author Edward O'Connor <eoconnor@apple.com>
Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:41:03 -0700
changeset 39 954dc2126532
parent 38 5147c445380d
child 40 951a6f33b7b0
permissions -rw-r--r--
Merge note from WHATWG commit 4b8ec1b. Will merge information on how to submit feedback in a separate commit.
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<h1>Web Notifications</h1>
<h2 class="no-num no-toc">[LONGSTATUS] [DATE: 01 Jan 1901]</h2>

 <dt>This Version:
 <dd class=dontpublish><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/notifications/raw-file/tip/Overview.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/notifications/raw-file/tip/Overview.html</a>
 <dd class=publish><a href="[VERSION]">[VERSION]</a>

 <dt class=publish>Latest Version:
 <dd class=publish><a href="[LATEST]">[LATEST]</a>

 <dt class=publish>Latest Editors Draft:
 <dd class=publish><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/notifications/raw-file/tip/Overview.html">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/notifications/raw-file/tip/Overview.html</a>

 <dt class=dontpublish>Participate:</dt>
 <dd class=dontpublish>Send feedback to
  <a href="mailto:public-web-notification@w3.org">public-web-notification@w3.org</a>
  (<a href=http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-web-notification/>archives</a>)

 <dt>Version History:
 <dd><a href="http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/notifications/shortlog">http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/notifications/shortlog</a></dd>

 <dt>Previous Versions:</dt>
 <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-notifications-20120614/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-notifications-20120614/</a>
 <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-notifications-20110301/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-notifications-20110301/</a>

 <dt>W3C Editor:
 <dd>John Gregg (<a href="http://www.google.com/">Google</a>)
 &lt;<a href="mailto:johnnyg@google.com">johnnyg@google.com</a>&gt;</dd>
 <dt>WHATWG Editor:
 <dd><a href="http://annevankesteren.nl/">Anne van Kesteren</a>
 (<a href="http://www.mozilla.org/">Mozilla</a>)
 &lt;<a href="mailto:annevk@annevk.nl">annevk@annevk.nl</a>&gt;</dd>

<!-- copyright -->



<h2 class="no-num no-toc">Abstract</h2>

<p>Web notifications defines an API for end-user notifications. A
notification allows alerting the user outside the context of a web page of
an occurrence, such as the delivery of email.

<h2 class="no-num no-toc" id="sotd">Status of this document</h2>

<p><em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its
publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current
W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be
found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">W3C technical reports index</a>
at http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>

<p>This is the [DATE: 3 August 2002] [LONGSTATUS] of Web Notifications.
Please send comments to
<a href="mailto:public-web-notification@w3.org">public-web-notification@w3.org</a>
(<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-web-notification/">archived</a>).

<p class="alt">The bulk of the text of this specification is also
available in the
WHATWG <a href="http://notifications.spec.whatwg.org/">Notifications API
Standard</a>, under a license that permits reuse of the specification

<p>The W3C
<a href="http://www.w3.org/2010/web-notifications/">Web Notification
Working Group</a> is the W3C working group responsible for this
specification's progress along the W3C Recommendation track. The Working
Group expects to advance this Working Draft to Recommendation

<p>Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C
Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or
obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this
document as other than work in progress.

<p>This document was produced by a group operating under the
<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy</a>.
W3C maintains a
<a rel="disclosure" href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/45313/status">public list of any patent disclosures</a>
made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also
includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual
knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains
<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</a>
must disclose the information in accordance with
<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy</a>.

<h2 class="no-num no-toc">Table of contents</h2>

<!-- toc -->


<p>This specification provides an API to display notifications to alert
users outside the context of a web page. It does not specify exactly how a
user agent should display these notifications; the best presentation depends
on the device where the user agent is run. When this specification refers
to displaying notifications on the "desktop", it generally refers to some
static display area outside the web page, but may take several forms,

 <li>A corner of the user's display.
 <li>An area within the chrome of the user agent.
 <li>The "home" screen of a mobile device.

<p>This specification does not define exactly how the user agent should
display the notification, and the API is designed to be flexible with
respect to presentation options.

<p>This specification is designed to be compatible with existing
notification platforms as much as possible, but also to be
platform-independent. Since the common platforms do not provide the same
functionality, this spec will indicate what events are guaranteed and
which are not. In particular, notifications as specified here only can
contain text and icon content.

<p>In general, the event model for notifications is best-effort; while the
<code>Notification</code> object offers a <code title>click</code> event,
applications may enhance their functionality by listening for that event,
but cannot depend on receiving it, in case the underlying
notification platform does not provide that capability.


<p>All diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are
non-normative, as are all sections explicitly marked non-normative.
Everything else in this specification is normative.

<p>The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", <!--"SHALL", "SHALL
"OPTIONAL" in the normative parts of this specification are to be
interpreted as described in RFC2119. For readability, these words do
not appear in all uppercase letters in this specification.
<span data-anolis-ref>RFC2119</span>


<p>Notifications should only be presented when the user has indicated they
are desired; without this they could create a negative experience for the


<p>Most terminology used in this specification is from DOM, HTML, IDL, and URL.
<span data-anolis-ref>DOM</span>
<span data-anolis-ref>HTML</span>
<span data-anolis-ref>WEBIDL</span>
<span data-anolis-ref>URL</span>


<p>A <dfn title=concept-notification>notification</dfn> allows alerting the
user outside the context of a web page of an occurrence, such as the
delivery of email.

<p>Each <span title=concept-notification>notification</span> has a
<dfn>title</dfn>, <dfn id=direction>direction</dfn>,
<dfn id=language>language</dfn>, and an <dfn>origin</dfn>.

<p>Each <span title=concept-notification>notification</span> <em>can</em>
have an associated <dfn>body</dfn>, <dfn>tag</dfn>, <dfn>icon URL</dfn>, and
<dfn>icon image</dfn>.


<p>This section is written in terms equivalent to those used in the
Rendering section of HTML. <span data-anolis-ref>HTML</span>

<!-- keep this in sync with
     http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/#text-rendered-in-native-user-interfaces -->

<p>User agents are expected to honor the Unicode semantics of the text of a
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s <span>title</span>
and <span>body</span>. Each is expected to be treated as an independent set
of one or more bidirectional algorithm paragraphs when displayed, as defined
by the bidirectional algorithm's rules P1, P2, and P3, including, for
instance, supporting the paragraph-breaking behaviour of
U+000A LINE FEED (LF) characters. For each paragraph of the
<span>title</span> and <span>body</span>, the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s
<span>direction</span> provides the higher-level override of rules P2 and P3
if it has a value other than "<code title>auto</code>".
<span data-anolis-ref>BIDI</span>


<!-- keep this in sync with
     http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/#attr-lang -->

<p>The <span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s
<span>language</span> specifies the primary language for the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s <span>title</span>
and <span>body</span>. Its value is a valid BCP 47 language tag, or the
empty string. The empty string indicates that the primary language is
unknown. <span data-anolis-ref>LANG</span>


<p><span title=concept-notification>Notifications</span> can only be
displayed if the user (or user agent on behalf of the user) has granted
<dfn>permission</dfn>. The <span>permission</span> to display
<span title=concept-notification>notifications</span> for a given
<span data-anolis-spec=origin>origin</span> can be one of three strings:

 <dt>"<code title>default</code>"
 <dd><p>This is equivalent to "<code title>denied</code>", but the user has
 made no explicit choice thus far.

 <dt>"<code title>denied</code>"
 <dd><p>This means the user does not want
 <span title=concept-notification>notifications</span>.

 <dt>"<code title>granted</code>"
 <dd><p>This means <span title=concept-notification>notifications</span> can
 be displayed.

<p class=note>There is no equivalent to "<code title>default</code>"
meaning "<code title>granted</code>". In that case
"<code title>granted</code>" is simply returned as there would be no reason
for the application to ask for <span>permission</span>.

<h3>Notification lists</h3>

<p>The user agent must keep a <dfn>list of pending notifications</dfn> and
a <dfn>list of active notifications</dfn>.

<h3>Showing a notification</h3>

<p>The <dfn>show steps</dfn> for a given <var title>notification</var> are:

 <li><p>If <span>permission</span> for <var title>notification</var>'s
 <span>origin</span> is not "<code title>granted</code>", cancel any ongoing
 <span data-anolis-spec=html>fetch</span> for
 <var title>notification</var>'s <span>icon URL</span>,
 <span data-anolis-spec=html>queue a task</span> to
 <span data-anolis-spec=dom title=concept-event-fire>fire an event</span>
 named <code title>error</code> on <var title>notification</var>, and
 terminate these steps.

 <li><p>If there is a <span title=concept-notification>notification</span>
 in the <span>list of pending notifications</span> or the
 <span>list of active notifications</span> whose <span>tag</span> equals
 <var title>notification</var>'s <span>tag</span> and whose
 <span>origin</span> equals <var title>notification</var>'s
 <span>origin</span>, run the <span>replace steps</span> for that
 <span title=concept-notification>notification</span> and
 <var title>notification</var>, and then terminate these steps.

 <li><p>If the device allows notifications to be displayed immediately
 without limitations on the number of concurrent notifications, run
 the <span>display steps</span> and terminate these steps.

 <li><p>If the device has limitations on the number of concurrent
 notifications, either immediately call to a notification platform which
 natively supports queueing, or append <var title>notification</var> to the
 <span>list of pending notifications</span>.

<h3>Activating a notification</h3>

<p>When a <span title=concept-notification>notification</span>
<var title>notification</var> is activated by the user, assuming the underlying
notification platform supports activation, the user agent must, for each
<code>Notification</code> object representing <var title>notification</var>,
<span data-anolis-spec=html>queue a task</span> to
<span data-anolis-spec=dom title=concept-event-fire>fire an event</span>
named <code title>click</code> on the <code>Notification</code> object.

<p class=note>Throughout the web platform "activate" is intentionally misnamed as "click".

<p class=note>User agents are strongly encouraged to make
<code data-anolis-spec=html title=dom-window-focus>window.focus()</code> work from within
the event listener for the event named <code title>click</code> as a means of focusing the
browsing context related to the notification.

<h3>Closing a notification</h3>

<p>When a <span title=concept-notification>notification</span> is closed,
either by the underlying notification platform or by the user, the
<span>close steps</span> for it must be run.

<p>The <dfn>close steps</dfn> for a given <var title>notification</var> are:

 <li><p>If <var title>notification</var> is neither in the
 <span>list of pending notifications</span> nor in the
 <span>list of active notifications</span>, terminate these steps.

 <li><p><span data-anolis-spec=html>Queue a task</span> to remove
 <var title>notification</var> from either the
 <span>list of pending notifications</span> or the
 <span>list of active notifications</span>, and
 <span data-anolis-spec=dom title=concept-event-fire>fire an event</span>
 named <code title>close</code> on <var title>notification</var>.

<h3>Pending notifications</h3>

<p>Whenever the <span>list of pending notifications</span> is not empty, the
user agent must wait and monitor changes in the available notification space
on the device.

<p>When the available display space changes on the device such that a new
notification can be displayed, for example due to a previous notification
being dismissed, the user agent should run the <span>display steps</span>
for the first <span title=concept-notification>notification</span> in the
<span>list of pending notifications</span> and then remove it from the
<span>list of pending notifications</span>.

<h3>Displaying notifications</h3>

<p>The <dfn>display steps</dfn> for a given <var title>notification</var>

  <p>If the notification platform supports icons,
  <var title>notification</var>'s <span>icon URL</span> is set and has not
  yet been <span data-anolis-spec=html title=fetch>fetched</span>,
  <span data-anolis-spec=html>fetch</span> it and wait for the resource to
  be fully downloaded.

  <p>Once <span data-anolis-spec=html title=fetch>fetching</span> has
  finished and the image format is supported, set
  <var title>notification</var>'s <span>icon image</span> to the decoded resource.
  (Otherwise <var title>notification</var> has no <span>icon image</span>.)

  <p><span data-anolis-spec=html>Queue a task</span> to run these substeps:

   <li><p>Display <var title>notification</var> on the device (e.g. by
   calling the appropriate notification platform).

   <li><p>If displaying fails (e.g. the notification platform returns an
   <span data-anolis-spec=dom title=concept-event-fire>fire an event</span>
   named <code title>error</code> on <var title>notification</var> and
   terminate these steps.

   <li><p>Append <var title>notification</var> to the
   <span>list of active notifications</span>.

   <li><p><span data-anolis-spec=dom title=concept-event-fire>Fire an event</span>
   named <code title>show</code> on <var title>notification</var>.

<h3>Replacing a notification</h3>

<p>The <dfn>replace steps</dfn> for replacing an <var title>old</var>
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span> with a
<var title>new</var> one are:

  <p>If the notification platform supports icons,
  <var title>new</var>'s <span>icon URL</span> is set and has not
  yet been <span data-anolis-spec=html title=fetch>fetched</span>,
  <span data-anolis-spec=html>fetch</span> it and wait for the resource to
  be fully downloaded.

  <p>Once <span data-anolis-spec=html title=fetch>fetching</span> has
  finished and the image format is supported, set
  <var title>new</var>'s <span>icon image</span> to the decoded resource.
  (Otherwise <var title>new</var> has no <span>icon image</span>.)

 <li><p>If <var title>old</var> is in the
 <span>list of pending notifications</span>,
 <span data-anolis-spec=html>queue a task</span> to replace
 <var title>old</var> with <var title>new</var>, in the same position, in
 the <span>list of pending notifications</span>, and
 <span data-anolis-spec=dom title=concept-event-fire>fire an event</span>
 named <code title>close</code> on <var title>old</var>.

  <span data-anolis-spec=html>queue a task</span> to replace
  <var title>old</var> with <var title>new</var>, in the same position, in
  the <span>list of active notifications</span>,
  <span data-anolis-spec=dom title=concept-event-fire>fire an event</span>
  named <code title>close</code> on <var title>old</var>, and
  <span data-anolis-spec=dom title=concept-event-fire>fire an event</span>
  named <code title>show</code> on <var title>new</var>.

  <p>If the notification platform does not support replacement this
  requirement may be addressed by running the <span>close steps</span> for
  <var title>old</var> and then running the <span>display steps</span> for
  <var title>new</var>.

  <p class=note>Notification platforms are strongly encouraged to support
  native replacement. It is much nicer.


<p>A <span title=concept-notification>notification</span> is represented by
a <code>Notification</code> object and can be created by its
<span title=dom-Notification>constructor</span>.

<pre class="idl">[<span title=dom-Notification>Constructor</span>(DOMString <var title>title</var>, optional <span>NotificationOptions</span> <var title>options</var>)]
interface <dfn>Notification</dfn> : <span data-anolis-spec=dom>EventTarget</span> {
  static readonly attribute <span>NotificationPermission</span> <span title=dom-Notification-permission>permission</span>;
  static void <span title=dom-Notification-requestPermission>requestPermission</span>(optional <span>NotificationPermissionCallback</span> <var title>callback</var>);

  attribute <span data-anolis-spec=html>EventHandler</span> <span title=handler-onclick>onclick</span>;
  attribute <span data-anolis-spec=html>EventHandler</span> <span title=handler-onshow>onshow</span>;
  attribute <span data-anolis-spec=html>EventHandler</span> <span title=handler-onerror>onerror</span>;
  attribute <span data-anolis-spec=html>EventHandler</span> <span title=handler-onclose>onclose</span>;

  readonly attribute DOMString <span title=dom-Notification-title>title</span>;
  readonly attribute <span>NotificationDirection</span> <span title=dom-Notification-dir>dir</span>;
  readonly attribute DOMString <span title=dom-Notification-dir>lang</span>;
  readonly attribute DOMString <span title=dom-Notification-dir>body</span>;
  readonly attribute DOMString <span title=dom-Notification-dir>tag</span>;
  readonly attribute DOMString <span title=dom-Notification-dir>icon</span>;

  void <span title=dom-Notification-close>close</span>();

dictionary <dfn>NotificationOptions</dfn> {
  <span>NotificationDirection</span> dir = "auto";
  DOMString lang = "";
  DOMString body;
  DOMString tag;
  DOMString icon;

enum <dfn>NotificationPermission</dfn> {

callback <dfn>NotificationPermissionCallback</dfn> = void (<span>NotificationPermission</span> <var title>permission</var>);

enum <dfn>NotificationDirection</dfn> {

<dfn title=dom-Notification><code>Notification(<var title>title</var>, <var title>options</var>)</code></dfn>
constructor must run these steps:

 <li><p>Let <var title>notification</var> be a new
 <span title=concept-notification>notification</span> represented by a
 <code>Notification</code> object.

 <li><p>Set <var title>notification</var>'s <span>title</span> to
 <var title>title</var>.

 <li><p>Set <var title>notification</var>'s <span>direction</span> to
 <var title>options</var>'s <code title>dir</code>.

 <li><p>If <var title>options</var>'s <code title>lang</code> is a valid
 BCP 47 language tag, or the empty string, set
 <var title>notification</var>'s <span>language</span> to
 <var title>options</var>'s <code title>lang</code>, or set it to the empty
 string otherwise. <span data-anolis-ref>LANG</span>

 <li><p>Set <var title>notifications</var>'s <span>origin</span> to the
 current <span data-anolis-spec=origin>origin</span>.

 <li><p>If <var title>options</var>'s <code title>body</code> is present,
 set <var title>notification</var>'s <span>body</span> to
 <code title>body</code>.

 <li><p>If <var title>options</var>'s <code title>tag</code> is present, set
 <var title>notification</var>'s <span>tag</span> to <code title>tag</code>.

 <li><p>If <var title>options</var>'s <code title>icon</code> is present,
 <span title=concept-url-parser data-anolis-spec=url>parse</span>
 <code title>icon</code> using the <span data-anolis-spec=html>API base URL</span>
 specified by the <span data-anolis-spec=html>entry settings object</span>, and if that
 does not return failure, set <var title>notification</var>'s <span>icon URL</span> to the
 return value. (Otherwise <span>icon URL</span> is not set.)

 <li><p>Return <var title>notification</var>, but continue running these
 steps asynchronouusly.

 <li><p>If the notification platform supports icons, the user agent may
 start <span data-anolis-spec=html title=fetch>fetching</span>
 <var title>notification</var>'s <span>icon URL</span> at this point, if
 <span>icon URL</span> is set.

 <li><p>Run the <span>show steps</span> for <var title>notification</var>.

<p>The static
<dfn title=dom-Notification-permission><code>permission</code></dfn>
attribute must return <span>permission</span>.

<p>The static
<dfn title=dom-Notification-requestPermission><code>requestPermission(<var title>callback</var>)</code></dfn>
method must run these steps:

 <li><p>Return, but continue running these steps asynchronously.

 <li><p>Let <var title>permission</var> be <span>permission</span>.

 <li><p>If <var title>permission</var> is "<code title>default</code>",
 ask the user whether showing notifications for the current
 <span data-anolis-spec=origin>origin</span> is acceptable. If it is, set
 <var title>permission</var> to "<code title>granted</code>", or
 "<code title>denied</code>" otherwise.

 <li><p><span data-anolis-spec=html>Queue a task</span> to set
 <span>permission</span> to <var title>permission</var> and invoke
 <var title>callback</var> with <var title>permission</var> as single
 argument if <var title>callback</var> is given.

<p class=warning>In designing the platform notifications are the one
instance thus far where asking the user upfront makes sense. Specifications
for other APIs should not use this pattern and instead employ one of the
<a href="http://robert.ocallahan.org/2011/06/permissions-for-web-applications_30.html">many more suitable alternatives</a>.

<p>The following are the <span data-anolis-spec=html>event handlers</span>
(and their corresponding
<span data-anolis-spec=html title="event handler event type">event handler event types</span>)
that must be supported as attributes by the <code>Notification</code> object.

   <th><span data-anolis-spec=html title="event handlers">event handler</span>
   <th><span data-anolis-spec=html>event handler event type</span>
   <td><dfn title=handler-onclick><code>onclick</code></dfn>
   <td><code title=event-click>click</code>
   <td><dfn title=handler-onshow><code>onshow</code></dfn>
   <td><code title=event-show>show</code>
   <td><dfn title=handler-onerror><code>onerror</code></dfn>
   <td><code title=event-error>error</code>
   <td><dfn title=handler-onclose><code>onclose</code></dfn>
   <td><code title=event-close>close</code>

<p>The <dfn title=dom-Notification-close><code>close()</code></dfn> method
must run the <span>close steps</span> for the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>.

<p>The <dfn title=dom-Notification-title><code>title</code></dfn> attribute must return the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s <span>title</span>.

<p>The <dfn title=dom-Notification-dir><code>dir</code></dfn> attribute must return the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s <span>direction</span>.

<p>The <dfn title=dom-Notification-lang><code>lang</code></dfn> attribute must return the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s <span>language</span>.

<p>The <dfn title=dom-Notification-body><code>body</code></dfn> attribute must return the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s <span>body</span> and the empty
string otherwise.

<p>The <dfn title=dom-Notification-tag><code>tag</code></dfn> attribute must return the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s <span>tag</span> and the empty
string otherwise.

<p>The <dfn title=dom-Notification-icon><code>icon</code></dfn> attribute must return the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span>'s <span>icon URL</span>,
<span title=concept-url-serializer data-anolis-spec=url>serialized</span>, and the
empty string otherwise.


<h3>Using events</h3>

<p><code>Notification</code> objects dispatch events during their lifecycle,
which developers can use to generate desired behaviors.

<p>The <code title=event-show>show</code> event dispatches when the
<span title=concept-notification>notification</span> is shown to the user
&mdash; this may be at some time after the notification is created in the
case of limited display space and a queue.

<p>In the following example, this event is used to guarantee that regardless
of when the notification is shown, it is displayed for only 15 seconds.

<pre class="example">var notification = new Notification("New Email Received", { icon: "mail.png" })
notification.onshow = function() { setTimeout(notification.close, 15000) }</pre>

<p>The <code title=event-close>close</code> event dispatches when the
notification is dismissed by the user. Developers may use this event to
perform actions when notifications are acknowledged.

<p>In the following example, when a meeting reminder notification is
acknowledged, the application suppresses other forms of reminders.

<pre class="example">var notification = new Notification("Meeting about to begin", { icon: "calendar.gif", body: "Room 101" })
notification.onclose = function(event) { cancelReminders(event) }</pre>

<h3 id="tags-example">Using the <code title>tag</code> member for multiple instances</h3>

<p>Web applications frequently operate concurrently in multiple instances, such as when a
	user opens a mail application in multiple browser tabs.  Since the desktop is a shared
	resource, the notifications API provides a way for these instances to easily coordinate, by
	using the <code title>tag</code> member.

<p>Notifications which represent the same conceptual event can be tagged in the same way,
	and when both are shown, the user will only receive one notification.

<pre class="example" title="">Instance 1                                   | Instance 2
// Instance notices there is new mail.       |
new Notification("New mail from John Doe",   |
                 { tag: 'message1' });       |
                                             |  // Slightly later, this instance notices
                                             |  // there is new mail.
                                             |  new Notification("New mail from John Doe",
                                             |                   { tag: 'message1' });</pre>

	The result of this situation, if the user agent follows the algorithms here, is a <strong>single</strong> notification "New mail from John Doe".

<h3>Using the <code title>tag</code> member for a single instance</h3>

<p>The <code title>tag</code> member can also be used by a single instance of an application to keep its
	notifications as current as possible as state changes.

<p>For example, if Alice is using a chat application with Bob, and Bob sends multiple
	messages while Alice is idle, the application may prefer that Alice not see a
	desktop notification for each message.

<pre class="example">// Bob says "Hi"
new Notification("Bob: Hi", { tag: 'chat_Bob' });

// Bob says "Are you free this afternoon?"
new Notification("Bob: Hi / Are you free this afternoon?", { tag: 'chat_Bob' });</pre>

<p>The result of this situation is a <em>single</em> notification; the second one
	replaces the first having the same tag.  In a platform that queues notifications
	(first-in-first-out), using the tag allows the notification to also maintain its
	position in the queue.  Platforms where the newest notifications are shown first,
	a similar result could be achieved using the
	<code title=dom-Notification-close>close()</code> method.

<h2 class=no-num>References</h2>

<div id=anolis-references></div>

<h2 class=no-num>Acknowledgments</h2>

<p>Thanks to
Aharon (Vladimir) Lanin,
Alex Russell,
David Håsäther,
Doug Turner,
Drew Wilson,
Jake Archibald,
Edward O'Connor,
Frederick Hirsch,
Ian Hickson,
James Graham,
Jon Lee,
Jonas Sicking,
Michael Henretty,
Olli Pettay, and
Simon Pieters
for being awesome.

Special thanks to Anne van Kesteren for his continuing work on the
WHATWG's <a href="http://notifications.spec.whatwg.org/">Notifications
API Standard</a>.