li class="object-property">
  1618       <a href="#qualifiedQuotation">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a>
  1619     </li>
  1620     <li class="object-property">
  1621       <a href="#qualifiedRevision">prov:qualifiedRevision</a>
  1622     </li>
  1623     <li class="object-property">
  1624       <a href="#qualifiedAttribution">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a>
  1625     </li>
  1626     <li class="object-property">
  1627       <a href="#qualifiedInvalidation">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a>
  1628     </li>
  1629     <li class="object-property">
  1630       <a href="#qualifiedStart">prov:qualifiedStart</a>
  1631     </li>
  1632     <li class="object-property">
  1633       <a href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a>
  1634     </li>
  1635     <li class="object-property">
  1636       <a href="#qualifiedCommunication">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a>
  1637     </li>
  1638     <li class="object-property">
  1639       <a href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a>
  1640     </li>
  1641     <li class="object-property">
  1642       <a href="#qualifiedEnd">prov:qualifiedEnd</a>
  1643     </li>
  1644     <li class="object-property">
  1645       <a href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>
  1646     </li>
  1647     <li class="object-property">
  1648       <a href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a>
  1649     </li>
  1650     <li class="object-property">
  1651       <a href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>
  1652     </li>
  1653     <li class="object-property">
  1654       <a href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a>
  1655     </li>
  1656     <li class="object-property">
  1657       <a href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a>
  1658     </li>
  1659     <li class="object-property">
  1660       <a href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>
  1661     </li>
  1662     <li class="object-property">
  1663       <a href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>
  1664     </li>
  1665     <li class="object-property">
  1666       <a href="#hadPlan">prov:hadPlan</a>
  1667     </li>
  1668     <li class="object-property">
  1669       <a href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a>
  1670     </li>
  1671     <li class="datatype-property">
  1672       <a href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>
  1673     </li>
  1674     <li class="object-property">
  1675       <a href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a>
  1676     </li>
  1677   </ul>
  1678 </div>
  1679 
  1680       </div>
  1681 
  1682       <div>
  1683        
  1684       </div>
  1685 
  1686    </div> <!-- PROV-O at a glance -->
  1687 
  1688 
  1689 
  1690     <div id="description" class="section">
  1691       <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">3. </span>The&nbsp;PROV-O&nbsp;Ontology&nbsp;Description</h2>       
  1692       <p>This section introduces the terms in each of the following categories:
  1693       </p>     
  1694       <ul>
  1695          <li><a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Point Terms</a></li>
  1696          <li><a href="#description-expanded-terms">Expanded Terms</a></li>
  1697          <li><a href="#description-qualified-terms">Qualified Terms</a></li>
  1698       </ul>
  1699 
  1700      <div id="description-starting-point-terms" class="section">
  1701       <h3><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Starting Point Terms</h3>
  1702        <p>The Starting Point category is a small set of classes and properties that can be used to create simple, initial provenance descriptions.
  1703          Three classes provide a basis for the rest of PROV-O:  
  1704        </p>
  1705          <ul>
  1706             <li>An <a class="qname" href="#Entity">prov:Entity</a> is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary.  
  1707             </li>
  1708             <li>An <a class="qname" href="#Activity">prov:Activity</a> is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.  
  1709             </li>
  1710             <li>An <a class="qname" href="#Agent">prov:Agent</a> is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. 
  1711             </li>
  1712          </ul> 
  1713       <p>The three primary classes relate to one another and to themselves using the properties shown in the following figure.</p>
  1714 
  1715       <p>Activities <strong>start</strong> and <strong>end</strong> at particular points in time (described using properties 
  1716       <a href="#startedAtTime" class="qname">prov:startedAtTime</a> and <a href="#endedAtTime" class="qname">prov:endedAtTime</a>, respectively) 
  1717       and during their lifespan can  <strong>use</strong> and <strong>generate</strong> a variety of Entities (described with 
  1718       <a href="#used" class="qname">prov:used</a> and <a href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="qname">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>, respectively). 
  1719       For example, a blog writing activity may use a particular dataset and generate a bar chart. 
  1720       By expressing usage and generation, one can construct provenance chains comprising both Activities and Entities.
  1721       </p>
  1722 
  1723       <p>In addition, we can say that an Activity <a href="#wasInformedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInformedBy</a>
  1724       another Activity to provide some dependency information without explicitly providing the activities' start and end times. 
  1725       A <span class="repeated">prov:wasInformedBy</span> relation between Activities suggests that the informed Activity used an Entity that was generated by the informing 
  1726       Activity, but the Entity itself is unknown or is not of interest. 
  1727       So, the <span class="repeated">prov:wasInformedBy</span> property allows the construction of provenance chains comprising only Activities.
  1728       </p>
  1729 
  1730       <p>Provenance chains comprising only Entities can be formed using the <a href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="qname">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> property.
  1731          A derivation is a transformation of one entity into another. For example, if the Activity that created the bar chart is not known or is not of interest,
  1732           then we can say that the bar chart <span class="repeated">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span> the dataset.
  1733          Arbitrary RDF properties can be used to describe the fixed aspects of an Entity that are interesting within a particular application (for example, 
  1734          the file size and format of the dataset, or the aspect ratio of the bar chart).
  1735       </p>
  1736 
  1737       <p>While the properties <span class="repeated">prov:used</span>, <span class="repeated">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span>, 
  1738          <span class="repeated">prov:wasInformedBy</span>, and <span class="repeated">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span> can be used to construct provenance chains among 
  1739          Activities and Entities, Agents may also be ascribed responsibility for any Activity or Entity within a provenance chain. 
  1740          An Agent's responsibility for an Activity or Entity is described using the properties <a href="#wasAssociatedWith" class="qname">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a> and 
  1741          <a href="#wasAttributedTo" class="qname">prov:wasAttributedTo</a>, respectively. 
  1742          Agents can also be responsible for other Agents' actions. In this case of delegation, the influencing Agent <a href="#actedOnBehalfOf" class="qname">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a> 
  1743          another Agent that also bears responsibility for the influenced Activity or Entity.
  1744       </p>
  1745 
  1746       <p>The properties rdf:type and rdfs:label are used to express <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-type">prov:type</a> 
  1747          and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-label">prov:label</a>, respectively.
  1748       </p>
  1749 
  1750       <div id="starting-points-figure" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
  1751             <!-- When publishing to w3c: replace prov-o-diagrams/ with diagrams/ -->
  1752             <!--img src="prov-o-diagrams/Starting-points-terms.png"-->
  1753             <img src="diagrams/starting-points.svg" style="width: 60%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 60em" alt="PROV-O Starting Point terms">
  1754             <div class="figcaption"><a href="#starting-points-figure">Figure 1</a>. 
  1755             The three Starting Point classes and the properties that relate them.<br>
  1756             The diagrams in this document depict Entities as yellow ovals,<br>
  1757             Activities as blue rectangles, and Agents as orange pentagons.<br>
  1758             The responsibility properties are shown in pink.
  1759             </div>
  1760       </div>
  1761 
  1762         <div id="narrative-example-simple-1" class="exampleOuter">
  1763            <p>
  1764             <a href="#narrative-example-simple-1">Example 1</a>: The following PROV-O describes the resources involved when creating a chart about crime statistics. The example uses only Starting Point terms and serves as a basis for elaboration that will be described in subsequent sections. In the example, Derek performs an aggregation of some government crime data, grouping by national regions that are described in a separate dataset by a civil action group.
  1765            </p> 
  1766            <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  1767 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  1768 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  1769 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .
  1770 
  1771 :bar_chart
  1772    a prov:Entity;
  1773    prov:wasGeneratedBy  :illustrationActivity;
  1774    prov:wasDerivedFrom  :aggregatedByRegions;
  1775    prov:wasAttributedTo :derek;
  1776 .
  1777 
  1778 :derek
  1779    a foaf:Person, prov:Agent;
  1780    foaf:givenName       "Derek";
  1781    foaf:mbox            &lt;mailto:derek@example.org&gt;;
  1782    prov:actedOnBehalfOf :natonal_newspaper_inc;
  1783 .
  1784 
  1785 :national_newspaper_inc 
  1786    a foaf:Organization, prov:Agent;
  1787    foaf:name "National Newspaper, Inc.";
  1788 .
  1789 
  1790 :illustrationActivity 
  1791    a prov:Activity; 
  1792    prov:used              :aggregatedByRegions;
  1793    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
  1794    prov:wasInformedBy     :aggregationActivity;
  1795 .
  1796 
  1797 :aggregatedByRegions
  1798    a prov:Entity;
  1799    prov:wasGeneratedBy  :aggregationActivity;
  1800    prov:wasAttributedTo :derek;
  1801 .
  1802 
  1803 :aggregationActivity
  1804    a prov:Activity;
  1805    prov:startedAtTime    "2011-07-14T01:01:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  1806    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
  1807    prov:used              :crimeData;
  1808    prov:used              :nationalRegionsList;
  1809    prov:endedAtTime      "2011-07-14T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  1810 .
  1811 
  1812 :crimeData
  1813    a prov:Entity;
  1814    prov:wasAttributedTo :government;
  1815 .
  1816 :government a foaf:Organization, prov:Agent .
  1817 
  1818 :nationalRegionsList 
  1819    a prov:Entity;
  1820    prov:wasAttributedTo :civil_action_group;
  1821 .
  1822 :civil_action_group a foaf:Organization, prov:Agent .</pre>
  1823         </div>
  1824 
  1825       <p>The example states that the agent <code>:derek</code> was associated with two 
  1826       activities: <code>:aggregationActivity</code> and <code>:illustrationActivity</code>. The 
  1827       activity <code>:aggregationActivity</code> used 
  1828       the entities <code>:crimeData</code> (a crime statistics dataset) and <code>:nationalRegionsList</code> (a list of national regions), and 
  1829       generated a new entity, <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code> that aggregates the statistics in
  1830        <code>:crimeData</code> according to the regions in <code>:nationalRegionsList</code>. 
  1831       The <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code> entity was then used by the <code>:illustrationActivity</code> activity, 
  1832       to generate a new entity <code>:bar_chart</code> that depicts the aggregated statistics.
  1833       </p>
  1834 
  1835       <p> The example also states that the activity <code>:illustrationActivity</code> was 
  1836       informed by the activity <code>:aggregationActivity</code>. Indeed, the former used
  1837        the entity <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code>, which was generated by the latter.
  1838       </p>
  1839 
  1840       <p> Because the agent <code>:derek</code> was associated with the activities 
  1841       <code>:aggregationActivity</code> and <code>:illustrationActivity</code>, the entities 
  1842       generated by these activities, i.e., <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code> and <code>:bar_chart</code>, were also 
  1843       attributed to him.
  1844       </p>
  1845 
  1846       <p>Finally, the example states that the agent <code>:derek</code> acted on behalf of the organization <code>:national_newspaper_inc</code>.
  1847       </p>   
  1848 
  1849       <div id="narrative-example-simple-1-figure" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
  1850             <img src="diagrams/starting-points-example.svg" style="width: 90%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 60em" alt="Illustration of Derek making a bar chart from some aggregated government data.">
  1851             <div class="figcaption"><a href="#narrative-example-simple-1-figure">Figure 2</a>. 
  1852             A graphical illustration of the PROV-O in <a href="#narrative-example-simple-1">Example 1</a>, 
  1853             showing how the three Starting Point classes relate.<br>
  1854             The diagrams in this document depict Entities as yellow ovals, Activities as blue rectangles,<br>
  1855             and Agents as orange pentagons. The responsibility properties are shown in pink.
  1856             </div>
  1857       </div>
  1858 
  1859      </div> <!-- Starting Points  in PROV-O -->
  1860 
  1861      <div id="description-expanded-terms" class="section">
  1862       <h3><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Expanded Terms</h3>
  1863 
  1864       <p>The terms introduced in this section provide additional ways to describe the provenance among Entities, Activities, and Agents.
  1865          The additional terms are illustrated in the following figure and can be separated into five different categories.</p>
  1866 
  1867       <div id="expanded-terms-figure" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
  1868             <img src="diagrams/expanded.svg" style="width: 60%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 60em" alt="PROV-O Starting Point terms">
  1869             <div class="figcaption"><a href="#expanded-terms-figure">Figure 3</a>.
  1870             The expanded terms build upon those in the <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Points section</a>.<br>
  1871             The diagrams in this document depict Entities as yellow ovals, Activities as blue rectangles, and Agents as orange pentagons.<br>
  1872             The domain of <a href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> (<span class="repeated">prov:Activity</span> or <span class="repeated">prov:Entity</span> or <span class="repeated">prov:Agent</span> or <span class="repeated">prov:InstantaneousEvent</span>) is not illustrated.
  1873             </div>
  1874       </div>
  1875 
  1876 
  1877      <p>The <strong>first</strong> category extends the <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Point terms</a> with subclasses, subproperties, and a superproperty.</p>
  1878 
  1879      <p>Three subclasses of Agent (<a href="#Person" class="qname">prov:Person</a>, <a href="#Organization" class="qname">prov:Organization</a>, and
  1880       <a href="#SoftwareAgent" class="qname">prov:SoftwareAgent</a>) and
  1881       three subclasses of Entity are provided (<a href="#Collection" class="qname">prov:Collection</a>, <a href="#Bundle" class="qname">prov:Bundle</a>,
  1882       and <a href="#Plan" class="qname">prov:Plan</a>).
  1883       </p>
  1884 
  1885       <p>
  1886       A <span class="repeated">prov:Collection</span> is an Entity that provides a structure (e.g. set, list, etc.) to some constituents (which are themselves Entities).
  1887       The <span class="repeated">prov:Collection</span> class can be used to express the provenance of the collection itself:
  1888       e.g. who maintained the collection, which members it contained as it evolved, and how it was assembled.
  1889       The <a href="#hadMember" class="qname">prov:hadMember</a> property is used to assert membership in a collection.
  1890       </p>
  1891 
  1892       <div id="description-bundle">
  1893          <p>
  1894          A <span class="repeated">prov:Bundle</span> is a named set of provenance descriptions, which may itself have provenance.
  1895          The named set of provenance descriptions may be expressed as PROV-O or any other form.
  1896          The subclass of Bundle that names a set of PROV-O assertions is not provided by PROV-O, since it is more appropriate to do so using other recommendations,
  1897          standards, or technologies. In any case, a Bundle of PROV-O assertions is an abstract set of RDF triples, and adding or removing a triple creates a new distinct
  1898          Bundle of PROV-O assertions.
  1899          </p>
  1900       </div>
  1901 
  1902       <p>A <span class="repeated">prov:Plan</span> is an entity that represents a set of actions or steps intended by one or more agents to achieve some goals.
  1903       </p>
  1904 
  1905 
  1906      <p>
  1907       More general and more specific properties are also provided by the expanded terms. More generally, the property
  1908       <a href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> is a superproperty that relates any influenced Entity, Activity, or Agent to any other
  1909       influencing Entity, Activity, or Agent that had an effect on its characteristics.
  1910 
  1911       Three subproperties of <span class="repeated">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span> are also provided for certain kinds of derivation among Entities:
  1912       <a href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="qname">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a> cites a potentially larger Entity (such as a book, blog, or image) from which a new Entity was created
  1913       by repeating some or all of the original,
  1914       <a href="#wasRevisionOf" class="qname">prov:wasRevisionOf</a> indicates that the derived Entity contains substantial content from the original Entity
  1915       (e.g., two editions of a book), and
  1916       <a href="#hadPrimarySource" class="qname">prov:hadPrimarySource</a> cites a preceding Entity produced by some agent with direct experience and
  1917       knowledge about the topic (such as a reading from a sensor, or a journal written during an historical event).
  1918       </p>
  1919    
  1920      <p>The <strong>second</strong> category of expanded terms relates Entities according to their levels of abstraction, where some Entities may present more specific aspects than their more general counterparts.
  1921       While <a href="#specializationOf" class="qname">prov:specializationOf</a> links a more specific Entity to a more general one (e.g., today's BBC news home page versus BBC's news home page on any day), <a href="#alternateOf" class="qname">prov:alternateOf</a> links Entities that present aspects of the same thing, but not necessarily the same aspects or at the same time (e.g., the serialization of a document in different formats or a backup copy of a computer file).
  1922      </p>
  1923    
  1924       <p>
  1925       The <strong>third</strong> category of expanded terms allows further description of Entities. The property <a href="#value" class="qname">prov:value</a>
  1926       provides a literal value that is a direct representation of an entity.
  1927       For example, the <span class="repeated">prov:value</span> of a quote could be a string of the sentences stated, or the <span class="repeated">prov:value</span> of an Entity involved in a numeric calculation could be the xsd:integer four.
  1928       The property <a href="#atLocation" class="qname">prov:atLocation</a> can be used to describe the <a href="#Location" class="qname">prov:Location</a> of any
  1929       Entity, Activity, Agent, or <a href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="qname">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
  1930       (i.e., the starting or ending of an activity or the generation, usage, or invalidation of an entity).
  1931       The properties used to describe instances of <span class="repeated">prov:Location</span> are outside the scope of PROV-O;
  1932       reuse of other existing vocabulary is encouraged.
  1933       </p>
  1934 
  1935 
  1936       <p>The <strong>fourth</strong> category of expanded terms describes the lifetime of an Entity beyond being <strong>generated</strong> by an Activity and <strong>used</strong> by other Activities. For example, a painting could not have been displayed before it was painted, and it could not be sold after it was destroyed by fire.
  1937       Similar to how Activities have start and end times, an Entity may be bound by points in time for which it was generated or is no longer usable.
  1938 The properties <a href="#generatedAtTime" class="qname">prov:generatedAtTime</a> and <a href="#invalidatedAtTime" class="qname">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a> can be used to bound the starting and ending moments of an Entity's existence. The Activities that led to the generation or invalidation of an Entity can be provided using <span class="repeated">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span> and <a href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="qname">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>, respectively.
  1939 <a href="#generated" class="qname">prov:generated</a> and <a href="#invalidated" class="qname">prov:invalidated</a> are the inverses of <span class="repeated">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span> and <span class="repeated">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</span>, respectively, and are defined to facilitate Activity-as-subject as well as Entity-as-subject descriptions.
  1940       For more about inverses, see the <a href="#inverse-names">Appendix B</a>.
  1941       </p>
  1942 
  1943       <p>The <strong>fifth</strong> category of expanded terms describes the lifetime of an Activity beyond its start and end times and predecessor Activities.
  1944       Activities may also be started or ended by Entities, which are described using the properties <a href="#wasStartedBy" class="qname">prov:wasStartedBy</a>
  1945       and <a href="#wasEndedBy" class="qname">prov:wasEndedBy</a>, respectively. Since Entities may start or end Activities, and Agents may be Entities,
  1946       then Agents may also start or end Activities.
  1947       </p>
  1948 
  1949         <div id="narrative-example-expanded-1"class="exampleOuter">
  1950            <p>The following examples illustrate the expanded terms by elaborating the <a href="#narrative-example-simple-1">crime chart example</a> from the previous section.
  1951               After aggregating the dataset and creating the chart, Derek published a post to exhibit his work.
  1952            </p>
  1953            <p>
  1954               <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-1">Example 2</a>:
  1955            </p>
  1956 
  1957            <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  1958 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  1959 @prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
  1960 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  1961 @prefix my:   &lt;http://www.example.org/vocab#&gt; .
  1962 @prefix :     &lt;http://www.example.org#&gt; .
  1963 @base         &lt;http://www.example.com/derek-bundle.ttl&gt; .
  1964 
  1965 &lt;&gt; 
  1966    a prov:Bundle, prov:Entity;
  1967    prov:wasAttributedTo :postEditor;
  1968    prov:generatedAtTime "2011-07-16T02:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  1969 .
  1970 
  1971 :derek
  1972    a prov:Person, prov:Agent; ## prov:Agent is inferred from prov:Person
  1973    foaf:givenName       "Derek";
  1974    foaf:mbox            &lt;mailto:derek@example.org&gt;;
  1975    prov:actedOnBehalfOf :national_newspaper_inc;
  1976 .
  1977 
  1978 :national_newspaper_inc 
  1979    a prov:Organization, prov:Agent;        ## prov:Agent is inferred from prov:Organization
  1980    foaf:name "National Newspaper, Inc.";
  1981 .
  1982 
  1983 :postEditor 
  1984    a prov:SoftwareAgent, prov:Agent;       ## prov:Agent is inferred from prov:SoftwareAgent
  1985    foaf:name "Post Editor 3000";
  1986 .   
  1987 
  1988 :more-crime-happens-in-cities
  1989    a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
  1990    sioc:latest_version   :post9821v2;
  1991    sioc:previous_version :post9821v1;
  1992 .
  1993 
  1994 ## Version 1 of the post
  1995 
  1996 :post9821v1
  1997    a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;   
  1998    prov:specializationOf  :more-crime-happens-in-cities; ## PERMALINK to the latest revision.
  1999    sioc:title             "More crime happens in cities";
  2000    prov:value             "I was currius...";            ## The text of this version (with a typo).
  2001    prov:generatedAtTime   "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2002    prov:wasGeneratedBy    :publicationActivity1123;
  2003    prov:wasInfluencedBy   :aggregatedByRegions; ## This blog was influenced by Derek's data analysis.
  2004    prov:hadPrimarySource  :crimeData;           ## Derek's blog derives from the crime data originally
  2005                                                 ## gathered by the government.
  2006    prov:invalidatedAtTime "2011-07-16T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2007 .
  2008 
  2009 :publicationActivity1123 
  2010    a prov:Activity;
  2011    prov:startedAtTime     "2011-07-16T01:01:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2012    prov:wasStartedBy      :derek;
  2013    prov:wasAssociatedWith :postEditor;
  2014    prov:generated         :post9821v1;
  2015    prov:endedAtTime       "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2016    prov:wasEndedBy        :derek;
  2017 .
  2018 
  2019 :aggregatedByRegions
  2020    a prov:Entity;
  2021    prov:atLocation &lt;file://Users/aggr.txt&gt;;
  2022 .
  2023 &lt;file://Users/aggr.txt&gt; a prov:Location .
  2024 
  2025 :crimeData
  2026    a prov:Entity;
  2027    prov:wasAttributedTo :government;
  2028 .
  2029 :government 
  2030    a prov:Organization, prov:Agent;
  2031 .
  2032 
  2033 ## Version 2 of the post
  2034 
  2035 :post9821v2
  2036    a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
  2037    prov:specializationOf :more-crime-happens-in-cities; ## PERMALINK to the latest revision.
  2038    prov:value            "I was curious...";            ## The text of this version (with fixed typo).
  2039    prov:generatedAtTime  "2011-07-16T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2040    prov:wasRevisionOf    :post9821v1;
  2041    prov:alternateOf      :post9821v1;
  2042 .</pre>
  2043         </div>
  2044       
  2045          <p>Agent <code>:derek</code>, acting again on behalf of the <code>:national_newspaper_inc</code> organization,
  2046          used the <code>:postEditor</code> tool to publish a post about his recent data analysis <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code>.
  2047          The blog editing tool tracked Derek's actions as PROV-O assertions and published them as a Bundle (the current file <code>&lt;&gt;</code>).
  2048          The tool recorded that <code>:derek</code> started and ended the publishing activity (<code>:publicationActivity1123</code>)
  2049          that generated the post <code>:post9821v1</code>. The post
  2050          included a permanent link where the content of the latest version is available
  2051          (<code>:more-crime-happens-in-cities</code>) in addition to a textual snapshot of the current version (using prov:value).
  2052          Derek also included additional domain-specific descriptions of the post, such as its title.
  2053          </p>
  2054 
  2055          <p>Shortly after publishing the post, Derek noticed a typographical error in his narrative.
  2056          Because the fix would be minimal, he did not record the activity that led to the new version.
  2057          Instead, he related the new version (<code>:post9821v2</code>) as a revision of the previous (<code>:post9821v1</code>).
  2058          Since both versions of the blog are forms of the long-standing blog permalink <code>:more-crime-happens-in-cities</code>,
  2059          the revisions are alternates of one another and each is a <a href="#specializationOf" class="qname">prov:specializationOf</a> of <code>:more-crime-happens-in-cities</code>.
  2060          </p>     
  2061 
  2062          <div id="expanded-example-illustration-1" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
  2063 
  2064                <img src="diagrams/expanded-terms-example-bundlePost.svg" style="width: 95%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 60em" alt="PROV-O Starting Point terms">
  2065 
  2066                <div class="figcaption"><a href="#expanded-example-illustration-1">Figure 4</a>.
  2067                   An illustration of the PROV-O assertions in <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-1">Example 2</a>, where Derek<br>
  2068                   published two versions of a blog for the National Newspaper, Inc.<br>
  2069                   The diagrams in this document depict Entities as yellow ovals, Activities as blue rectangles,<br>
  2070                   and Agents as orange pentagons. The responsibility properties are shown in pink.
  2071                </div>
  2072          </div>
  2073 
  2074 
  2075 
  2076        <div id="narrative-example-expanded-2"class="exampleOuter">
  2077            <p>Shortly after Derek published his blog post, Monica adapted the text for a wider audience in a new post (<code>:post9822</code>).
  2078             This rewrite is an alternate, abbreviated view of the same topic that Derek wrote about and was created from his original text.
  2079             Since the provenance produced by the activities of Derek and Monica corresponded to different user views, the system
  2080             automatically published it in a different <a href="#Bundle" class="qname">prov:Bundle</a>.
  2081             The tool also asserted provenance about the bundle that it produced (e.g., the date of creation, its creator, and the fact that it Derek's bundle was used).
  2082             Because a bundle is a kind of entity, all provenance assertions that can be made about entities can also be made about bundles.
  2083             The use of bundles enables the creation of provenance of provenance.
  2084             </p>     
  2085             <p>
  2086                <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-2">Example 3</a>:
  2087             </p>
  2088             <pre  class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2089 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  2090 @prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
  2091 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2092 @prefix :     &lt;http://www.example.org#&gt; .
  2093 @base         &lt;http://www.example.com/monica-bundle.ttl&gt; .
  2094 
  2095 &lt;&gt;
  2096    a prov:Bundle, prov:Entity;
  2097    prov:wasAttributedTo :postEditor;
  2098    prov:wasDerivedFrom  &lt;http://www.example.com/derek-bundle.ttl&gt; .
  2099    prov:generatedAtTime "2011-07-16T03:03:03Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2100 .
  2101 
  2102 :monica
  2103    a prov:Person, prov:Agent;
  2104    foaf:givenName "Monica";
  2105    foaf:mbox      &lt;mailto:monica@example.org&gt;;
  2106 .
  2107 
  2108 ## Revised post for a different audience is a new resource.
  2109 
  2110 :post9822
  2111    a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
  2112    sioc:title "More crime happens in cities (for dummies)";
  2113    prov:wasAttributedTo  :monica,
  2114                          :postEditor;
  2115    prov:alternateOf      :more-crime-happens-in-cities;    ## This post is an alternate of Derek's blog.
  2116    prov:value            "A quick overview of Derek's..."; ## Snapshot with the content of this version
  2117    prov:wasRevisionOf    :post9821v2;                      ## Monica rewrote Derek's version 2 to create hers.
  2118 .</pre>
  2119         </div>
  2120       
  2121          <div id="narrative-example-expanded-3"  class="exampleOuter" >
  2122             <p>After some time, John wrote his own conclusions in his own post (<code>:post19201</code>) quoting the previous two posts. 
  2123                Each quote that John makes (<code>:quote_from_monica</code> and <code>:quote_from_derek</code>) is a new entity derived from the 
  2124                previous blogs and is annotated with the time that the quote was taken.
  2125                The provenance of John's blog notes that his post is the result of the quotes that he took from Derek and Monica.
  2126                The blog post is also derived from Derek's <code>:aggregatedByRegions</code> dataset because John inspected it and found a 
  2127                concern that he discusses in his blog. All the provenance statements related to John's post are grouped in a new <span class="repeated">prov:Bundle</span>.
  2128             </p>
  2129             <p>
  2130                <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-3">Example 4</a>:
  2131             </p>
  2132             <pre  class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2133 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  2134 @prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
  2135 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2136 @prefix :     &lt;http://www.example.org#&gt; .
  2137 @base         &lt;http://www.example.com/john-bundle.ttl&gt; .
  2138 
  2139 &lt;&gt; 
  2140    a prov:Bundle, prov:Entity;
  2141    prov:wasAttributedTo :postEditor;
  2142    prov:wasDerivedFrom &lt;http://www.example.com/derek-bundle.ttl&gt;,
  2143                        &lt;http://www.example.com/monica-bundle.ttl&gt;;
  2144    prov:generatedAtTime "2012-08-08T08:08:08Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2145 .
  2146 
  2147 :publicationActivity1124
  2148    a prov:Activity;
  2149    prov:wasAttributedTo :postEditor,
  2150                         :john;
  2151    prov:generated :post19201;
  2152 .
  2153 
  2154 :post19201
  2155    a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
  2156    prov:wasAttributedTo :john;
  2157    prov:value "I'm not so sure that...";
  2158    prov:wasDerivedFrom :quote_from_derek,
  2159                        :quote_from_monica,
  2160                        :aggregatedByRegions;
  2161    prov:wasGeneratedBy :publicationActivity1124;
  2162 .
  2163 
  2164 :john 
  2165    a prov:Person, prov:Agent;
  2166    foaf:name "John";
  2167 .
  2168 
  2169 :quote_from_derek
  2170    a prov:Entity;
  2171    prov:value "Analysis of the datasets demonstrates that there is more crime.";
  2172    prov:wasQuotedFrom   :more-crime-happens-in-cities;
  2173    prov:generatedAtTime "2012-08-08T01:01:01Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2174 .
  2175    
  2176 :quote_from_monica
  2177    a prov:Entity;
  2178    prov:value "In summary, there are clearly more crimes in the country.";
  2179    prov:wasQuotedFrom   :post9822;
  2180    prov:generatedAtTime "2012-08-08T02:02:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2181 .</pre>
  2182          </div>
  2183       
  2184    
  2185          <div id="narrative-example-expanded-4" class="exampleOuter" >
  2186             <p>Unfortunately, there was a problem in the servers where <code>:post19201</code> was being stored, and all the data related to the post was lost permanently.
  2187             Thus, the system invalidated the entity automatically and notified John about the error.
  2188             </p>     
  2189             <p>
  2190                <a href="#narrative-example-expanded-4">Example 5</a>:
  2191             </p>
  2192             <pre  class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2193 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  2194 @prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
  2195 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2196 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .
  2197 
  2198 :post19201
  2199    a sioc:Post, prov:Entity;
  2200    prov:invalidatedAtTime "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2201    prov:wasInvalidatedBy :hard_disk_failure;
  2202 .
  2203 
  2204 :hard_disk_failure
  2205    a prov:Activity;
  2206    prov:endedAtTime "2012-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2207 .</pre>
  2208          </div>
  2209      </div>
  2210 
  2211 <!-- incorporate https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/rev/e3ecc51f4598 -->
  2212      <div id="description-qualified-terms" class="section">
  2213        <h3><span class="secno">3.3 </span>Qualified Terms</h3>
  2214 
  2215        <p>The Qualified Terms category is the result of
  2216          applying the <strong>Qualification Pattern</strong> [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-LD-Patterns-QR">LD-Patterns-QR</a></cite>] to the simple (unqualified)
  2217          relations available in the <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">Starting Point</a> and 
  2218          <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">Expanded</a> categories.  
  2219          The terms in this category are for users who wish to provide further details about the provenance-related influence among
  2220          Entities, Activities, and Agents.
  2221        </p>
  2222 
  2223        <p>The Qualification Pattern restates an unqualified influence 
  2224          relation by using an intermediate class that represents the influence between two resources. 
  2225          This new instance, in turn, can be annotated with additional descriptions of the influence that one resource had upon another.
  2226          The following two tables list the influence relations that can be qualified using the Qualification Pattern, along with the properties used to qualify them. 
  2227 
  2228          For example, the second row of the first table indicates that to elaborate how an <span class="repeated">prov:Activity</span>
  2229          <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> a particular <span class="repeated">prov:Entity</span>, one creates an instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span>
  2230          that indicates the influencing entity with the <span class="repeated">prov:entity</span> property.
  2231          Meanwhile, the influenced <span class="repeated">prov:Activity</span> indicates the <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span> with the property 
  2232          <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedUsage</span>.
  2233          The resulting structure that qualifies the an Activity's usage of an Entity is illustrated in <a href="#qualified-terms-figure">Figure 4a</a> below.
  2234        </p>
  2235 
  2236       <div id="qualified-forms-starting-point" style="padding: 10px">
  2237          <p>Seven <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Starting Point</a> relations can be further described using the Qualification Pattern.
  2238             They are listed in the following normative table.
  2239          </p>
  2240          <div style="text-align: center">
  2241             <table class="qualified-forms">
  2242   <caption><a href="#qualified-forms-starting-point">Table 2</a>: Qualification Property and Qualified Influence Class used to qualify a Starting-point Property.</caption>
  2243   <tbody><tr>
  2244     <th><span title="Influenced Class">Influenced Class</span></th>
  2245     <th><span title="Unqualified Influence">Unqualified Influence</span></th>
  2246     <th><span title="Influencing Class">Influencing Class</span></th>
  2247     <th><span title="Qualification Property">Qualification Property</span></th>
  2248     <th><span title="Qualified Influence">Qualified Influence</span></th>
  2249     <th><span title="Influencer Property">Influencer Property</span></th>
  2250   </tr>
  2251   <tr>
  2252     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2253     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a></td>
  2254     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
  2255     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a></td>
  2256     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a></td>
  2257     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity" class="owlproperty">prov:activity</a></td>
  2258   </tr>
  2259   <tr>
  2260     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2261     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a></td>
  2262     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2263     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a></td>
  2264     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a></td>
  2265     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  2266   </tr>
  2267   <tr>
  2268     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2269     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAttributedTo</a></td>
  2270     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a></td>
  2271     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a></td>
  2272     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution" href="#Attribution" class="owlclass">prov:Attribution</a></td>
  2273     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent" class="owlproperty">prov:agent</a></td>
  2274   </tr>
  2275   <tr>
  2276     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
  2277     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used" class="owlproperty">prov:used</a></td>
  2278     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2279     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedUsage</a></td>
  2280     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlclass">prov:Usage</a></td>
  2281     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  2282   </tr>
  2283   <tr>
  2284     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
  2285     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInformedBy</a></td>
  2286     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
  2287     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a></td>
  2288     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication" href="#Communication" class="owlclass">prov:Communication</a></td>
  2289     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity" class="owlproperty">prov:activity</a></td>
  2290   </tr>
  2291   <tr>
  2292     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
  2293     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith" class="owlproperty">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a></td>
  2294     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a></td>
  2295     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a></td>
  2296     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlclass">prov:Association</a></td>
  2297     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent" class="owlproperty">prov:agent</a></td>
  2298   </tr>
  2299   <tr>
  2300     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a></td>
  2301     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf" class="owlproperty">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a></td>
  2302     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a></td>
  2303     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a></td>
  2304     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation" href="#Delegation" class="owlclass">prov:Delegation</a></td>
  2305     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent" class="owlproperty">prov:agent</a></td>
  2306   </tr>
  2307 </tbody></table>
  2308 
  2309          </div>
  2310       </div>
  2311 
  2312       <div id="qualified-forms-expanded" style="padding: 10px">
  2313          <p>Seven <a href="#description-expanded-terms">Expanded</a> relations can be further described using the Qualification Pattern.
  2314             They are listed in the following normative table.
  2315          </p>
  2316          <div style="text-align: center">
  2317             <table class="qualified-forms">
  2318   <caption><a href="#qualified-forms-expanded">Table 3</a>: Qualification Property and Qualified Influence Class used to qualify an Expanded Property.</caption>
  2319   <tbody><tr>
  2320     <th><span title="Influenced Class">Influenced Class</span></th>
  2321     <th><span title="Unqualified Influence">Unqualified Influence</span></th>
  2322     <th><span title="Influencing Class">Influencing Class</span></th>
  2323     <th><span title="Qualification Property">Qualification Property</span></th>
  2324     <th><span title="Qualified Influence">Qualified Influence</span></th>
  2325     <th><span title="Influencer Property">Influencer Property</span></th>
  2326   </tr>
  2327   <tr>
  2328     <td style="text-align: center">
  2329         <a title="provEntity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a> or
  2330         <a title="provActivity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a> or
  2331         <a title="provAgent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>    </td>
  2332     <td><a title="provwasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a></td>
  2333     <td style="text-align: center">
  2334         <a title="provEntity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a> or
  2335         <a title="provActivity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a> or
  2336         <a title="provAgent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>    </td>
  2337     <td><a title="provqualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a></td>
  2338     <td><a title="provInfluence" href="#Influence" class="owlclass">prov:Influence</a></td>
  2339     <td><a title="provinfluencer" href="#influencer" class="owlproperty">prov:influencer</a></td>
  2340   </tr>
  2341   <tr>
  2342     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2343     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:hadPrimarySource</a></td>
  2344     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2345     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a></td>
  2346     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource" href="#PrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:PrimarySource</a></td>
  2347     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  2348   </tr>
  2349   <tr>
  2350     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2351     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="owlproperty">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a></td>
  2352     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2353     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a></td>
  2354     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation" href="#Quotation" class="owlclass">prov:Quotation</a></td>
  2355     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  2356   </tr>
  2357   <tr>
  2358     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2359     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf" class="owlproperty">prov:wasRevisionOf</a></td>
  2360     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2361     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedRevision</a></td>
  2362     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision" href="#Revision" class="owlclass">prov:Revision</a></td>
  2363     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  2364   </tr>
  2365   <tr>
  2366     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2367     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a></td>
  2368     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
  2369     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a></td>
  2370     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a></td>
  2371     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity" class="owlproperty">prov:activity</a></td>
  2372   </tr>
  2373   <tr>
  2374     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
  2375     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasStartedBy</a></td>
  2376     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2377     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedStart</a></td>
  2378     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a></td>
  2379     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  2380   </tr>
  2381   <tr>
  2382     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a></td>
  2383     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasEndedBy</a></td>
  2384     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a></td>
  2385     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedEnd</a></td>
  2386     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a></td>
  2387     <td><a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity" class="owlproperty">prov:entity</a></td>
  2388   </tr>
  2389 </tbody></table>
  2390 
  2391          </div>
  2392       </div>
  2393 
  2394 
  2395       <p>The qualification classes and properties shown in the previous two tables can also be found in the normative <a href="#cross-reference">cross reference</a> 
  2396         in the next section of this document. 
  2397 
  2398          All influence classes (e.g. <span class="repeated">prov:Association</span>, <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span>) are extensions of 
  2399          <a class="qname" href="#Influence">prov:Influence</a> and either 
  2400          <a class="qname" href="#EntityInfluence">prov:EntityInfluence</a>, 
  2401          <a class="qname" href="#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>, or
  2402          <a class="qname" href="#AgentInfluence">prov:AgentInfluence</a>, which determine the property used to cite the influencing resource (either
  2403          <a class="qname" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>,
  2404          <a class="qname" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>, or
  2405          <a class="qname" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>, respectively). 
  2406          Because <span class="repeated">prov:Influence</span> is a broad relation, its most specific subclasses (e.g. <span class="repeated">prov:Communication</span>, 
  2407          <span class="repeated">prov:Delegation</span>, <span class="repeated">prov:End</span>, <span class="repeated">prov:Revision</span>, etc.) should be used when applicable.
  2408 
  2409          </p><div id="narrative-example-qualified-1"  class="exampleOuter" >
  2410             <p>
  2411                <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-1">Example 6</a>:
  2412             </p>
  2413             <p>
  2414                For example, given the unqualified statement:
  2415                </p><pre class="example">:e1 
  2416    a prov:Entity;
  2417    prov:wasGeneratedBy :a1;
  2418 .
  2419 
  2420 :a1 a prov:Activity .</pre>
  2421             <p></p>
  2422          </div>
  2423 
  2424          <p>One can find that <a class="qname" href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a> 
  2425             can be qualified using the qualification property <a class="qname" href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a>,
  2426             the class <a class="qname" href="#Generation">prov:Generation</a> (a subclass of <a class="qname" href="#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>),
  2427             and the property <a class="qname" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>.
  2428             From this, the influence relation above can be restated with the <em>qualification pattern</em> as:
  2429          </p>
  2430 
  2431          <div id="narrative-example-qualified-2"  class="exampleOuter" >
  2432             <p>
  2433                <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-2">Example 7</a>:
  2434             </p>
  2435             <pre class="example">:e1 
  2436    a prov:Entity;
  2437    prov:wasGeneratedBy      :a1;
  2438    prov:qualifiedGeneration :e1Gen; # Add the qualification.
  2439 .
  2440 
  2441 :e1Gen 
  2442    a prov:Generation;
  2443    prov:activity            :a1;    # Cite the influencing Activity.
  2444    ex:foo                   :bar;   # Describe the Activity :a1's influence upon the Entity :e1.
  2445 .
  2446 
  2447 :a1 a prov:Activity .</pre>
  2448          </div>
  2449 
  2450          <p>
  2451             The asserter can thus attach additional properties to <code>:e1Gen</code> to describe the generation of <code>:e1</code> by <code>:a1</code>.
  2452          </p>
  2453 
  2454          <p>
  2455             As can be seen in this example, qualifying an influence relation provides a second form (e.g. <code>:e1 prov:qualifiedGeneration :e1Gen</code>) to express an equivalent influence relation 
  2456             (e.g. <code>:e1 prov:wasGeneratedBy :a1</code>).
  2457             It is correct and acceptable for an implementer to use either qualified or unqualified forms as they choose (or both), 
  2458             and a consuming application should be prepared to recognize either form. 
  2459             Consuming applications <em class="rfc2119" title="should">should</em> recognize both qualified and unqualified forms, and treat the qualified form as implying the unqualified form.
  2460             Because the qualification form is more verbose, the unqualified form should be favored in cases where additional properties are not provided.
  2461             When the qualified form is expressed, including the equivalent unqualified form can facilitate PROV-O consumption, and is thus encouraged.
  2462         </p>
  2463             <!-- To simplify client queries, 
  2464             any qualified relation SHOULD be accompanied by the equivalent unqualified statement. 
  2465             Unqualified properties SHOULD NOT have the equivalent qualified form
  2466             asserted unless it adds additional information. -->
  2467 
  2468       <p>In addition to the previous two tables, <a href="#qualified-terms-figure">Figure 4</a> 
  2469          illustrates the classes and properties needed to apply the qualification pattern to ten of the fourteen qualifiable influence relations. 
  2470 
  2471          For example, while <a class="qname" href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a>, 
  2472          <a class="qname" href="#Usage">prov:Usage</a>, and <a class="qname" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a> are used to qualify 
  2473          <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> relations, 
  2474    
  2475          <a class="qname" href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a>, <a class="qname" href="#Association">prov:Association</a>, 
  2476          and <a class="qname" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a> are used to qualify <span class="repeated">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span> 
  2477          relations. This pattern applies to the twelve other influence relations that can be qualified.
  2478       </p>
  2479 
  2480       <p>In subfigure <strong>a</strong> the <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedUsage</span> property parallels the <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> property and references an instance of 
  2481       <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span>, which in turn provides attributes of the <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> relation between the Activity and Entity. 
  2482       The <span class="repeated">prov:entity</span> property is used to cite the Entity that was used by the Activity. 
  2483       In this case, the time that the Activity used the Entity is provided using the <a href="#atTime" class="qname">prov:atTime</a> property and a literal 
  2484       <span class="repeated">xsd:dateTime</span> value. The <span class="repeated">prov:atTime</span> property can be used to describe any 
  2485       <a href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="qname">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a> (including 
  2486       <a href="#Start" class="qname">prov:Start</a>, 
  2487       <a href="#Generation" class="qname">prov:Generation</a>, 
  2488       <a href="#Usage" class="qname">prov:Usage</a>, 
  2489       <a href="#Invalidation" class="qname">prov:Invalidation</a>, and
  2490       <a href="#End" class="qname">prov:End</a>).
  2491       </p>
  2492 
  2493       <p>Similarly in subfigure <strong>j</strong>, the <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedAssociation</span> property parallels the 
  2494       <span class="repeated">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span> property and references an instance of 
  2495       <span class="repeated">prov:Association</span>, which in turn provides attributes of the 
  2496       <span class="repeated">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span> relation between the Activity and Agent. The 
  2497       <span class="repeated">prov:agent</span> property is used to cite the Agent that influenced the Activity. 
  2498       In this case, the plan of actions and steps that the Agent used to achieve its goals is provided using the 
  2499       <a href="#hadPlan" class="qname">prov:hadPlan</a> property and an instance of <a href="#Plan" class="qname">prov:Plan</a>. Further, the 
  2500       <a href="#hadRole" class="qname">prov:hadRole</a> property and <a href="#Role" class="qname">prov:Role</a> 
  2501       class can be used to describe the function that the agent served with respect to the Activity. 
  2502       Both <span class="repeated">prov:Plan</span> and <span class="repeated">prov:Role</span> are left to be extended by applications.
  2503       </p>
  2504 
  2505        <div id="qualified-terms-figure" style="text-align: center;" class="figure">
  2506             <!-- When publishing to w3c: replace prov-o-diagrams/ with diagrams/ -->
  2507             <!--img src="prov-o-diagrams/Qualified-Association.png"-->
  2508             <img src="diagrams/qualified-patterns.svg" style="width: 70%; min-width: 25em; max-width: 70em" alt="Express association between an activity and an agent using a binary relationship and an alternatie qualified relationship">
  2509             <div class="figcaption"><a href="#qualified-terms-figure">Figure 4</a>: 
  2510             Illustration of the properties and classes to use (<span style="color: blue">in blue</span>)
  2511             to qualify the 
  2512             <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">starting point</a> and 
  2513             <a href="#description-expanded-terms">expanded</a> influence relations (<strong>dotted black</strong>). <br>
  2514             The diagrams in this document depict Entities as ovals, Activities as rectangles, and Agents as pentagons.
  2515             <a href="#Quotation">Quotation</a>, <a href="#Revision">Revision</a>, and <a href="#PrimarySource">PrimarySource</a> 
  2516              are omitted because they are special forms of <a href="#Derivation">Derivation</a> and follow the same pattern as subfigure <strong>g</strong>.</div>
  2517        </div>
  2518 
  2519 
  2520 
  2521 
  2522       <p>The following two examples show the result of applying the Usage and Association patterns to the chart-making example from <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Section 3.1</a>.
  2523       </p>
  2524 
  2525       <div id="narrative-example-qualified-3"  class="exampleOuter" >
  2526          <p>
  2527             <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-3">Example 8</a>:
  2528          </p>
  2529           <div class="exampleOuter">
  2530              <div><b>Qualified Usage</b></div>
  2531                <p>The <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedUsage</span> property parallels the <span class="repeated">prov:used</span> property to provide an additional description to <code>:illustrationActivity</code>. The instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Usage</span> cites the data used (<code>:aggregatedByRegions</code>) and the time the activity used it (<code>2011-07-14T03:03:03Z</code>).
  2532              </p>
  2533                 <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2534 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2535 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .
  2536 
  2537 :illustrationActivity 
  2538    a prov:Activity;                ## Using Starting Point terms,
  2539    prov:used :aggregatedByRegions; ##   the illustration activity used the aggregated data (to create the bar chart).
  2540 .
  2541 
  2542 :aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .
  2543 
  2544 :illustrationActivity      
  2545    prov:qualifiedUsage [                                ## Qualify how the :illustrationActivity
  2546       a prov:Usage;                                     ##   used
  2547       prov:entity :aggregatedByRegions;                 ##     the Entity :aggregatedByRegions
  2548 
  2549       prov:atTime "2011-07-14T03:03:03Z"^^xsd:dateTime; ## Qualification: The aggregated data was used 
  2550                                                         ##   at a particular time to create the bar chart..
  2551    ];
  2552 .</pre>
  2553           </div>
  2554       </div>
  2555 
  2556       <div id="narrative-example-qualified-4"  class="exampleOuter" >
  2557          <p>
  2558             <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-4">Example 9</a>:
  2559          </p>
  2560         <div class="exampleOuter">
  2561            <div><b>Qualified Association</b></div>
  2562             <p>The <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedAssociation</span> property parallels the 
  2563             <span class="repeated">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span> property to provide an additional description about the <code>:illustrationActivity</code> that Derek influenced. 
  2564             The instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Association</span> cites the influencing agent (<code>:derek</code>) that followed the instructions (<code>:tutorial_blog</code>). 
  2565             Further, Derek served the role of <code>:illustrationist</code> during the activity.
  2566             </p>
  2567               <pre class="example">@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2568 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .
  2569 
  2570 :illustrationActivity
  2571    a prov:Activity;                ## Using Starting Point terms,
  2572    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;  ##   the illustration activity was associated with Derek in some way.
  2573 .
  2574 
  2575 :derek a prov:Agent .
  2576 
  2577 :illustrationActivity
  2578    prov:qualifiedAssociation [       ## Qualify how the :illustrationActivity
  2579       a prov:Association;            ##   was associated with
  2580       prov:agent   :derek            ##     the Agent Derek.
  2581 
  2582       prov:hadRole :illustrationist; ## Qualification: The role that Derek served.
  2583       prov:hadPlan :tutorial_blog;   ## Qualification: The plan (or recipe, instructions)
  2584                                      ##   that Derek followed when creating the graphical chart.
  2585    ];
  2586 .
  2587 
  2588 :tutorial_blog   a prov:Plan, prov:Entity .
  2589 :illustrationist a prov:Role .</pre>
  2590         </div>
  2591       </div>
  2592 
  2593 
  2594        <p>This section finishes with two more examples of qualification as applied to the chart-making example from <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Section 3.1</a>.
  2595        </p>
  2596 
  2597 
  2598       <div id="narrative-example-qualified-5"  class="exampleOuter" >
  2599          <p>
  2600             <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-5">Example 10</a>:
  2601          </p>
  2602         <div class="exampleOuter">
  2603            <div><b>Qualified Generation</b></div>
  2604             <p>The <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedGeneration</span> property parallels the <span class="repeated">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span> property to provide an additional description to <code>:bar_chart</code>. The instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Generation</span> cites the time (2011-07-14T15:52:14Z) that the activity (<code>:illustrationActivity</code>) generated the chart (<code>:bar_chart</code>).
  2605             </p>
  2606               <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2607 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2608 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .
  2609 
  2610 :bar_chart
  2611    a prov:Entity;                              ## Using Starting Point terms,
  2612    prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrationActivity;  ##   the chart was generated in an illustration activity.
  2613 .
  2614 
  2615 :illustrationActivity a prov:Activity .
  2616 
  2617 :bar_chart
  2618    prov:qualifiedGeneration [                           ## Qualify how the :bar_chart
  2619       a prov:Generation;                                ##   was generated by
  2620       prov:activity :illustrationActivity;              ##     the Activity :illustrationActivity.
  2621 
  2622       prov:atTime "2011-07-14T15:52:14Z"^^xsd:dateTime; ## Qualification: The Activity generated
  2623                                                         ##   the bar_chart at a particular time.
  2624    ];
  2625 .</pre>
  2626         </div>
  2627       </div>
  2628 
  2629       <div id="narrative-example-qualified-6"  class="exampleOuter" >
  2630          <p>
  2631             <a href="#narrative-example-qualified-6">Example 11</a>:
  2632          </p>
  2633         <div class="exampleOuter">
  2634            <div><b>Qualified Derivation</b></div>
  2635            <p>The <span class="repeated">prov:qualifiedDerivation</span> property parallels the <span class="repeated">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span> 
  2636               property to provide an additional description to <code>:bar_chart</code>. The instance of <span class="repeated">prov:Derivation</span> 
  2637               cites the activity (<code>:illustrationActivity</code>) and the Usages and Generations that the activity conduced to create the <code>:bar_chart</code>.
  2638            </p>
  2639            <pre class="example">@prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2640 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2641 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.org#&gt; .
  2642 
  2643 :bar_chart
  2644    a prov:Entity;                             ## Using Starting Point terms,
  2645    prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;  ##   the chart was derived from the aggregated dataset.
  2646 .
  2647 
  2648 :aggregatedByRegions a prov:Entity .
  2649 
  2650 :bar_chart
  2651    prov:qualifiedDerivation [                      ## Qualify
  2652       a prov:Derivation;                           ##   how :bar_chart was derived from
  2653       prov:entity        :aggregatedByRegions;     ##     the dataset Entity :aggregatedByRegions.
  2654 
  2655       prov:hadActivity   :aggregating_activity;    ## Qualification: The activity that derived the :bar_chart.
  2656       prov:hadUsage      :use_of_aggregatedData;   ## Qualification: How the activity used :aggregatedByRegions.
  2657       prov:hadGeneration :generation_of_bar_chart; ## Qualification: How the activity generated the :bar_chart.
  2658    ];
  2659 .</pre>
  2660         </div>
  2661       </div>
  2662 
  2663      </div>
  2664 
  2665 
  2666     </div>
  2667 
  2668  
  2669 
  2670    <div id="cross-reference" class="normative section">
  2671       <!-- prov:tracedTo [ prov:wasGeneratedBy [ a prov:Activity; 
  2672            dcterms:description "python eg-24-prov-o-html-examples.py http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/ontology/ProvenanceOntology.owl" ] ] ] -->
  2673       <!--OddPage--><h2><span class="secno">4. </span>Cross reference&nbsp;for&nbsp;PROV-O&nbsp;classes&nbsp;and&nbsp;properties</h2>
  2674       <p>This section provides details for each class and property defined by the PROV Ontology, grouped by the categories described above:
  2675       </p>     
  2676       <ul>
  2677          <li><a href="#cross-reference-starting-point-terms">Starting Point Terms</a></li>
  2678          <li><a href="#cross-reference-expanded-terms">Expanded Terms</a></li>
  2679          <li><a href="#cross-reference-qualified-terms">Qualified Terms</a></li>
  2680       </ul>
  2681 
  2682       <p>
  2683       The superscripts <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup> and <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup> denote that a property is an OWL <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-syntax/#Object_Properties">object property</a> or <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-syntax/#Data_Properties">data property</a>, respectively.
  2684       </p>
  2685 
  2686       <p>Each PROV-O term in this cross reference links to the corresponding PROV-DM concept. The PROV-DM's table 
  2687          <a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#prov-dm-to-prov-o-and-prov-n">Cross-References to PROV-O and PROV-N</a> 
  2688          provides an overview of the correspondences between PROV-O and PROV-DM.
  2689 
  2690       </p>
  2691 
  2692       <p>
  2693          The qualification classes and properties shown in <a href="#qualified-forms-starting-point">Table 2</a> and 
  2694          <a href="#qualified-forms-expanded">Table 3</a> of the previous section can also be found in each entry of this cross reference.
  2695          If the property can be qualified, the <strong>can be qualified with</strong>
  2696          header indicates the qualifying property and influence class that should be used.
  2697          Conversely, the <strong>qualifies</strong> headers in the listings for qualification terms indicate the unqualified property that they qualify.
  2698          In the OWL file itself, the annotation properties <span class="qname repeated">prov:qualifiedForm</span> and <span class="qname repeated">prov:unqualifiedForm</span>
  2699          provide the same linkages between the unqualified properties and their qualifiying terms.
  2700       </p>
  2701 
  2702       <p>Most examples shown in this cross reference are encoded using the Turtle RDF serialization. 
  2703          When it is convenient to do so (e.g., when an example describes a <span class="qname repeated">prov:Bundle</span>), it may use the [<cite><a class="bibref" rel="biblioentry" href="#bib-TRIG">TRIG</a></cite>] syntax. 
  2704          Although this document does not specify how to encode Bundles in RDF, TriG's named graph construct is used only to illustrate the concept of 
  2705          creating a named set of PROV assertions. Note that <a href="#compliance">all examples are non-normative</a>.
  2706       </p>
  2707 
  2708       <div id="cross-reference-starting-point-terms" class="section">
  2709          <h3><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Starting Point Terms</h3>
  2710          <p>The classes and properties that provide a basis for all other PROV-O terms are discussed in <a href="#description-starting-point-terms">Section 3.1</a>.</p>
  2711          
  2712 <div class="prov-starting-point owl-classes at-a-glance">
  2713   <ul class="hlist">
  2714     <li>
  2715       <a href="#Entity">prov:Entity</a>
  2716     </li>
  2717     <li>
  2718       <a href="#Activity">prov:Activity</a>
  2719     </li>
  2720     <li>
  2721       <a href="#Agent">prov:Agent</a>
  2722     </li>
  2723   </ul>
  2724 </div>
  2725 
  2726 <div class="prov-starting-point owl-properties at-a-glance">
  2727   <ul class="hlist">
  2728     <li class="object-property">
  2729       <a href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>
  2730     </li>
  2731     <li class="object-property">
  2732       <a href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a>
  2733     </li>
  2734     <li class="object-property">
  2735       <a href="#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</a>
  2736     </li>
  2737     <li class="datatype-property">
  2738       <a href="#startedAtTime">prov:startedAtTime</a>
  2739     </li>
  2740     <li class="object-property">
  2741       <a href="#used">prov:used</a>
  2742     </li>
  2743     <li class="object-property">
  2744       <a href="#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</a>
  2745     </li>
  2746     <li class="datatype-property">
  2747       <a href="#endedAtTime">prov:endedAtTime</a>
  2748     </li>
  2749     <li class="object-property">
  2750       <a href="#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a>
  2751     </li>
  2752     <li class="object-property">
  2753       <a href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>
  2754     </li>
  2755   </ul>
  2756 </div>
  2757 
  2758          <div class="prov-starting-point owl-classes crossreference">
  2759 
  2760   <div id="Entity" class="entity">
  2761     <h3 id="x1--------class--prov-entity-----------------back-to-starting-point-classes">
  2762       <span class="xref" id="eg1">(1)</span>
  2763       Class: <a href="#Entity"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity">prov:Entity</span></a>
  2764       <span class="backlink">
  2765          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point classes</a>
  2766       </span>
  2767     </h3>
  2768     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity</p>
  2769     <div class="definition"><p>An entity is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. </p>
  2770     </div>
  2771 
  2772     <div class="example">
  2773       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  2774       <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  2775 @prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2776 @prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  2777 @prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
  2778 @prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2779 @prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  2780 
  2781 :bar_chart 
  2782    a prov:Entity;
  2783    dcterms:title "Aggregated statistics from the crime file"^^xsd:string;
  2784    prov:wasAttributedTo :derek;
  2785 .
  2786 
  2787 :derek a prov:Agent .
  2788 </pre>
  2789     </div>
  2790 
  2791     <dl class="description">
  2792       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  2793 
  2794       <dt></dt>
  2795       <dd>
  2796         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime" href="#invalidatedAtTime">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  2797         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2798         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2799         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2800         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2801         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf" href="#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2802         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2803         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2804         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime" href="#generatedAtTime">prov:generatedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  2805         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2806         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2807         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2808         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf" href="#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2809         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#value" href="#value">prov:value</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  2810         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2811         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2812         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2813         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision">prov:qualifiedRevision</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2814         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2815       </dd>
  2816 
  2817       <dt></dt>
  2818       <dd>
  2819         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2820       </dd><dt>in range of</dt>
  2821       <dd>
  2822         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2823         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated" href="#generated">prov:generated</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2824         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2825         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#entity" href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2826         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf" href="#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2827         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated" href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2828         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used">prov:used</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2829         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember" href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2830         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf" href="#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2831         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2832         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2833         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2834         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2835       </dd>
  2836 
  2837       <dt>has subclasses</dt>
  2838       <dd>
  2839         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection" href="#Collection" class="owlclass">prov:Collection</a>
  2840         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Plan" href="#Plan" class="owlclass">prov:Plan</a>
  2841         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle" href="#Bundle" class="owlclass">prov:Bundle</a>
  2842       </dd>
  2843 
  2844       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  2845       <dd>
  2846         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-entity">entity</a>      </dd>
  2847     </dl>
  2848   </div>
  2849 
  2850   <div id="Activity" class="entity">
  2851     <h3 id="x2--------class--prov-activity-----------------back-to-starting-point-classes">
  2852       <span class="xref" id="eg2">(2)</span>
  2853       Class: <a href="#Activity"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity">prov:Activity</span></a>
  2854       <span class="backlink">
  2855          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point classes</a>
  2856       </span>
  2857     </h3>
  2858     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity</p>
  2859     <div class="definition"><p>An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.</p>
  2860     </div>
  2861 
  2862     <div class="example">
  2863       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  2864       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  2865 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2866 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  2867 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2868 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  2869 
  2870 :graduation
  2871    a prov:Activity, :Graduation;
  2872    prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-15T13:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2873    prov:used          :ms_smith;
  2874    prov:generated     :doctor_smith;
  2875    prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-15T14:30:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  2876 .
  2877 :ms_smith     a prov:Entity .
  2878 :doctor_smith a prov:Entity .
  2879 </pre>
  2880     </div>
  2881 
  2882     <dl class="description">
  2883       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  2884 
  2885       <dt></dt>
  2886       <dd>
  2887         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated" href="#generated">prov:generated</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2888         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2889         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2890         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd">prov:qualifiedEnd</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2891         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy" href="#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2892         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2893         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used" href="#used">prov:used</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2894         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated" href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2895         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#endedAtTime" href="#endedAtTime">prov:endedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  2896         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart">prov:qualifiedStart</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2897         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2898         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy" href="#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2899         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#startedAtTime" href="#startedAtTime">prov:startedAtTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  2900         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2901       </dd>
  2902 
  2903       <dt></dt>
  2904       <dd>
  2905         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2906       </dd><dt>in range of</dt>
  2907       <dd>
  2908         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#activity" href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2909         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy" href="#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2910         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2911         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2912         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2913       </dd>
  2914 
  2915       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  2916       <dd>
  2917         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Activity">Activity</a>      </dd>
  2918     </dl>
  2919   </div>
  2920 
  2921   <div id="Agent" class="entity">
  2922     <h3 id="x3--------class--prov-agent-----------------back-to-starting-point-classes">
  2923       <span class="xref" id="eg3">(3)</span>
  2924       Class: <a href="#Agent"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent">prov:Agent</span></a>
  2925       <span class="backlink">
  2926          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point classes</a>
  2927       </span>
  2928     </h3>
  2929     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent</p>
  2930     <div class="definition"><p>An agent is something that bears some form of responsibility for an activity taking place, for the existence of an entity, or for another agent's activity. </p>
  2931     </div>
  2932 
  2933     <div class="example">
  2934       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  2935       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  2936 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  2937 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  2938 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  2939 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  2940 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com#&gt; .
  2941 
  2942 :derek
  2943    a prov:Agent, prov:Person;
  2944    foaf:givenName      "Derek"^^xsd:string;
  2945    foaf:mbox           &lt;mailto:derek@example.org&gt;;
  2946    foaf:homePage       &lt;http://derek.example.com&gt;;
  2947    prov:actedOnBehalfOf :national_newspaper_inc;
  2948 .
  2949 
  2950 :national_newspaper_inc
  2951    a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
  2952    foaf:name "National Newspaper, Inc.";
  2953 . 
  2954 </pre>
  2955     </div>
  2956 
  2957     <dl class="description">
  2958       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  2959 
  2960       <dt></dt>
  2961       <dd>
  2962         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2963         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2964       </dd>
  2965 
  2966       <dt></dt>
  2967       <dd>
  2968         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2969       </dd><dt>in range of</dt>
  2970       <dd>
  2971         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2972         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent" href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2973         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith" href="#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2974         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo" href="#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2975       </dd>
  2976 
  2977       <dt>has subclasses</dt>
  2978       <dd>
  2979         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Organization" href="#Organization" class="owlclass">prov:Organization</a>
  2980         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Person" href="#Person" class="owlclass">prov:Person</a>
  2981         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#SoftwareAgent" href="#SoftwareAgent" class="owlclass">prov:SoftwareAgent</a>
  2982       </dd>
  2983 
  2984       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  2985       <dd>
  2986         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-agent">agent</a>      </dd>
  2987     </dl>
  2988   </div>
  2989 </div>
  2990 <div class="prov-starting-point owl-properties crossreference" >
  2991   <div id="wasGeneratedBy" class="entity">
  2992     <h3 id="x4--------property--prov-wasgeneratedby-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  2993       <span class="xref" id="eg4">(4)</span>
  2994       Property: <a href="#wasGeneratedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy">prov:wasGeneratedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  2995       <span class="backlink">
  2996          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  2997       </span>
  2998     </h3>
  2999     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy</p>
  3000     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
  3001     </div>
  3002 
  3003     <div class="example">
  3004       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3005       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3006 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3007 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3008 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3009 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3010 
  3011 :bar_chart
  3012    a prov:Entity;
  3013    prov:wasGeneratedBy :illustrating;
  3014 .
  3015 
  3016 :illustrating a prov:Activity .
  3017 </pre>
  3018     </div>
  3019 
  3020     <div class="description">
  3021       <dl>
  3022 
  3023         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  3024         <dd>
  3025           <ul>
  3026             <li>
  3027               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3028             </li>
  3029           </ul>
  3030         </dd>
  3031 
  3032         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3033         <dd>
  3034           <ul>
  3035             <li>
  3036               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  3037             </li>
  3038           </ul>
  3039         </dd>
  3040 
  3041         <dt>has range</dt>
  3042         <dd>
  3043           <ul>
  3044             <li>
  3045               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  3046             </li>
  3047           </ul>
  3048         </dd>
  3049 
  3050         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3051         <dd>
  3052           <ul>
  3053             <li>
  3054               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a>
  3055             </li>
  3056             <li>
  3057               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedGeneration" href="#qualifiedGeneration" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3058             </li>
  3059           </ul>
  3060         </dd>
  3061 
  3062       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3063       <dd>
  3064          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>
  3065 
  3066       </dl>
  3067     </div>
  3068   </div>
  3069 
  3070   <div id="wasDerivedFrom" class="entity">
  3071     <h3 id="x5--------property--prov-wasderivedfrom-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  3072       <span class="xref" id="eg5">(5)</span>
  3073       Property: <a href="#wasDerivedFrom"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom">prov:wasDerivedFrom</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3074       <span class="backlink">
  3075          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  3076       </span>
  3077     </h3>
  3078     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom</p>
  3079     <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.</p>
  3080     </div>
  3081 
  3082     <div class="example">
  3083       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3084       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3085 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3086 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3087 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3088 @prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/vocab#&gt; .
  3089 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3090 
  3091 :bar_chart 
  3092    a prov:Entity, ex:Barchart;
  3093    prov:wasDerivedFrom :aggregatedByRegions;
  3094 .
  3095 
  3096 :aggregatedByRegions
  3097    a prov:Entity, ex:Dataset;
  3098 .
  3099 </pre>
  3100     </div>
  3101 
  3102     <div class="description">
  3103       <div class="comment "><p>The more specific subproperties of prov:wasDerivedFrom (i.e., prov:wasQuotedFrom, prov:wasRevisionOf, prov:hadPrimarySource) should be used when applicable.</p>
  3104       </div>
  3105       <dl>
  3106 
  3107         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  3108         <dd>
  3109           <ul>
  3110             <li>
  3111               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3112             </li>
  3113           </ul>
  3114         </dd>
  3115 
  3116         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3117         <dd>
  3118           <ul>
  3119             <li>
  3120               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  3121             </li>
  3122           </ul>
  3123         </dd>
  3124 
  3125         <dt>has range</dt>
  3126         <dd>
  3127           <ul>
  3128             <li>
  3129               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  3130             </li>
  3131           </ul>
  3132         </dd>
  3133 
  3134         <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
  3135         <dd>
  3136           <ul>
  3137             <li>
  3138               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource" href="#hadPrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:hadPrimarySource</a>
  3139             </li>
  3140             <li>
  3141               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom" href="#wasQuotedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a>
  3142             </li>
  3143             <li>
  3144               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf" href="#wasRevisionOf" class="owlclass">prov:wasRevisionOf</a>
  3145             </li>
  3146           </ul>
  3147         </dd>
  3148 
  3149         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3150         <dd>
  3151           <ul>
  3152             <li>
  3153               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Derivation" href="#Derivation" class="owlclass">prov:Derivation</a>
  3154             </li>
  3155             <li>
  3156               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDerivation" href="#qualifiedDerivation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3157             </li>
  3158           </ul>
  3159         </dd>
  3160 
  3161       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3162       <dd>
  3163          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Derivation">Derivation</a>      </dd>
  3164 
  3165       </dl>
  3166     </div>
  3167   </div>
  3168 
  3169   <div id="wasAttributedTo" class="entity">
  3170     <h3 id="x6--------property--prov-wasattributedto-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  3171       <span class="xref" id="eg6">(6)</span>
  3172       Property: <a href="#wasAttributedTo"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo">prov:wasAttributedTo</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3173       <span class="backlink">
  3174          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  3175       </span>
  3176     </h3>
  3177     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAttributedTo</p>
  3178     <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.</p>
  3179     </div>
  3180 
  3181     <div class="example">
  3182       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3183       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3184 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3185 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3186 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3187 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3188 
  3189 :geneSequencing
  3190    a prov:Activity;
  3191    prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-25T01:30:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3192    prov:used              :drosophilaSample-84;
  3193    prov:wasAssociatedWith :lab-technician-GH-32;
  3194    prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-25T03:40:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3195 .
  3196 
  3197 :drosophilaSample-84  
  3198    a prov:Entity;
  3199    prov:wasAttributedTo :lab-technician-FE-56;
  3200 .
  3201 
  3202 :lab-technician-GH-32 a prov:Agent .
  3203 :lab-technician-FE-56 a prov:Agent .
  3204 </pre>
  3205     </div>
  3206 
  3207     <div class="description">
  3208       <div class="comment "><p>Attribution is the ascribing of an entity to an agent.</p>
  3209       </div>
  3210       <dl>
  3211 
  3212         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  3213         <dd>
  3214           <ul>
  3215             <li>
  3216               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3217             </li>
  3218           </ul>
  3219         </dd>
  3220 
  3221         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3222         <dd>
  3223           <ul>
  3224             <li>
  3225               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  3226             </li>
  3227           </ul>
  3228         </dd>
  3229 
  3230         <dt>has range</dt>
  3231         <dd>
  3232           <ul>
  3233             <li>
  3234               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
  3235             </li>
  3236           </ul>
  3237         </dd>
  3238 
  3239         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3240         <dd>
  3241           <ul>
  3242             <li>
  3243               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAttribution" href="#qualifiedAttribution" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3244             </li>
  3245             <li>
  3246               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Attribution" href="#Attribution" class="owlclass">prov:Attribution</a>
  3247             </li>
  3248           </ul>
  3249         </dd>
  3250 
  3251       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3252       <dd>
  3253          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribution">attribution</a>      </dd>
  3254 
  3255       </dl>
  3256     </div>
  3257   </div>
  3258 
  3259   <div id="startedAtTime" class="entity">
  3260     <h3 id="x7--------property--prov-startedattime-dp-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  3261       <span class="xref" id="eg7">(7)</span>
  3262       Property: <a href="#startedAtTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#startedAtTime">prov:startedAtTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  3263       <span class="backlink">
  3264          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  3265       </span>
  3266     </h3>
  3267     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#startedAtTime</p>
  3268     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Start is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as trigger. The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as starter, that generated the trigger.</p>
  3269     </div>
  3270 
  3271     <div class="example">
  3272       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3273       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3274 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3275 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3276 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3277 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3278 
  3279 :geneSequencing
  3280    a prov:Activity;
  3281    prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-25T01:30:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3282    prov:used              :drosophilaSample-84;
  3283    prov:wasAssociatedWith :lab-technician-GH-32;
  3284    prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-25T03:40:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3285 .
  3286 
  3287 :drosophilaSample-84  a prov:Entity .
  3288 :lab-technician-GH-32 a prov:Agent .
  3289 </pre>
  3290     </div>
  3291 
  3292     <div class="description">
  3293       <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an activity started. See also prov:endedAtTime.</p>
  3294       </div>
  3295       <dl>
  3296 
  3297         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3298         <dd>
  3299           <ul>
  3300             <li>
  3301               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  3302             </li>
  3303           </ul>
  3304         </dd>
  3305 
  3306         <dt>has range</dt>
  3307         <dd>
  3308           <ul>
  3309             <li>
  3310               http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
  3311             </li>
  3312           </ul>
  3313         </dd>
  3314 
  3315         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3316         <dd>
  3317           <ul>
  3318             <li>
  3319               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a>
  3320             </li>
  3321             <li>
  3322               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime" class="owlproperty">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  3323             </li>
  3324           </ul>
  3325         </dd>
  3326 
  3327       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3328       <dd>
  3329          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Start">Start</a>      </dd>
  3330 
  3331       </dl>
  3332     </div>
  3333   </div>
  3334 
  3335   <div id="used" class="entity">
  3336     <h3 id="x8--------property--prov-used-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  3337       <span class="xref" id="eg8">(8)</span>
  3338       Property: <a href="#used"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used">prov:used</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3339       <span class="backlink">
  3340          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  3341       </span>
  3342     </h3>
  3343     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#used</p>
  3344     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Usage is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity.</p>
  3345     </div>
  3346 
  3347     <div class="example">
  3348       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3349       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3350 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3351 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3352 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3353 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3354 
  3355 :sortActivity
  3356    a prov:Activity;
  3357    prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3358    prov:used       :datasetA;
  3359    prov:generated  :datasetB;
  3360 .
  3361 
  3362 :datasetA a prov:Entity.
  3363 :datasetB a prov:Entity.
  3364 
  3365 # See qualified Usage for example on how the role of :datasetA can be described for this Activity
  3366 </pre>
  3367     </div>
  3368 
  3369     <div class="description">
  3370       <div class="comment "><p>A prov:Entity that was used by this prov:Activity. For example, :baking prov:used :spoon, :egg, :oven .</p>
  3371       </div>
  3372       <dl>
  3373 
  3374         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  3375         <dd>
  3376           <ul>
  3377             <li>
  3378               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3379             </li>
  3380           </ul>
  3381         </dd>
  3382 
  3383         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3384         <dd>
  3385           <ul>
  3386             <li>
  3387               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  3388             </li>
  3389           </ul>
  3390         </dd>
  3391 
  3392         <dt>has range</dt>
  3393         <dd>
  3394           <ul>
  3395             <li>
  3396               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  3397             </li>
  3398           </ul>
  3399         </dd>
  3400 
  3401         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3402         <dd>
  3403           <ul>
  3404             <li>
  3405               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Usage" href="#Usage" class="owlclass">prov:Usage</a>
  3406             </li>
  3407             <li>
  3408               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedUsage" href="#qualifiedUsage" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedUsage</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3409             </li>
  3410           </ul>
  3411         </dd>
  3412 
  3413       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3414       <dd>
  3415          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Usage">Usage</a>      </dd>
  3416 
  3417       </dl>
  3418     </div>
  3419   </div>
  3420 
  3421   <div id="wasInformedBy" class="entity">
  3422     <h3 id="x9--------property--prov-wasinformedby-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  3423       <span class="xref" id="eg9">(9)</span>
  3424       Property: <a href="#wasInformedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy">prov:wasInformedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3425       <span class="backlink">
  3426          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  3427       </span>
  3428     </h3>
  3429     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInformedBy</p>
  3430     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Communication is the exchange of an entity by two activities, one activity using the entity generated by the other.</p>
  3431     </div>
  3432 
  3433     <div class="example">
  3434       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3435       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3436 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3437 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3438 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3439 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3440 
  3441 :writing-celebrity-gossip 
  3442    a prov:Activity;
  3443    prov:wasInformedBy :voicemail-interception;
  3444 .
  3445 
  3446 :voicemail-interception a prov:Activity .
  3447 </pre>
  3448     </div>
  3449 
  3450     <div class="description">
  3451       <div class="comment "><p>An activity a2 is dependent on or informed by another activity a1, by way of some unspecified entity that is generated by a1 and used by a2.</p>
  3452       </div>
  3453       <dl>
  3454 
  3455         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  3456         <dd>
  3457           <ul>
  3458             <li>
  3459               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3460             </li>
  3461           </ul>
  3462         </dd>
  3463 
  3464         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3465         <dd>
  3466           <ul>
  3467             <li>
  3468               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  3469             </li>
  3470           </ul>
  3471         </dd>
  3472 
  3473         <dt>has range</dt>
  3474         <dd>
  3475           <ul>
  3476             <li>
  3477               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  3478             </li>
  3479           </ul>
  3480         </dd>
  3481 
  3482         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3483         <dd>
  3484           <ul>
  3485             <li>
  3486               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Communication" href="#Communication" class="owlclass">prov:Communication</a>
  3487             </li>
  3488             <li>
  3489               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedCommunication" href="#qualifiedCommunication" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3490             </li>
  3491           </ul>
  3492         </dd>
  3493 
  3494       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3495       <dd>
  3496          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Communication">Communication</a>      </dd>
  3497 
  3498       </dl>
  3499     </div>
  3500   </div>
  3501 
  3502   <div id="endedAtTime" class="entity">
  3503     <h3 id="x10--------property--prov-endedattime-dp-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  3504       <span class="xref" id="eg10">(10)</span>
  3505       Property: <a href="#endedAtTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#endedAtTime">prov:endedAtTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  3506       <span class="backlink">
  3507          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  3508       </span>
  3509     </h3>
  3510     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#endedAtTime</p>
  3511     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>End is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as trigger. The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as ender that generated the trigger.</p>
  3512     </div>
  3513 
  3514     <div class="example">
  3515       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3516       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3517 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3518 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3519 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3520 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3521 
  3522 :geneSequencing
  3523    a prov:Activity;
  3524    prov:startedAtTime "2012-04-25T01:30:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3525    prov:used              :drosophilaSample-84;
  3526    prov:wasAssociatedWith :lab-technician-GH-32;
  3527    prov:endedAtTime   "2012-04-25T03:40:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3528 .
  3529 
  3530 :drosophilaSample-84  a prov:Entity .
  3531 :lab-technician-GH-32 a prov:Agent .
  3532 </pre>
  3533     </div>
  3534 
  3535     <div class="description">
  3536       <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an activity ended. See also prov:startedAtTime.</p>
  3537       </div>
  3538       <dl>
  3539 
  3540         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3541         <dd>
  3542           <ul>
  3543             <li>
  3544               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  3545             </li>
  3546           </ul>
  3547         </dd>
  3548 
  3549         <dt>has range</dt>
  3550         <dd>
  3551           <ul>
  3552             <li>
  3553               http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
  3554             </li>
  3555           </ul>
  3556         </dd>
  3557 
  3558         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3559         <dd>
  3560           <ul>
  3561             <li>
  3562               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a>
  3563             </li>
  3564             <li>
  3565               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime" class="owlproperty">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  3566             </li>
  3567           </ul>
  3568         </dd>
  3569 
  3570       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3571       <dd>
  3572          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-End">End</a>      </dd>
  3573 
  3574       </dl>
  3575     </div>
  3576   </div>
  3577 
  3578   <div id="wasAssociatedWith" class="entity">
  3579     <h3 id="x11--------property--prov-wasassociatedwith-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  3580       <span class="xref" id="eg11">(11)</span>
  3581       Property: <a href="#wasAssociatedWith"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith">prov:wasAssociatedWith</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3582       <span class="backlink">
  3583          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  3584       </span>
  3585     </h3>
  3586     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasAssociatedWith</p>
  3587     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>An activity association is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity. It further allows for a plan to be specified, which is the plan intended by the agent to achieve some goals in the context of this activity.</p>
  3588     </div>
  3589 
  3590     <div class="example">
  3591       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3592       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3593 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3594 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3595 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3596 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3597 
  3598 :illustrating
  3599    a prov:Activity; 
  3600    prov:wasAssociatedWith :derek;
  3601 .
  3602 
  3603 :derek a prov:Person, prov:Agent, prov:Entity .
  3604 </pre>
  3605     </div>
  3606 
  3607     <div class="description">
  3608       <div class="comment "><p>An prov:Agent that had some (unspecified) responsibility for the occurrence of this prov:Activity.</p>
  3609       </div>
  3610       <dl>
  3611 
  3612         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  3613         <dd>
  3614           <ul>
  3615             <li>
  3616               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3617             </li>
  3618           </ul>
  3619         </dd>
  3620 
  3621         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3622         <dd>
  3623           <ul>
  3624             <li>
  3625               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  3626             </li>
  3627           </ul>
  3628         </dd>
  3629 
  3630         <dt>has range</dt>
  3631         <dd>
  3632           <ul>
  3633             <li>
  3634               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
  3635             </li>
  3636           </ul>
  3637         </dd>
  3638 
  3639         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3640         <dd>
  3641           <ul>
  3642             <li>
  3643               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association" href="#Association" class="owlclass">prov:Association</a>
  3644             </li>
  3645             <li>
  3646               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation" href="#qualifiedAssociation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3647             </li>
  3648           </ul>
  3649         </dd>
  3650 
  3651       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3652       <dd>
  3653          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Association">Association</a>      </dd>
  3654 
  3655       </dl>
  3656     </div>
  3657   </div>
  3658 
  3659   <div id="actedOnBehalfOf" class="entity">
  3660     <h3 id="x12--------property--prov-actedonbehalfof-op-----------------back-to-starting-point-properties">
  3661       <span class="xref" id="eg12">(12)</span>
  3662       Property: <a href="#actedOnBehalfOf"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3663       <span class="backlink">
  3664          back to <a href="#prov-starting-point-owl-terms-at-a-glance">starting-point properties</a>
  3665       </span>
  3666     </h3>
  3667     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf</p>
  3668     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Delegation is the assignment of authority and responsibility to an agent (by itself or by another agent) to carry out a specific activity as a delegate or representative, while the agent it acts on behalf of retains some responsibility for the outcome of the delegated work.
  3669 
  3670 For example, a student acted on behalf of his supervisor, who acted on behalf of the department chair, who acted on behalf of the university; all those agents are responsible in some way for the activity that took place but we do not say explicitly who bears responsibility and to what degree.</p>
  3671     </div>
  3672 
  3673     <div class="example">
  3674       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3675       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3676 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3677 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3678 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  3679 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3680 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3681 
  3682 :derek
  3683    a prov:Agent;
  3684    foaf:givenName "Derek"^^xsd:string;
  3685    foaf:mbox      &lt;mailto:derek@example.org&gt;;
  3686    prov:actedOnBehalfOf :national_newspaper_inc; 
  3687 .
  3688 
  3689 :national_newspaper_inc 
  3690    a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
  3691    foaf:name "National Newspaper, Inc.";
  3692 .
  3693 </pre>
  3694     </div>
  3695 
  3696     <div class="description">
  3697       <div class="comment "><p>An object property to express the accountability of an agent towards another agent. The subordinate agent acted on behalf of the responsible agent in an actual activity. </p>
  3698       </div>
  3699       <dl>
  3700 
  3701         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  3702         <dd>
  3703           <ul>
  3704             <li>
  3705               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3706             </li>
  3707           </ul>
  3708         </dd>
  3709 
  3710         <dt>has domain</dt>
  3711         <dd>
  3712           <ul>
  3713             <li>
  3714               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
  3715             </li>
  3716           </ul>
  3717         </dd>
  3718 
  3719         <dt>has range</dt>
  3720         <dd>
  3721           <ul>
  3722             <li>
  3723               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
  3724             </li>
  3725           </ul>
  3726         </dd>
  3727 
  3728         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  3729         <dd>
  3730           <ul>
  3731             <li>
  3732               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Delegation" href="#Delegation" class="owlclass">prov:Delegation</a>
  3733             </li>
  3734             <li>
  3735               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3736             </li>
  3737           </ul>
  3738         </dd>
  3739 
  3740       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3741       <dd>
  3742          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-delegation">delegation</a>      </dd>
  3743 
  3744       </dl>
  3745     </div>
  3746   </div>
  3747 
  3748 </div>
  3749 
  3750       </div>
  3751 
  3752       <div id="cross-reference-expanded-terms" class="section">
  3753          <h3><span class="secno">4.2 </span>Expanded Terms</h3>
  3754          <p>The additional terms used to describe relations among Starting Point classes are discussed in <a href="#description-expanded-terms">Section 3.2</a>.</p>
  3755          
  3756 <div class="prov-expanded owl-classes at-a-glance">
  3757   <ul class="hlist">
  3758     <li>
  3759       <a href="#Collection">prov:Collection</a>
  3760     </li>
  3761     <li>
  3762       <a href="#EmptyCollection">prov:EmptyCollection</a>
  3763     </li>
  3764     <li>
  3765       <a href="#Bundle">prov:Bundle</a>
  3766     </li>
  3767     <li>
  3768       <a href="#Person">prov:Person</a>
  3769     </li>
  3770     <li>
  3771       <a href="#SoftwareAgent">prov:SoftwareAgent</a>
  3772     </li>
  3773     <li>
  3774       <a href="#Organization">prov:Organization</a>
  3775     </li>
  3776     <li>
  3777       <a href="#Location">prov:Location</a>
  3778     </li>
  3779   </ul>
  3780 </div>
  3781 
  3782 <div class="prov-expanded owl-properties at-a-glance">
  3783   <ul class="hlist">
  3784     <li class="object-property">
  3785       <a href="#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</a>
  3786     </li>
  3787     <li class="object-property">
  3788       <a href="#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</a>
  3789     </li>
  3790     <li class="datatype-property">
  3791       <a href="#generatedAtTime">prov:generatedAtTime</a>
  3792     </li>
  3793     <li class="object-property">
  3794       <a href="#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</a>
  3795     </li>
  3796     <li class="datatype-property">
  3797       <a href="#value">prov:value</a>
  3798     </li>
  3799     <li class="object-property">
  3800       <a href="#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</a>
  3801     </li>
  3802     <li class="object-property">
  3803       <a href="#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</a>
  3804     </li>
  3805     <li class="datatype-property">
  3806       <a href="#invalidatedAtTime">prov:invalidatedAtTime</a>
  3807     </li>
  3808     <li class="object-property">
  3809       <a href="#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>
  3810     </li>
  3811     <li class="object-property">
  3812       <a href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a>
  3813     </li>
  3814     <li class="object-property">
  3815       <a href="#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</a>
  3816     </li>
  3817     <li class="object-property">
  3818       <a href="#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</a>
  3819     </li>
  3820     <li class="object-property">
  3821       <a href="#invalidated">prov:invalidated</a>
  3822     </li>
  3823     <li class="object-property">
  3824       <a href="#influenced">prov:influenced</a>
  3825     </li>
  3826     <li class="object-property">
  3827       <a href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a>
  3828     </li>
  3829     <li class="object-property">
  3830       <a href="#generated">prov:generated</a>
  3831     </li>
  3832   </ul>
  3833 </div>
  3834 
  3835          <div class="prov-expanded owl-classes crossreference" >
  3836 
  3837   <div id="Collection" class="entity">
  3838     <h3 id="x13--------class--prov-collection-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
  3839       <span class="xref" id="eg13">(13)</span>
  3840       Class: <a href="#Collection"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection">prov:Collection</span></a>
  3841       <span class="backlink">
  3842          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
  3843       </span>
  3844     </h3>
  3845     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection</p>
  3846     <div class="definition"><p>A collection is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be member of the collections.</p>
  3847     </div>
  3848 
  3849     <div class="example">
  3850       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3851       <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  3852 @prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3853 @prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
  3854 @prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  3855 @prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3856 @prefix ex:      &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
  3857 @prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  3858 
  3859 :todays-us-supreme-court
  3860    a prov:Collection, :RobertsCourt;
  3861 
  3862    prov:qualifiedGeneration [
  3863       a prov:Generation;
  3864       
  3865       # The generation is being qualified to be imprecise;
  3866       # prov:generatedAtTime and prov:atTime specify exact instants in time.
  3867       dcterms:date "2012"^^xsd:gYear; 
  3868    ];                                 
  3869 
  3870    prov:hadMember
  3871       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/John_Glover_Roberts,_Jr.&gt;,
  3872       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Antonin_Scalia&gt;, 
  3873       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Anthony_Kennedy&gt;, 
  3874       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Clarence_Thomas&gt;, 
  3875       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg&gt;,
  3876       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Stephen_Breyer&gt;,     
  3877       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Samuel_Alito&gt;,      
  3878       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sonia_Sotomayor&gt;,  
  3879       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Elena_Kagan&gt;;   
  3880 
  3881    prov:wasDerivedFrom :the-first-us-supreme-court;
  3882 
  3883    dcterms:description :copied-string;
  3884 .
  3885 
  3886 :copied-string
  3887    a prov:Entity;
  3888    prov:value """2010–present: A. Scalia A. Kennedy C. Thomas R.B. Ginsburg 
  3889                  S. Breyer S. Alito S. Sotomayor E. Kagan""";
  3890    prov:wasQuotedFrom :page-by-composition;
  3891 .
  3892 
  3893 :page-by-seat
  3894    a prov:Entity, ex:WikipediaPage;
  3895    prov:specializationOf &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-seat&gt;;
  3896    prov:generatedAtTime "2011-08-31T12:51:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3897 .
  3898 
  3899 :page-by-composition
  3900    a prov:Entity, ex:WikipediaPage;
  3901    prov:specializationOf &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-composition&gt;;
  3902    prov:generatedAtTime "2012-05-16T14:33:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3903 .
  3904 </pre>
  3905     </div>
  3906 
  3907     <dl class="description">
  3908 
  3909       <dt>is subclass of</dt>
  3910       <dd>
  3911         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  3912       </dd>
  3913       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  3914 
  3915       <dt></dt>
  3916       <dd>
  3917         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember" href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  3918       </dd>
  3919 
  3920       <dt>has subclass</dt>
  3921       <dd>
  3922         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EmptyCollection" href="#EmptyCollection" class="owlclass">prov:EmptyCollection</a>
  3923       </dd>
  3924 
  3925       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  3926       <dd>
  3927         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-collection">collection</a>      </dd>
  3928     </dl>
  3929   </div>
  3930 
  3931   <div id="EmptyCollection" class="entity">
  3932     <h3 id="x14--------class--prov-emptycollection-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
  3933       <span class="xref" id="eg14">(14)</span>
  3934       Class: <a href="#EmptyCollection"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EmptyCollection">prov:EmptyCollection</span></a>
  3935       <span class="backlink">
  3936          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
  3937       </span>
  3938     </h3>
  3939     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EmptyCollection</p>
  3940     <div class="definition"><p>An empty collection is a collection without members.</p>
  3941     </div>
  3942 
  3943     <div class="example">
  3944       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3945       <pre>@prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3946 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.org/&gt; .
  3947 
  3948 :c a prov:EmptyCollection . # The collection is believed to not contain members.
  3949 </pre>
  3950     </div>
  3951 
  3952     <dl class="description">
  3953 
  3954       <dt>is subclass of</dt>
  3955       <dd>
  3956         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection" href="#Collection" class="owlclass">prov:Collection</a>
  3957       </dd>
  3958       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  3959 
  3960       <dt></dt>
  3961       <dd>
  3962         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember" href="#hadMember">prov:hadMember</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>
  3963     </dl>
  3964   </div>
  3965 
  3966   <div id="Bundle" class="entity">
  3967     <h3 id="x15--------class--prov-bundle-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
  3968       <span class="xref" id="eg15">(15)</span>
  3969       Class: <a href="#Bundle"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle">prov:Bundle</span></a>
  3970       <span class="backlink">
  3971          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
  3972       </span>
  3973     </h3>
  3974     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Bundle</p>
  3975     <div class="definition"><p>A bundle is a named set of provenance descriptions, and is itself an Entity, so allowing provenance of provenance to be expressed.</p>
  3976     </div>
  3977 
  3978     <div class="example">
  3979       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  3980       <pre>@prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  3981 @prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  3982 @prefix my:      &lt;http://example.com/my#&gt; .
  3983 @prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/#&gt; .
  3984 @base &lt;http://www.example.com/example.ttl&gt; .
  3985 
  3986 &lt;&gt; # A provenance file located at http://www.example.com/example.ttl
  3987    a prov:Bundle;
  3988    prov:generatedAtTime "2012-05-24T09:30:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3989    prov:wasAttributedTo :bob;
  3990 .
  3991 
  3992 :report1
  3993    a my:Report, prov:Entity;
  3994    my:version "1";
  3995    prov:generatedAtTime "2012-05-24T01:00:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  3996    prov:wasAttributedTo :bob;
  3997 .
  3998 </pre>
  3999     </div>
  4000 
  4001     <dl class="description">
  4002     <dd class="comment"><p>Note that there are kinds of bundles (e.g. handwritten letters, audio recordings, etc.) that are not expressed in PROV-O, but can be still be described by PROV-O.</p>
  4003     </dd>
  4004 
  4005       <dt>is subclass of</dt>
  4006       <dd>
  4007         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4008       </dd>
  4009 
  4010       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4011       <dd>
  4012         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-bundle-entity">bundle-entity</a>      </dd>
  4013     </dl>
  4014   </div>
  4015 
  4016   <div id="Person" class="entity">
  4017     <h3 id="x16--------class--prov-person-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
  4018       <span class="xref" id="eg16">(16)</span>
  4019       Class: <a href="#Person"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Person">prov:Person</span></a>
  4020       <span class="backlink">
  4021          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
  4022       </span>
  4023     </h3>
  4024     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Person</p>
  4025     <div class="definition"><p>Agents of type Person are people.</p>
  4026     </div>
  4027 
  4028     <div class="example">
  4029       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4030       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4031 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4032 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4033 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4034 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  4035 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4036 
  4037 &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;
  4038    a prov:Person, prov:Agent;
  4039    foaf:depiction &lt;http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg&gt;;
  4040 .
  4041 </pre>
  4042     </div>
  4043 
  4044     <dl class="description">
  4045 
  4046       <dt>is subclass of</dt>
  4047       <dd>
  4048         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
  4049       </dd>
  4050       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  4051 
  4052       <dt></dt>
  4053       <dd>
  4054         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>
  4055 
  4056       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4057       <dd>
  4058         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-agent">agent</a>      </dd>
  4059     </dl>
  4060   </div>
  4061 
  4062   <div id="SoftwareAgent" class="entity">
  4063     <h3 id="x17--------class--prov-softwareagent-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
  4064       <span class="xref" id="eg17">(17)</span>
  4065       Class: <a href="#SoftwareAgent"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#SoftwareAgent">prov:SoftwareAgent</span></a>
  4066       <span class="backlink">
  4067          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
  4068       </span>
  4069     </h3>
  4070     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#SoftwareAgent</p>
  4071     <div class="definition"><p>A software agent is running software.</p>
  4072     </div>
  4073 
  4074     <div class="example">
  4075       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4076       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4077 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4078 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4079 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4080 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4081 
  4082 # Googlebot is Google's web crawling bot; 
  4083 # it can initiate and participate in web-crawling activities.
  4084 
  4085 :googlebot
  4086    a prov:SoftwareAgent;
  4087    rdfs:label "Googlebot"^^xsd:string;
  4088 .
  4089 </pre>
  4090     </div>
  4091 
  4092     <dl class="description">
  4093 
  4094       <dt>is subclass of</dt>
  4095       <dd>
  4096         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
  4097       </dd>
  4098       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  4099 
  4100       <dt></dt>
  4101       <dd>
  4102         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>
  4103 
  4104       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4105       <dd>
  4106         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-agent">agent</a>      </dd>
  4107     </dl>
  4108   </div>
  4109 
  4110   <div id="Organization" class="entity">
  4111     <h3 id="x18--------class--prov-organization-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
  4112       <span class="xref" id="eg18">(18)</span>
  4113       Class: <a href="#Organization"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Organization">prov:Organization</span></a>
  4114       <span class="backlink">
  4115          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
  4116       </span>
  4117     </h3>
  4118     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Organization</p>
  4119     <div class="definition"><p>Agents of type Organization are social institutions such as companies, societies etc.</p>
  4120     </div>
  4121 
  4122     <div class="example">
  4123       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4124       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4125 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4126 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4127 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4128 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  4129 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4130 
  4131 :<acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym> 
  4132    a prov:Agent, prov:Organization;
  4133    foaf:name "World Wide Web Consortium";
  4134 . 
  4135 </pre>
  4136     </div>
  4137 
  4138     <dl class="description">
  4139 
  4140       <dt>is subclass of</dt>
  4141       <dd>
  4142         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
  4143       </dd>
  4144       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  4145 
  4146       <dt></dt>
  4147       <dd>
  4148         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedDelegation" href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>        , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#actedOnBehalfOf" href="#actedOnBehalfOf">prov:actedOnBehalfOf</a>  <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>      </dd>
  4149 
  4150       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4151       <dd>
  4152         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-agent">agent</a>      </dd>
  4153     </dl>
  4154   </div>
  4155 
  4156   <div id="Location" class="entity">
  4157     <h3 id="x19--------class--prov-location-----------------back-to-expanded-classes">
  4158       <span class="xref" id="eg19">(19)</span>
  4159       Class: <a href="#Location"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Location">prov:Location</span></a>
  4160       <span class="backlink">
  4161          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded classes</a>
  4162       </span>
  4163     </h3>
  4164     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Location</p>
  4165     <div class="definition"><p>A location can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column. As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate, address, landmark, and so forth.</p>
  4166     </div>
  4167 
  4168     <div class="example">
  4169       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4170       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4171 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4172 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4173 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4174 @prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
  4175 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4176 
  4177 # A Location can be a path or a geographical location.
  4178 
  4179 :post9821 
  4180    a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;   
  4181    prov:wasGeneratedBy :publicationActivity1123;
  4182    prov:atLocation     :more-crime-happens-in-cities;
  4183    prov:qualifiedGeneration [
  4184       a prov:Generation;
  4185       prov:activity    :publicationActivity1123;
  4186       prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime; 
  4187       prov:atLocation &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid&gt;;
  4188    ];
  4189 .
  4190 
  4191 :publicationActivity1123      a prov:Activity.
  4192 :more-crime-happens-in-cities a prov:Location.
  4193 &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid&gt; a prov:Location. 
  4194 </pre>
  4195     </div>
  4196 
  4197     <dl class="description">
  4198 
  4199       <dt>in range of</dt>
  4200       <dd>
  4201         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation" href="#atLocation">prov:atLocation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4202       </dd>
  4203 
  4204       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4205       <dd>
  4206         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-location">attribute-location</a>      </dd>
  4207     </dl>
  4208   </div>
  4209 </div>
  4210 <div class="prov-expanded owl-properties crossreference" >
  4211   <div id="alternateOf" class="entity">
  4212     <h3 id="x20--------property--prov-alternateof-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4213       <span class="xref" id="eg20">(20)</span>
  4214       Property: <a href="#alternateOf"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf">prov:alternateOf</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4215       <span class="backlink">
  4216          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4217       </span>
  4218     </h3>
  4219     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf</p>
  4220     <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>Two alternate entities present aspects of the same thing. These aspects may be the same or different, and the alternate entities may or may not overlap in time.</p>
  4221     </div>
  4222 
  4223     <div class="example">
  4224       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4225       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4226 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4227 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4228 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4229 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4230 
  4231 :bbc a prov:Agent .
  4232 
  4233 :london_forecast_0412 
  4234    a prov:Entity;
  4235    prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
  4236    prov:wasGeneratedBy [
  4237       a prov:Activity;
  4238       prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-12T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  4239    ];
  4240    prov:alternateOf :london_forecast_043;
  4241 .
  4242 
  4243 :london_forecast_0413 
  4244    a prov:Entity;
  4245    prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
  4246    prov:wasGeneratedBy [
  4247       a prov:Activity;
  4248       prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-13T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  4249    ];
  4250    prov:alternateOf :london_forecast_0412;
  4251 .
  4252 
  4253 ## :london_forecast_0412 and :london_forecast_0413 are both 
  4254 ## specialization of the more general entity :london_forecast
  4255 
  4256 :london_forecast 
  4257    a prov:Entity;
  4258    prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
  4259 .
  4260 
  4261 :london_forecast_0412
  4262    prov:specializationOf :london_forecast;
  4263 .
  4264 :london_forecast_0413
  4265    prov:specializationOf :london_forecast;
  4266 .
  4267 </pre>
  4268     </div>
  4269 
  4270     <div class="description">
  4271       <dl>
  4272 
  4273         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4274         <dd>
  4275           <ul>
  4276             <li>
  4277               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4278             </li>
  4279           </ul>
  4280         </dd>
  4281 
  4282         <dt>has range</dt>
  4283         <dd>
  4284           <ul>
  4285             <li>
  4286               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4287             </li>
  4288           </ul>
  4289         </dd>
  4290 
  4291         <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
  4292         <dd>
  4293           <ul>
  4294             <li>
  4295               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf" href="#specializationOf" class="owlclass">prov:specializationOf</a>
  4296             </li>
  4297           </ul>
  4298         </dd>
  4299 
  4300       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4301       <dd>
  4302          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-alternate">alternate</a>      </dd>
  4303 
  4304       </dl>
  4305     </div>
  4306   </div>
  4307 
  4308   <div id="specializationOf" class="entity">
  4309     <h3 id="x21--------property--prov-specializationof-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4310       <span class="xref" id="eg21">(21)</span>
  4311       Property: <a href="#specializationOf"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf">prov:specializationOf</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4312       <span class="backlink">
  4313          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4314       </span>
  4315     </h3>
  4316     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf</p>
  4317     <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>An entity that is a specialization of another shares all aspects of the latter, and additionally presents more specific aspects of the same thing as the latter. In particular, the lifetime of the entity being specialized contains that of any specialization. Examples of aspects include a time period, an abstraction, and a context associated with the entity.</p>
  4318     </div>
  4319 
  4320     <div class="example">
  4321       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4322       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4323 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4324 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4325 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4326 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4327 
  4328 :london_forecast_0412 
  4329    a prov:Entity;
  4330    prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
  4331    prov:wasGeneratedBy [
  4332       a prov:Activity;
  4333       prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-12T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  4334    ];
  4335 .
  4336 
  4337 :london_forecast_0413 
  4338    a prov:Entity;
  4339    prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
  4340    prov:wasGeneratedBy [
  4341       a prov:Activity;
  4342       prov:endedAtTime "2012-04-13T00:00:00-04:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  4343    ];
  4344 .
  4345 
  4346 :london_forecast 
  4347    a prov:Entity;
  4348    prov:wasAttributedTo :bbc;
  4349 .
  4350 
  4351 ## :london_forecast_0412 and :london_forecast_0413 are both 
  4352 ## specialization of the more general entity :london_forecast
  4353 
  4354 :london_forecast_0412  
  4355    prov:alternateOf      :london_forecast_0413;
  4356    prov:specializationOf :london_forecast;
  4357 .
  4358 </pre>
  4359     </div>
  4360 
  4361     <div class="description">
  4362       <dl>
  4363 
  4364         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  4365         <dd>
  4366           <ul>
  4367             <li>
  4368               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#alternateOf" href="#alternateOf" class="owlclass">prov:alternateOf</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4369             </li>
  4370           </ul>
  4371         </dd>
  4372 
  4373         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4374         <dd>
  4375           <ul>
  4376             <li>
  4377               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4378             </li>
  4379           </ul>
  4380         </dd>
  4381 
  4382         <dt>has range</dt>
  4383         <dd>
  4384           <ul>
  4385             <li>
  4386               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4387             </li>
  4388           </ul>
  4389         </dd>
  4390 
  4391       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4392       <dd>
  4393          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-specialization">specialization</a>      </dd>
  4394 
  4395       </dl>
  4396     </div>
  4397   </div>
  4398 
  4399   <div id="generatedAtTime" class="entity">
  4400     <h3 id="x22--------property--prov-generatedattime-dp-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4401       <span class="xref" id="eg22">(22)</span>
  4402       Property: <a href="#generatedAtTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime">prov:generatedAtTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  4403       <span class="backlink">
  4404          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4405       </span>
  4406     </h3>
  4407     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime</p>
  4408     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
  4409     </div>
  4410 
  4411     <div class="example">
  4412       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4413       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4414 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4415 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4416 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4417 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4418 
  4419 # A widget was generated 1:35:23 PM on April 3, 2012 UTC
  4420 
  4421 :widget-789532
  4422    a prov:Entity;
  4423    prov:generatedAtTime "2012-04-03T13:35:23Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  4424 .
  4425 
  4426 # The above statement is equivalent to:
  4427 # :widget-789532 prov:qualifiedGeneration [ prov:atTime "2012-04-03T13:35:23Z"^^xsd:dateTime ] .
  4428 </pre>
  4429     </div>
  4430 
  4431     <div class="description">
  4432       <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an entity was completely created and is available for use.</p>
  4433       </div>
  4434       <dl>
  4435 
  4436         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4437         <dd>
  4438           <ul>
  4439             <li>
  4440               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4441             </li>
  4442           </ul>
  4443         </dd>
  4444 
  4445         <dt>has range</dt>
  4446         <dd>
  4447           <ul>
  4448             <li>
  4449               http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
  4450             </li>
  4451           </ul>
  4452         </dd>
  4453 
  4454         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  4455         <dd>
  4456           <ul>
  4457             <li>
  4458               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Generation" href="#Generation" class="owlclass">prov:Generation</a>
  4459             </li>
  4460             <li>
  4461               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime" class="owlproperty">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  4462             </li>
  4463           </ul>
  4464         </dd>
  4465 
  4466       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4467       <dd>
  4468          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>
  4469 
  4470       </dl>
  4471     </div>
  4472   </div>
  4473 
  4474   <div id="hadPrimarySource" class="entity">
  4475     <h3 id="x23--------property--prov-hadprimarysource-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4476       <span class="xref" id="eg23">(23)</span>
  4477       Property: <a href="#hadPrimarySource"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource">prov:hadPrimarySource</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4478       <span class="backlink">
  4479          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4480       </span>
  4481     </h3>
  4482     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource</p>
  4483     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>A primary source for a topic refers to something produced by some agent with direct experience and knowledge about the topic, at the time of the topic's study, without benefit from hindsight.
  4484 
  4485 Because of the directness of primary sources, they 'speak for themselves' in ways that cannot be captured through the filter of secondary sources. As such, it is important for secondary sources to reference those primary sources from which they were derived, so that their reliability can be investigated.
  4486 
  4487 A primary source relation is a particular case of derivation of secondary materials from their primary sources. It is recognized that the determination of primary sources can be up to interpretation, and should be done according to conventions accepted within the application's domain.</p>
  4488     </div>
  4489 
  4490     <div class="example">
  4491       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4492       <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4493 @prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4494 @prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4495 @prefix foaf:    &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  4496 @prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4497 @prefix lang:    &lt;http://lexvo.org/id/iso639-3/&gt; .
  4498 @prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
  4499 @prefix frbr:    &lt;http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#&gt; .
  4500 @prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4501 
  4502 ## Having an primary source is a particular case of derivation.
  4503 
  4504 &lt;http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/996&gt;
  4505    a prov:Entity, frbr:Work;
  4506    dcterms:title          "Don Quixote";
  4507    prov:wasAttributedTo   :ormsby;
  4508    dcterms:language       lang:eng;
  4509    prov:hadPrimarySource &lt;http://cultura.linkeddata.es/BNE/resource/C1001/XX2197892&gt;;
  4510 .
  4511 
  4512 #### The English version book is a translation that is based on the original Spanish book
  4513 
  4514 &lt;http://cultura.linkeddata.es/BNE/resource/C1001/XX2197892&gt;
  4515     a prov:Entity, frbr:Work;
  4516     prov:wasAttributedTo :cervantes;
  4517     dcterms:language     lang:spa;
  4518 .
  4519 
  4520 :cervantes
  4521    a prov:Person;
  4522    foaf:name "Miguel de Cervantes";
  4523 .
  4524 
  4525 :ormsby
  4526    a prov:Person;
  4527    foaf:name "John Ormsby";
  4528 .
  4529 </pre>
  4530     </div>
  4531 
  4532     <div class="description">
  4533       <dl>
  4534 
  4535         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  4536         <dd>
  4537           <ul>
  4538             <li>
  4539               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4540             </li>
  4541           </ul>
  4542         </dd>
  4543 
  4544         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4545         <dd>
  4546           <ul>
  4547             <li>
  4548               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4549             </li>
  4550           </ul>
  4551         </dd>
  4552 
  4553         <dt>has range</dt>
  4554         <dd>
  4555           <ul>
  4556             <li>
  4557               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4558             </li>
  4559           </ul>
  4560         </dd>
  4561 
  4562         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  4563         <dd>
  4564           <ul>
  4565             <li>
  4566               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedPrimarySource" href="#qualifiedPrimarySource" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4567             </li>
  4568             <li>
  4569               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#PrimarySource" href="#PrimarySource" class="owlclass">prov:PrimarySource</a>
  4570             </li>
  4571           </ul>
  4572         </dd>
  4573 
  4574       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4575       <dd>
  4576          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-primary-source">primary-source</a>      </dd>
  4577 
  4578       </dl>
  4579     </div>
  4580   </div>
  4581 
  4582   <div id="value" class="entity">
  4583     <h3 id="x24--------property--prov-value-dp-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4584       <span class="xref" id="eg24">(24)</span>
  4585       Property: <a href="#value"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#value">prov:value</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  4586       <span class="backlink">
  4587          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4588       </span>
  4589     </h3>
  4590     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#value</p>
  4591     <div class="definition def-from-1"><p>Provides a value that is a direct representation of an entity.</p>
  4592     </div>
  4593 
  4594     <div class="example">
  4595       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4596       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4597 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4598 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4599 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4600 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4601 
  4602 :copied-string
  4603    a prov:Entity;
  4604    prov:value 
  4605       """2010–present: A. Scalia A. Kennedy C. Thomas R.B. Ginsburg 
  4606          S. Breyer S. Alito S. Sotomayor E. Kagan""";
  4607    prov:wasQuotedFrom 
  4608       &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-composition&gt;;
  4609 .
  4610 </pre>
  4611     </div>
  4612 
  4613     <div class="description">
  4614       <dl>
  4615 
  4616         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4617         <dd>
  4618           <ul>
  4619             <li>
  4620               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4621             </li>
  4622           </ul>
  4623         </dd>
  4624 
  4625       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4626       <dd>
  4627          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-value">attribute-value</a>      </dd>
  4628 
  4629       </dl>
  4630     </div>
  4631   </div>
  4632 
  4633   <div id="wasQuotedFrom" class="entity">
  4634     <h3 id="x25--------property--prov-wasquotedfrom-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4635       <span class="xref" id="eg25">(25)</span>
  4636       Property: <a href="#wasQuotedFrom"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom">prov:wasQuotedFrom</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4637       <span class="backlink">
  4638          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4639       </span>
  4640     </h3>
  4641     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasQuotedFrom</p>
  4642     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>A quotation is the repeat of (some or all of) an entity, such as text or image, by someone who may or may not be its original author. Quotation is a particular case of derivation.</p>
  4643     </div>
  4644 
  4645     <div class="example">
  4646       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4647       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4648 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4649 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4650 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4651 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4652 
  4653 :bl-dagstuhl
  4654    a prov:Entity;
  4655 
  4656    prov:value """During the workshop, it became clear to me that the consensus
  4657    based models (which are often graphical in nature) can not only be
  4658    formalized but also be directly connected to these database focused
  4659    formalizations. I just needed to get over the differences in syntax.
  4660    This could imply that we could have nice way to trace provenance across
  4661    systems and through databases and be able to understand the
  4662    mathematical properties of this interconnection.""";
  4663 
  4664    prov:wasQuotedFrom &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;;
  4665 .
  4666 
  4667 &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/thoughts-from-the-dagstuhl-workshop&gt;
  4668    a prov:Entity;
  4669 .
  4670 </pre>
  4671     </div>
  4672 
  4673     <div class="description">
  4674       <div class="comment "><p>An entity is derived from an original entity by copying, or 'quoting', some or all of it.</p>
  4675       </div>
  4676       <dl>
  4677 
  4678         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  4679         <dd>
  4680           <ul>
  4681             <li>
  4682               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4683             </li>
  4684           </ul>
  4685         </dd>
  4686 
  4687         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4688         <dd>
  4689           <ul>
  4690             <li>
  4691               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4692             </li>
  4693           </ul>
  4694         </dd>
  4695 
  4696         <dt>has range</dt>
  4697         <dd>
  4698           <ul>
  4699             <li>
  4700               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4701             </li>
  4702           </ul>
  4703         </dd>
  4704 
  4705         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  4706         <dd>
  4707           <ul>
  4708             <li>
  4709               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedQuotation" href="#qualifiedQuotation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4710             </li>
  4711             <li>
  4712               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Quotation" href="#Quotation" class="owlclass">prov:Quotation</a>
  4713             </li>
  4714           </ul>
  4715         </dd>
  4716 
  4717       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4718       <dd>
  4719          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-quotation">quotation</a>      </dd>
  4720 
  4721       </dl>
  4722     </div>
  4723   </div>
  4724 
  4725   <div id="wasRevisionOf" class="entity">
  4726     <h3 id="x26--------property--prov-wasrevisionof-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4727       <span class="xref" id="eg26">(26)</span>
  4728       Property: <a href="#wasRevisionOf"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf">prov:wasRevisionOf</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4729       <span class="backlink">
  4730          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4731       </span>
  4732     </h3>
  4733     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRevisionOf</p>
  4734     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>A revision is a derivation for which the resulting entity is a revised version of some original. The implication here is that the resulting entity contains substantial content from the original. Revision is a particular case of derivation.</p>
  4735     </div>
  4736 
  4737     <div class="example">
  4738       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4739       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4740 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4741 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4742 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4743 @prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
  4744 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4745 
  4746 :post9821v1
  4747    a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;
  4748    prov:wasRevisionOf :post9821;
  4749    rdfs:comment ":post9821v1 is a post, which is a revision of the original post :post9821.";
  4750 .    
  4751 </pre>
  4752     </div>
  4753 
  4754     <div class="description">
  4755       <div class="comment "><p>A revision is a derivation that revises an entity into a revised version.</p>
  4756       </div>
  4757       <dl>
  4758 
  4759         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  4760         <dd>
  4761           <ul>
  4762             <li>
  4763               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom" href="#wasDerivedFrom" class="owlclass">prov:wasDerivedFrom</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4764             </li>
  4765           </ul>
  4766         </dd>
  4767 
  4768         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4769         <dd>
  4770           <ul>
  4771             <li>
  4772               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4773             </li>
  4774           </ul>
  4775         </dd>
  4776 
  4777         <dt>has range</dt>
  4778         <dd>
  4779           <ul>
  4780             <li>
  4781               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4782             </li>
  4783           </ul>
  4784         </dd>
  4785 
  4786         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  4787         <dd>
  4788           <ul>
  4789             <li>
  4790               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Revision" href="#Revision" class="owlclass">prov:Revision</a>
  4791             </li>
  4792             <li>
  4793               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedRevision" href="#qualifiedRevision" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedRevision</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4794             </li>
  4795           </ul>
  4796         </dd>
  4797 
  4798       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4799       <dd>
  4800          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-revision">revision</a>      </dd>
  4801 
  4802       </dl>
  4803     </div>
  4804   </div>
  4805 
  4806   <div id="invalidatedAtTime" class="entity">
  4807     <h3 id="x27--------property--prov-invalidatedattime-dp-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4808       <span class="xref" id="eg27">(27)</span>
  4809       Property: <a href="#invalidatedAtTime"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime">prov:invalidatedAtTime</span></a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  4810       <span class="backlink">
  4811          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4812       </span>
  4813     </h3>
  4814     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime</p>
  4815     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</p>
  4816     </div>
  4817 
  4818     <div class="example">
  4819       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4820       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4821 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4822 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4823 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4824 @prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
  4825 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4826 
  4827 :the-Painter 
  4828    a prov:Entity, ex:Painting;
  4829    rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
  4830    prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;;
  4831    prov:invalidatedAtTime "1998-09-02T01:31:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  4832 .
  4833 </pre>
  4834     </div>
  4835 
  4836     <div class="description">
  4837       <div class="comment "><p>The time at which an entity was invalidated (i.e., no longer usable).</p>
  4838       </div>
  4839       <dl>
  4840 
  4841         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4842         <dd>
  4843           <ul>
  4844             <li>
  4845               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4846             </li>
  4847           </ul>
  4848         </dd>
  4849 
  4850         <dt>has range</dt>
  4851         <dd>
  4852           <ul>
  4853             <li>
  4854               http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime
  4855             </li>
  4856           </ul>
  4857         </dd>
  4858 
  4859         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  4860         <dd>
  4861           <ul>
  4862             <li>
  4863               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a>
  4864             </li>
  4865             <li>
  4866               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atTime" href="#atTime" class="owlproperty">prov:atTime</a> <sup class="type-dp" title="data property">dp</sup>
  4867             </li>
  4868           </ul>
  4869         </dd>
  4870 
  4871       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4872       <dd>
  4873          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation">Invalidation</a>      </dd>
  4874 
  4875       </dl>
  4876     </div>
  4877   </div>
  4878 
  4879   <div id="wasInvalidatedBy" class="entity">
  4880     <h3 id="x28--------property--prov-wasinvalidatedby-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4881       <span class="xref" id="eg28">(28)</span>
  4882       Property: <a href="#wasInvalidatedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4883       <span class="backlink">
  4884          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4885       </span>
  4886     </h3>
  4887     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy</p>
  4888     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</p>
  4889     </div>
  4890 
  4891     <div class="example">
  4892       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4893       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4894 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4895 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4896 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4897 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  4898 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4899 
  4900 :the-Painter 
  4901    a prov:Entity, :Painting;
  4902    rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
  4903    prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;;
  4904    prov:wasInvalidatedBy :Swissair_Flight_111_crash; #The painting was destroyed in an airplane crash
  4905 .
  4906 
  4907 &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt; 
  4908    a prov:Agent;
  4909    foaf:depiction &lt;http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg&gt;;
  4910 .
  4911 
  4912 :Swissair_Flight_111_crash 
  4913    a prov:Activity;
  4914    prov:used &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Swissair_Flight_111&gt;;
  4915 .
  4916 </pre>
  4917     </div>
  4918 
  4919     <div class="description">
  4920       <dl>
  4921 
  4922         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  4923         <dd>
  4924           <ul>
  4925             <li>
  4926               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4927             </li>
  4928           </ul>
  4929         </dd>
  4930 
  4931         <dt>has domain</dt>
  4932         <dd>
  4933           <ul>
  4934             <li>
  4935               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  4936             </li>
  4937           </ul>
  4938         </dd>
  4939 
  4940         <dt>has range</dt>
  4941         <dd>
  4942           <ul>
  4943             <li>
  4944               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  4945             </li>
  4946           </ul>
  4947         </dd>
  4948 
  4949         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  4950         <dd>
  4951           <ul>
  4952             <li>
  4953               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Invalidation" href="#Invalidation" class="owlclass">prov:Invalidation</a>
  4954             </li>
  4955             <li>
  4956               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInvalidation" href="#qualifiedInvalidation" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4957             </li>
  4958           </ul>
  4959         </dd>
  4960 
  4961       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  4962       <dd>
  4963          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation">Invalidation</a>      </dd>
  4964 
  4965       </dl>
  4966     </div>
  4967   </div>
  4968 
  4969   <div id="hadMember" class="entity">
  4970     <h3 id="x29--------property--prov-hadmember-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  4971       <span class="xref" id="eg29">(29)</span>
  4972       Property: <a href="#hadMember"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember">prov:hadMember</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  4973       <span class="backlink">
  4974          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  4975       </span>
  4976     </h3>
  4977     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadMember</p>
  4978     <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A collection is an entity that provides a structure to some constituents, which are themselves entities. These constituents are said to be member of the collections.</p>
  4979     </div>
  4980 
  4981     <div class="example">
  4982       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  4983       <pre>@prefix rdfs:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  4984 @prefix xsd:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  4985 @prefix owl:     &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  4986 @prefix dcterms: &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/&gt; .
  4987 @prefix prov:    &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  4988 @prefix ex:      &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
  4989 @prefix :        &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  4990 
  4991 :todays-us-supreme-court
  4992    a prov:Collection, ex:RobertsCourt;
  4993    dcterms:description [
  4994       a prov:Entity;
  4995       prov:value """2010–present: A. Scalia A. Kennedy C. Thomas R.B. Ginsburg S. 
  4996                   Breyer S. Alito S. Sotomayor E. Kagan""";
  4997       prov:wasQuotedFrom :page-by-composition;
  4998    ];
  4999    prov:qualifiedGeneration [
  5000       a prov:Generation;
  5001       
  5002       # Since we need to be imprecise, we can't use prov:generatedAtTime or prov:atTime
  5003       dcterms:date "2012"^^xsd:gYear;
  5004    ];
  5005 
  5006    prov:wasDerivedFrom :the-first-us-supreme-court;
  5007 
  5008    prov:hadMember
  5009       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/John_Glover_Roberts,_Jr.&gt;,
  5010       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Antonin_Scalia&gt;, 
  5011       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Anthony_Kennedy&gt;, 
  5012       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Clarence_Thomas&gt;, 
  5013       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg&gt;,
  5014       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Stephen_Breyer&gt;,     
  5015       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Samuel_Alito&gt;,      
  5016       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sonia_Sotomayor&gt;,  
  5017       &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Elena_Kagan&gt;;   
  5018 .
  5019 
  5020 :page-by-seat
  5021    a prov:Entity, ex:WikipediaPage;
  5022    prov:specializationOf &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-seat&gt;;
  5023    prov:generatedAtTime "2011-08-31T12:51:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  5024 .
  5025 
  5026 :page-by-composition
  5027    a prov:Entity, ex:WikipediaPage;
  5028    prov:specializationOf &lt;http://purl.org/twc/page/wikipedia/us-supreme-court-by-composition&gt;;
  5029    prov:generatedAtTime "2012-05-16T14:33:00"^^xsd:dateTime;
  5030 .
  5031 </pre>
  5032     </div>
  5033 
  5034     <div class="description">
  5035       <dl>
  5036 
  5037         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  5038         <dd>
  5039           <ul>
  5040             <li>
  5041               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5042             </li>
  5043           </ul>
  5044         </dd>
  5045 
  5046         <dt>has domain</dt>
  5047         <dd>
  5048           <ul>
  5049             <li>
  5050               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Collection" href="#Collection" class="owlclass">prov:Collection</a>
  5051             </li>
  5052           </ul>
  5053         </dd>
  5054 
  5055         <dt>has range</dt>
  5056         <dd>
  5057           <ul>
  5058             <li>
  5059               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  5060             </li>
  5061           </ul>
  5062         </dd>
  5063 
  5064       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  5065       <dd>
  5066          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-collection">collection</a>      </dd>
  5067 
  5068       </dl>
  5069     </div>
  5070   </div>
  5071 
  5072   <div id="wasStartedBy" class="entity">
  5073     <h3 id="x30--------property--prov-wasstartedby-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  5074       <span class="xref" id="eg30">(30)</span>
  5075       Property: <a href="#wasStartedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy">prov:wasStartedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5076       <span class="backlink">
  5077          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  5078       </span>
  5079     </h3>
  5080     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasStartedBy</p>
  5081     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>Start is when an activity is deemed to have been started by an entity, known as trigger. The activity did not exist before its start. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity follows the activity's start. A start may refer to a trigger entity that set off the activity, or to an activity, known as starter, that generated the trigger.</p>
  5082     </div>
  5083 
  5084     <div class="example">
  5085       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  5086       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  5087 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  5088 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  5089 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  5090 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  5091 
  5092 # Use prov:qualifiedStart to see when and where the activity was started
  5093 
  5094 :experiment
  5095    a prov:Activity;
  5096    prov:wasStartedBy :researcher;
  5097 .
  5098 
  5099 :researcher a prov:Agent .
  5100 </pre>
  5101     </div>
  5102 
  5103     <div class="description">
  5104       <div class="comment "><p>Start is when an activity is deemed to have started. A start may refer to an entity, known as trigger, that initiated the activity.</p>
  5105       </div>
  5106       <dl>
  5107 
  5108         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  5109         <dd>
  5110           <ul>
  5111             <li>
  5112               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5113             </li>
  5114           </ul>
  5115         </dd>
  5116 
  5117         <dt>has domain</dt>
  5118         <dd>
  5119           <ul>
  5120             <li>
  5121               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  5122             </li>
  5123           </ul>
  5124         </dd>
  5125 
  5126         <dt>has range</dt>
  5127         <dd>
  5128           <ul>
  5129             <li>
  5130               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  5131             </li>
  5132           </ul>
  5133         </dd>
  5134 
  5135         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  5136         <dd>
  5137           <ul>
  5138             <li>
  5139               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Start" href="#Start" class="owlclass">prov:Start</a>
  5140             </li>
  5141             <li>
  5142               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedStart" href="#qualifiedStart" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedStart</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5143             </li>
  5144           </ul>
  5145         </dd>
  5146 
  5147       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  5148       <dd>
  5149          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Start">Start</a>      </dd>
  5150 
  5151       </dl>
  5152     </div>
  5153   </div>
  5154 
  5155   <div id="wasEndedBy" class="entity">
  5156     <h3 id="x31--------property--prov-wasendedby-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  5157       <span class="xref" id="eg31">(31)</span>
  5158       Property: <a href="#wasEndedBy"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy">prov:wasEndedBy</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5159       <span class="backlink">
  5160          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  5161       </span>
  5162     </h3>
  5163     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasEndedBy</p>
  5164     <div class="definition def-from-5"><p>End is when an activity is deemed to have been ended by an entity, known as trigger. The activity no longer exists after its end. Any usage, generation, or invalidation involving an activity precedes the activity's end. An end may refer to a trigger entity that terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as ender that generated the trigger.</p>
  5165     </div>
  5166 
  5167     <div class="example">
  5168       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  5169       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  5170 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  5171 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  5172 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  5173 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  5174 
  5175 :experiment 
  5176    a prov:Activity;
  5177    prov:wasEndedBy :inconsistentResult;
  5178    prov:qualifiedEnd [
  5179       a prov:End;
  5180       prov:entity     :inconsistentResult;
  5181       prov:atTime    "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
  5182       prov:atLocation :scienceLab_003;
  5183    ];
  5184 .
  5185 
  5186 :inconsistentResult a prov:Entity .
  5187 :scienceLab_003     a prov:Location .
  5188 </pre>
  5189     </div>
  5190 
  5191     <div class="description">
  5192       <div class="comment "><p>End is when an activity is deemed to have ended. An end may refer to an entity, known as trigger, that terminated the activity.</p>
  5193       </div>
  5194       <dl>
  5195 
  5196         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  5197         <dd>
  5198           <ul>
  5199             <li>
  5200               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5201             </li>
  5202           </ul>
  5203         </dd>
  5204 
  5205         <dt>has domain</dt>
  5206         <dd>
  5207           <ul>
  5208             <li>
  5209               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  5210             </li>
  5211           </ul>
  5212         </dd>
  5213 
  5214         <dt>has range</dt>
  5215         <dd>
  5216           <ul>
  5217             <li>
  5218               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  5219             </li>
  5220           </ul>
  5221         </dd>
  5222 
  5223         <dt>can be qualified with</dt>
  5224         <dd>
  5225           <ul>
  5226             <li>
  5227               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#End" href="#End" class="owlclass">prov:End</a>
  5228             </li>
  5229             <li>
  5230               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedEnd" href="#qualifiedEnd" class="owlproperty">prov:qualifiedEnd</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5231             </li>
  5232           </ul>
  5233         </dd>
  5234 
  5235       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  5236       <dd>
  5237          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-End">End</a>      </dd>
  5238 
  5239       </dl>
  5240     </div>
  5241   </div>
  5242 
  5243   <div id="invalidated" class="entity">
  5244     <h3 id="x32--------property--prov-invalidated-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  5245       <span class="xref" id="eg32">(32)</span>
  5246       Property: <a href="#invalidated"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated">prov:invalidated</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5247       <span class="backlink">
  5248          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  5249       </span>
  5250     </h3>
  5251     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated</p>
  5252     <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. Any generation or usage of an entity precedes its invalidation.</p>
  5253     </div>
  5254 
  5255     <div class="example">
  5256       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  5257       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  5258 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  5259 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  5260 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  5261 @prefix foaf: &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&gt; .
  5262 @prefix ex:   &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
  5263 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  5264 
  5265 :swissair_Flight_111_crash 
  5266    a prov:Activity;
  5267    prov:used        &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Swissair_Flight_111&gt;;
  5268    prov:invalidated :the-Painter;
  5269 .
  5270 
  5271 :the-Painter 
  5272    a prov:Entity, ex:Painting;
  5273    rdfs:label "Le Peintre"@fr, "The Painter"@en;
  5274    prov:wasAttributedTo &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt;;
  5275    
  5276    # Inferred from prov:invalidated
  5277    prov:wasInvalidatedBy :swissair_Flight_111_crash;   
  5278 .
  5279 
  5280 &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pablo_Picasso&gt; 
  5281    a prov:Agent;
  5282    foaf:depiction &lt;http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Pablo_picasso_1.jpg&gt;;
  5283 .
  5284 </pre>
  5285     </div>
  5286 
  5287     <div class="description">
  5288       <dl>
  5289 
  5290         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  5291         <dd>
  5292           <ul>
  5293             <li>
  5294               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced" href="#influenced" class="owlclass">prov:influenced</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5295             </li>
  5296           </ul>
  5297         </dd>
  5298 
  5299         <dt>has domain</dt>
  5300         <dd>
  5301           <ul>
  5302             <li>
  5303               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  5304             </li>
  5305           </ul>
  5306         </dd>
  5307 
  5308         <dt>has range</dt>
  5309         <dd>
  5310           <ul>
  5311             <li>
  5312               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  5313             </li>
  5314           </ul>
  5315         </dd>
  5316 
  5317         <dt>has inverse</dt>
  5318         <dd>
  5319           <ul>
  5320             <li>
  5321               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy" href="#wasInvalidatedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInvalidatedBy</a>
  5322             </li>
  5323           </ul>
  5324         </dd>
  5325 
  5326       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  5327       <dd>
  5328          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Invalidation">Invalidation</a>      </dd>
  5329 
  5330       </dl>
  5331     </div>
  5332   </div>
  5333 
  5334   <div id="influenced" class="entity">
  5335     <h3 id="x33--------property--prov-influenced-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  5336       <span class="xref" id="eg33">(33)</span>
  5337       Property: <a href="#influenced"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced">prov:influenced</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5338       <span class="backlink">
  5339          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  5340       </span>
  5341     </h3>
  5342     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced</p>
  5343     <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Influence is the capacity of an entity, activity, or agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, or delegation.</p>
  5344     </div>
  5345 
  5346     <div class="example">
  5347       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  5348       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  5349 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  5350 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  5351 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  5352 @prefix w3:   &lt;http://example.com/w3/&gt; .
  5353 @prefix tr:   &lt;http://example.com/tech-report/&gt; .
  5354 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  5355 
  5356 # prov:influenced is a top-level property that links any
  5357 # Entity, Activity, or Agent to any other 
  5358 # Entity, Activity, or Agent that it had an effect upon.
  5359 
  5360 w3:Consortium 
  5361    a prov:Agent;
  5362    prov:influenced tr:WD-prov-dm-20111215;
  5363 .
  5364 </pre>
  5365     </div>
  5366 
  5367     <div class="description">
  5368       <dl>
  5369 
  5370         <dt>has inverse</dt>
  5371         <dd>
  5372           <ul>
  5373             <li>
  5374               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a>
  5375             </li>
  5376           </ul>
  5377         </dd>
  5378 
  5379         <dt>has sub-properties</dt>
  5380         <dd>
  5381           <ul>
  5382             <li>
  5383               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated" href="#generated" class="owlclass">prov:generated</a>
  5384             </li>
  5385             <li>
  5386               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidated" href="#invalidated" class="owlclass">prov:invalidated</a>
  5387             </li>
  5388           </ul>
  5389         </dd>
  5390 
  5391       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  5392       <dd>
  5393          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-influence">influence</a>      </dd>
  5394 
  5395       </dl>
  5396     </div>
  5397   </div>
  5398 
  5399   <div id="atLocation" class="entity">
  5400     <h3 id="x34--------property--prov-atlocation-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  5401       <span class="xref" id="eg34">(34)</span>
  5402       Property: <a href="#atLocation"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation">prov:atLocation</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5403       <span class="backlink">
  5404          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  5405       </span>
  5406     </h3>
  5407     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#atLocation</p>
  5408     <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>A location can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column. As such, there are numerous ways in which location can be expressed, such as by a coordinate, address, landmark, and so forth.</p>
  5409     </div>
  5410 
  5411     <div class="example">
  5412       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  5413       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  5414 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  5415 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  5416 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  5417 @prefix sioc: &lt;http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#&gt; .
  5418 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  5419 
  5420 # A Location can be a path or a geographical location.
  5421 
  5422 :post9821 
  5423    a prov:Entity, sioc:Post;   
  5424    prov:wasGeneratedBy :publicationActivity1123;
  5425    prov:atLocation     :more-crime-happens-in-cities;
  5426    prov:qualifiedGeneration [
  5427       a prov:Generation;
  5428       prov:activity    :publicationActivity1123;
  5429       prov:atTime     "2011-07-16T01:52:02Z"^^xsd:dateTime; 
  5430       prov:atLocation &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid&gt;;
  5431    ];
  5432 .
  5433 
  5434 :publicationActivity1123      a prov:Activity .
  5435 :more-crime-happens-in-cities        a prov:Location .
  5436 &lt;http://dbpedia.org/resource/Madrid&gt; a prov:Location .
  5437 </pre>
  5438     </div>
  5439 
  5440     <div class="description">
  5441       <div class="comment "><p>The Location of any resource.</p>
  5442       </div>
  5443       <div class="comment "><p>This property has multiple RDFS domains to suit multiple OWL Profiles. See <a href="#owl-profile">PROV-O OWL Profile</a>.</p>
  5444       </div>
  5445       <dl>
  5446 
  5447         <dt>has domain</dt>
  5448         <dd>
  5449           <ul>
  5450             <li>
  5451               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  5452                or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent" href="#Agent" class="owlclass">prov:Agent</a>
  5453                or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  5454                or <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#InstantaneousEvent" href="#InstantaneousEvent" class="owlclass">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
  5455             </li>
  5456           </ul>
  5457         </dd>
  5458 
  5459         <dt>has range</dt>
  5460         <dd>
  5461           <ul>
  5462             <li>
  5463               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Location" href="#Location" class="owlclass">prov:Location</a>
  5464             </li>
  5465           </ul>
  5466         </dd>
  5467 
  5468       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  5469       <dd>
  5470          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-attribute-location">attribute-location</a>      </dd>
  5471 
  5472       </dl>
  5473     </div>
  5474   </div>
  5475 
  5476   <div id="generated" class="entity">
  5477     <h3 id="x35--------property--prov-generated-op-----------------back-to-expanded-properties">
  5478       <span class="xref" id="eg35">(35)</span>
  5479       Property: <a href="#generated"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated">prov:generated</span></a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5480       <span class="backlink">
  5481          back to <a href="#prov-expanded-owl-terms-at-a-glance">expanded properties</a>
  5482       </span>
  5483     </h3>
  5484     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generated</p>
  5485     <div class="definition def-from-2"><p>Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation.</p>
  5486     </div>
  5487 
  5488     <div class="example">
  5489       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  5490       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  5491 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  5492 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  5493 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  5494 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  5495 
  5496 :proteinDigestion
  5497    a prov:Activity;
  5498    prov:generated :peptideSample1;
  5499 .
  5500 
  5501 :peptideSample1 a prov:Entity .
  5502 </pre>
  5503     </div>
  5504 
  5505     <div class="description">
  5506       <dl>
  5507 
  5508         <dt>has super-properties</dt>
  5509         <dd>
  5510           <ul>
  5511             <li>
  5512               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influenced" href="#influenced" class="owlclass">prov:influenced</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5513             </li>
  5514           </ul>
  5515         </dd>
  5516 
  5517         <dt>has domain</dt>
  5518         <dd>
  5519           <ul>
  5520             <li>
  5521               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity" href="#Activity" class="owlclass">prov:Activity</a>
  5522             </li>
  5523           </ul>
  5524         </dd>
  5525 
  5526         <dt>has range</dt>
  5527         <dd>
  5528           <ul>
  5529             <li>
  5530               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity" href="#Entity" class="owlclass">prov:Entity</a>
  5531             </li>
  5532           </ul>
  5533         </dd>
  5534 
  5535         <dt>has inverse</dt>
  5536         <dd>
  5537           <ul>
  5538             <li>
  5539               <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy" href="#wasGeneratedBy" class="owlclass">prov:wasGeneratedBy</a>
  5540             </li>
  5541           </ul>
  5542         </dd>
  5543 
  5544       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  5545       <dd>
  5546          <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-Generation">Generation</a>      </dd>
  5547 
  5548       </dl>
  5549     </div>
  5550   </div>
  5551 
  5552 </div>
  5553 
  5554       </div>
  5555 
  5556       <div id="cross-reference-qualified-terms" class="section">
  5557          <h3><span class="secno">4.3 </span>Qualified Terms</h3>
  5558          <p>The terms used to qualify the Starting Point and Expanded properties are discussed in <a href="#description-qualified-terms">Section 3.3</a>.</p>
  5559          
  5560 <div class="prov-qualified owl-classes at-a-glance">
  5561   <ul class="hlist">
  5562     <li>
  5563       <a href="#Influence">prov:Influence</a>
  5564     </li>
  5565     <li>
  5566       <a href="#EntityInfluence">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
  5567     </li>
  5568     <li>
  5569       <a href="#Usage">prov:Usage</a>
  5570     </li>
  5571     <li>
  5572       <a href="#Start">prov:Start</a>
  5573     </li>
  5574     <li>
  5575       <a href="#End">prov:End</a>
  5576     </li>
  5577     <li>
  5578       <a href="#Derivation">prov:Derivation</a>
  5579     </li>
  5580     <li>
  5581       <a href="#PrimarySource">prov:PrimarySource</a>
  5582     </li>
  5583     <li>
  5584       <a href="#Quotation">prov:Quotation</a>
  5585     </li>
  5586     <li>
  5587       <a href="#Revision">prov:Revision</a>
  5588     </li>
  5589     <li>
  5590       <a href="#ActivityInfluence">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
  5591     </li>
  5592     <li>
  5593       <a href="#Generation">prov:Generation</a>
  5594     </li>
  5595     <li>
  5596       <a href="#Communication">prov:Communication</a>
  5597     </li>
  5598     <li>
  5599       <a href="#Invalidation">prov:Invalidation</a>
  5600     </li>
  5601     <li>
  5602       <a href="#AgentInfluence">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
  5603     </li>
  5604     <li>
  5605       <a href="#Attribution">prov:Attribution</a>
  5606     </li>
  5607     <li>
  5608       <a href="#Association">prov:Association</a>
  5609     </li>
  5610     <li>
  5611       <a href="#Plan">prov:Plan</a>
  5612     </li>
  5613     <li>
  5614       <a href="#Delegation">prov:Delegation</a>
  5615     </li>
  5616     <li>
  5617       <a href="#InstantaneousEvent">prov:InstantaneousEvent</a>
  5618     </li>
  5619     <li>
  5620       <a href="#Role">prov:Role</a>
  5621     </li>
  5622   </ul>
  5623 </div>
  5624 
  5625 <div class="prov-qualified owl-properties at-a-glance">
  5626   <ul class="hlist">
  5627     <li class="object-property">
  5628       <a href="#wasInfluencedBy">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a>
  5629     </li>
  5630     <li class="object-property">
  5631       <a href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a>
  5632     </li>
  5633     <li class="object-property">
  5634       <a href="#qualifiedGeneration">prov:qualifiedGeneration</a>
  5635     </li>
  5636     <li class="object-property">
  5637       <a href="#qualifiedDerivation">prov:qualifiedDerivation</a>
  5638     </li>
  5639     <li class="object-property">
  5640       <a href="#qualifiedPrimarySource">prov:qualifiedPrimarySource</a>
  5641     </li>
  5642     <li class="object-property">
  5643       <a href="#qualifiedQuotation">prov:qualifiedQuotation</a>
  5644     </li>
  5645     <li class="object-property">
  5646       <a href="#qualifiedRevision">prov:qualifiedRevision</a>
  5647     </li>
  5648     <li class="object-property">
  5649       <a href="#qualifiedAttribution">prov:qualifiedAttribution</a>
  5650     </li>
  5651     <li class="object-property">
  5652       <a href="#qualifiedInvalidation">prov:qualifiedInvalidation</a>
  5653     </li>
  5654     <li class="object-property">
  5655       <a href="#qualifiedStart">prov:qualifiedStart</a>
  5656     </li>
  5657     <li class="object-property">
  5658       <a href="#qualifiedUsage">prov:qualifiedUsage</a>
  5659     </li>
  5660     <li class="object-property">
  5661       <a href="#qualifiedCommunication">prov:qualifiedCommunication</a>
  5662     </li>
  5663     <li class="object-property">
  5664       <a href="#qualifiedAssociation">prov:qualifiedAssociation</a>
  5665     </li>
  5666     <li class="object-property">
  5667       <a href="#qualifiedEnd">prov:qualifiedEnd</a>
  5668     </li>
  5669     <li class="object-property">
  5670       <a href="#qualifiedDelegation">prov:qualifiedDelegation</a>
  5671     </li>
  5672     <li class="object-property">
  5673       <a href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a>
  5674     </li>
  5675     <li class="object-property">
  5676       <a href="#p_entity">prov:entity</a>
  5677     </li>
  5678     <li class="object-property">
  5679       <a href="#hadUsage">prov:hadUsage</a>
  5680     </li>
  5681     <li class="object-property">
  5682       <a href="#hadGeneration">prov:hadGeneration</a>
  5683     </li>
  5684     <li class="object-property">
  5685       <a href="#p_activity">prov:activity</a>
  5686     </li>
  5687     <li class="object-property">
  5688       <a href="#p_agent">prov:agent</a>
  5689     </li>
  5690     <li class="object-property">
  5691       <a href="#hadPlan">prov:hadPlan</a>
  5692     </li>
  5693     <li class="object-property">
  5694       <a href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a>
  5695     </li>
  5696     <li class="datatype-property">
  5697       <a href="#atTime">prov:atTime</a>
  5698     </li>
  5699     <li class="object-property">
  5700       <a href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a>
  5701     </li>
  5702   </ul>
  5703 </div>
  5704 
  5705          <div class="prov-qualified owl-classes crossreference" >
  5706 
  5707   <div id="Influence" class="entity">
  5708     <h3 id="x36--------class--prov-influence-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
  5709       <span class="xref" id="eg36">(36)</span>
  5710       Class: <a href="#Influence"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence">prov:Influence</span></a>
  5711       <span class="backlink">
  5712          back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
  5713       </span>
  5714     </h3>
  5715     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Influence</p>
  5716     <div class="definition"><p>Influence is the capacity of an entity, activity, or agent to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, generation, invalidation, communication, derivation, attribution, association, or delegation.</p>
  5717     </div>
  5718 
  5719     <div class="example">
  5720       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  5721       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  5722 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  5723 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  5724 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  5725 @prefix my:   &lt;http://example.com/ontology#&gt; .
  5726 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  5727 
  5728 # Although a domain extension (e.g. ':wasConductedBy') is not defined by PROV-O,
  5729 # the relation between a surgery and an agent can still be qualified
  5730 # by reusing prov:Influence and one of its three subclasses 
  5731 # (depending on the type of influencer):
  5732 # AgentInfluence, EntityInfluence, and ActivityInfluence.
  5733 
  5734 my:wasConductedBy rdfs:subPropertyOf prov:wasAssociatedWith .
  5735 
  5736 :conductingSurgery_1
  5737    a prov:Activity;
  5738    
  5739    # This unqualified influence is unknown in PROV, 
  5740    # but would be a subproperty of wasAssociatedWith.
  5741    my:wasConductedBy :bob;     
  5742    
  5743    # Even though PROV systems do not understand my:wasConductedBy, 
  5744    prov:qualifiedAssociation [ 
  5745       # they can recognize that the unknown relation 
  5746       # is being qualified with a prov:hadRole.
  5747       a prov:Association,     
  5748         prov:AgentInfluence,   # Inferred
  5749         prov:Influence;        # Inferred
  5750       prov:agent   :bob;       # The object of my:wasConductedBy
  5751       prov:hadRole my:surgeon;
  5752    ];
  5753 .
  5754 
  5755 :bob       a prov:Agent .
  5756 my:surgeon a prov:Role .
  5757 </pre>
  5758     </div>
  5759 
  5760     <dl class="description">
  5761     <dd class="comment"><p>Because prov:Influence is a broad relation, its most specific subclasses (e.g. prov:Communication, prov:Delegation, prov:End, prov:Revision, etc.) should be used when applicable.</p>
  5762     </dd>
  5763     <dd class="comment"><p>An instance of prov:Influence provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasInfluencedBy relation from some influenced Activity, Entity, or Agent to the influencing Activity, Entity, or Agent. For example, :stomach_ache prov:wasInfluencedBy :spoon; prov:qualifiedInfluence [ a prov:Influence; prov:entity :spoon; :foo :bar ] . Because prov:Influence is a broad relation, the more specific relations (Communication, Delegation, End, etc.) should be used when applicable.</p>
  5764     </dd>
  5765       <dt>described with properties:</dt><dd></dd>
  5766 
  5767       <dt></dt>
  5768       <dd>
  5769         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#influencer" href="#influencer">prov:influencer</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5770         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole" href="#hadRole">prov:hadRole</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5771         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadActivity" href="#hadActivity">prov:hadActivity</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5772       </dd>
  5773 
  5774       <dt>in range of</dt>
  5775       <dd>
  5776         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedInfluence" href="#qualifiedInfluence">prov:qualifiedInfluence</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5777       </dd>
  5778 
  5779       <dt>has subclasses</dt>
  5780       <dd>
  5781         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#ActivityInfluence" href="#ActivityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:ActivityInfluence</a>
  5782         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#AgentInfluence" href="#AgentInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:AgentInfluence</a>
  5783         , <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence" href="#EntityInfluence" class="owlclass">prov:EntityInfluence</a>
  5784       </dd>
  5785 
  5786       <dt>qualifies</dt>
  5787       <dd>
  5788         <a title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInfluencedBy" href="#wasInfluencedBy" class="owlproperty">prov:wasInfluencedBy</a> <sup class="type-op" title="object property">op</sup>
  5789       </dd>
  5790 
  5791       <dt>PROV-DM term</dt>
  5792       <dd>
  5793         <a title="prov-dm" href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/default/model/prov-dm.html#term-influence">influence</a>      </dd>
  5794     </dl>
  5795   </div>
  5796 
  5797   <div id="EntityInfluence" class="entity">
  5798     <h3 id="x37--------class--prov-entityinfluence-----------------back-to-qualified-classes">
  5799       <span class="xref" id="eg37">(37)</span>
  5800       Class: <a href="#EntityInfluence"><span class="dotted" title="http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence">prov:EntityInfluence</span></a>
  5801       <span class="backlink">
  5802          back to <a href="#prov-qualified-owl-terms-at-a-glance">qualified classes</a>
  5803       </span>
  5804     </h3>
  5805     <p><strong class="crossreference">IRI:</strong>http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#EntityInfluence</p>
  5806     <div class="editors definition"><p>EntityInfluence is the capacity of an entity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of another by means of usage, start, end, derivation, or other. </p>
  5807     </div>
  5808 
  5809     <div class="example">
  5810       <strong class="crossreference">Example</strong>
  5811       <pre>@prefix rdfs: &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&gt; .
  5812 @prefix xsd:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#&gt; .
  5813 @prefix owl:  &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#&gt; .
  5814 @prefix prov: &lt;http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#&gt; .
  5815 @prefix :     &lt;http://example.com/&gt; .
  5816 
  5817 :sortActivity
  5818    a prov:Activity;
  5819    prov:used :rawData;
  5820    prov:qualifiedUsage [
  5821       a prov:Usage, 
  5822         prov:EntityInfluence; ## Instances of Start, End, Usage, Derivation, and Invalidation
  5823       prov:entity  :datasetA; ## qualify the influenced of an Entity (cited by prov:entity).
  5824       prov:hadRole :inputToBeSorted;
  5825    ];
  5826    prov:generated :sortedData;
  5827 .
  5828 
  5829 :rawData    a prov:Entity .
  5830 :sortedData a prov:Entity .
  5831 </pre>
  5832     </div>
  5833 
  5834     <dl class="description">
  5835     <dd class="comment"><p>EntityInfluence provides additional descriptions of an Entity's binary influence upon any other kind of resource. Instances of EntityInfluence use the prov:entity property to cite the influencing Entity.</p>
  5836     </dd>
  5837     <dd class="comment"><p>It is not recommended that the type EntityInfluence be asserted without also asserting one of its more specific subclass