index.html
author travil
Thu, 05 Jun 2014 15:53:16 -0700
changeset 71 d86d21f30860
parent 69 4cdaaec40df7
permissions -rw-r--r--
Update to Editor's draft which prepares the doc for CR:
* Removal of issues section
* Addition of CR exit criteria as agreed: http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-webapps/2014AprJun/0677.html
* Addition of Revision History: with last LC bugs referenced via pointer to LC-comments doc.
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    <title>DOM Parsing and Serialization</title>
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<body>

    <section id="abstract">
       <p>This specification defines various APIs for programmatic access to
          HTML and generic XML parsers by web applications for use in parsing
          and serializing DOM nodes.</p>
    </section>

    <section id="sotd">
        <p>This specification is based on the original work of the <a href="http://domparsing.spec.whatwg.org/">
            DOM Parsing and Serialization</a> Living Specification, though it has diverged in terms of
            supported features, normative requirements, and algorithm specificity. As appropriate,
            relevant fixes from the living specification are incorporated into this document.
    </section>

    <section id="crec" class="introductory">
        <h2>Candidate Recommendation Exit Criteria</h2>
        <p>This specification will not advance to Proposed Recommendation before the spec's 
            <a href="http://w3c-test.org/domparsing/">test suite</a> is completed and two or 
            more independent implementations pass each test, although no single implementation 
            must pass each test. We expect to meet this criteria no sooner than 24 October 2014.
            The group will also create an 
            <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/innerhtml/raw-file/tip/implementationReport.html">Implementation Report</a>.
    </section>
    
    <!-- <section id="issues" class="introductory">
        <h1>Issues</h1>

        <p class=issue>Open issues that appear throughout the remainder of this
        document will be highlighted like this.</p>
    </section> -->

    <section id="conformance">
        <p>Requirements phrased in the imperative as part of algorithms
        (such as "strip any leading space characters" or "return false and
        terminate these steps") are to be interpreted with the meaning of the
        key word ("must", "should", "may", etc) used in introducing the
        algorithm.</p>

        <p>Conformance requirements phrased as algorithms or specific steps
        may be implemented in any manner, so long as the end result is
        equivalent. (In particular, the algorithms defined in this
        specification are intended to be easy to follow, and not intended to
        be performant.)</p>

        <p id="hardwareLimitations">User agents may impose
        implementation-specific limits on otherwise unconstrained inputs,
        e.g. to prevent denial of service attacks, to guard against running
        out of memory, or to work around platform-specific limitations.</p>

        <p>When a method or an attribute is said to call another method or
        attribute, the user agent must invoke its internal API for that
        attribute or method so that e.g. the author can't change the behavior
        by overriding attributes or methods with custom properties or functions
        in ECMAScript.</p>

        <p>Unless otherwise stated, string comparisons are done in a <a
        data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="case-sensitive">
        case-sensitive</a> manner.</p>

        <p>If an algorithm calls into another algorithm, any exception that is
        thrown by the latter (unless it is explicitly caught), must cause the
        former to terminate, and the exception to be propagated up to
        <em>its</em> caller.</p>

        <section>
            <h2>Dependencies</h2>

            <p>The IDL fragments in this specification must be interpreted as
            required for conforming IDL fragments, as described in the Web IDL
            specification. [[!WEBIDL]]</p>

            <p>Some of the terms used in this specification are defined in
            [[DOM4]], [[HTML5]], and [[XML10]].
        </section>

        <section>
            <h2>Extensibility</h2>

            <p>Vendor-specific proprietary extensions to this specification are
            strongly discouraged. Authors must not use such extensions, as
            doing so reduces interoperability and fragments the user base,
            allowing only users of specific user agents to access the content in
            question.</p>

            <p>If vendor-specific extensions are needed, the members should be
            prefixed by vendor-specific strings to prevent clashes with future
            versions of this specification. Extensions must be defined so that
            the use of extensions neither contradicts nor causes the
            non-conformance of functionality defined in the specification.</p>

            <p>When vendor-neutral extensions to this specification are needed,
            either this specification can be updated accordingly, or an
            extension specification can be written that overrides the
            requirements in this specification. When someone applying this
            specification to their activities decides that they will recognise
            the requirements of such an extension specification, it becomes an
            <dfn title="other applicable specifications">applicable
            specification</dfn> for the purposes of conformance requirements in
            this specification.</p>
            <!-- http://www.w3.org/mid/17E341CD-E790-422C-9F9A-69347EE01CEB@iki.fi -->
        </section>
    </section>

    <section>
        <h2>Terminology</h2>

        <p>The term <dfn>context object</dfn> means the object on which the method or
        attribute being discussed was called.
    </section>

    <section>
        <h2>Namespaces</h2>

        <p>The <dfn title="html-ns">HTML namespace</dfn> is <code>http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml</code>.
        <p>The <dfn title="xml-ns">XML namespace</dfn> is <code>http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace</code>.
        <p>The <dfn title="xmlns-ns">XMLNS namespace</dfn> is <code>http://www.w3.org/2000/xmlns/</code>.
    </section>

    <section>
        <h1>Parsing and serializing <a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a>s</h1>

        <section>
            <h2>Parsing</h2>

            <p>The following steps form the
            <dfn title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</dfn>, whose
            arguments are a <var>markup</var> string and a
            <var>context element</var>:

            <ol>
              <li>
                <p>If the <var>context element</var>'s
                <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                is an <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>: let
                <var>algorithm</var> be the
                <a title="html-fragment-parsing-algorithm" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">HTML
                fragment parsing algorithm</a>.</p>

                <p>If the <var>context element</var>'s
                <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                is an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>: let
                <var>algorithm</var> be the
                <a title="xml-fragment-parsing-algorithm" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">XML
                fragment parsing algorithm</a>.</p>
              </li>

              <li>Let <var>new children</var> be the result of invoking <var>algorithm</var> with <var>markup</var> as
              the <var>input</var>, and <var>context element</var> as the
              <var><a data-spec="HTML5" title="concept-frag-parse-context" class="externalDFN">context</a></var>
              element.</li>

              <li>Let <var>fragment</var> be a new
              <code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code> whose
              <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
              is <var>context element</var>'s
              <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.

              <li><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-append" class="externalDFN">Append</a>
              each <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node" class="externalDFN">node</a> in
              <var>new children</var> to <var>fragment</var>
              (in <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-order" class="externalDFN">tree order</a>).

              <p class=note>This ensures the
              <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
              for the new <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node" class="externalDFN">nodes</a> is correct.

              <li>Return the value of <var>fragment</var>.
            </ol>
    </section>

    <section>
        <h2>Serializing</h2>
        <p>The following steps form the
            <dfn title="concept-fragment-serializing-algorithm">fragment serializing algorithm</dfn>,
            whose arguments are a <code><a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a></code>
            <var>node</var> and a flag <dfn title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</dfn>:

        <ol>
            <li>Let <var>context document</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s
                <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.
            <li>If <var>context document</var> is an
                <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>,
                return an <a title="concept-serialize-html">HTML serialization</a> of <var>node</var>.
            <li>Otherwise, <var>context document</var> is an
                <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>;
                return an <a title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</a> of <var>node</var>
                passing the flag <var>require well-formed</var>.
            <p class="note">The <a title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</a> defined in this document
                conforms to the requirements of the <a data-spec="HTML5" title="xml-fragment-serialization-algorithm"
                class="externalDFN">XML fragment serialization algorithm</a> defined in [[HTML5]].</p>
        </ol>

        <p>To produce an <dfn title="concept-serialize-html">HTML serialization</dfn> of a
            <code><a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a></code> <var>node</var>, the user agent
            must run the
            <a data-spec="HTML5" title="html-fragment-serialization-algorithm" class="externalDFN">HTML
            fragment serialization algorithm</a> [[!HTML5]] on <var>node</var> and return the string produced.

        <p>To produce an <dfn title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</dfn> of a
            <code><a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a></code> <var>node</var> given a
            flag <var>require well-formed</var>, run the following steps:
        <ol>
            <li>Let <dfn title="concept-context-namespace">context namespace</dfn> be <code>null</code>.
                The <a title="concept-context-namespace">context namespace</a> is changed when a
                <var>node</var> serializes a different default namespace definition from its parent. The
                algorithm assumes no namespace to start.
            <li>Let <dfn title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</dfn> be a new map
                for associating <code>namespaceURI</code> and namespace <code>prefix</code> pairs, where
                <code>namespaceURI</code> values are the map's keys, and <code>prefix</code> values are
                the map's key values. The <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a>
                will be populated by previously seen namespaceURIs and their most recent prefix associations
                for a subtree. <span class="note"><strong>Note:</strong> the
                <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a> only associates a single
                prefix value with a given namespaceURI. During serialization, if different namespace prefixes
                are found that map to the same namespaceURI, the last one encountered "wins" by replacing the
                existing key value in the map with the new prefix value.</span>
            <li>Initialize the <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a> with the
                <a title="xml-ns">XML namespace</a> key and string "<code>xml</code>" as the key value.
            <li>Let <dfn title="concept-generated-prefix">generated namespace prefix index</dfn> be an integer
                with a value of <code>1</code>. The <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated namespace
                prefix index</a> is used to generate a new unique prefix value when no suitable existing
                namespace prefix is available to serialize a <var>node</var>'s namespaceURI (or the namespaceURI
                of one of <var>node</var>'s attributes). <span class="note">See the
                <a title="concept-generate-prefix">generate a prefix</a> algorithm.</span>
            <li>Return the result of running the <a title="concept-xml-serialization-algorithm">XML serialization
                algorithm</a> on <var>node</var> passing the <a title="concept-context-namespace">context
                namespace</a>, <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a>,
                <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated namespace prefix index</a> reference, and the
                flag <var>require well-formed</var>. If an <dfn title="concept-algorithm-exception">exception</dfn>
                occurs during the execution of the algorithm, then catch that exception and throw a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with
                name "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="invalidstateerror" class="externalDFN">InvalidStateError</a></code>".
        </ol>

        <p>An <a title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</a> differs from an
            <a title="concept-serialize-html">HTML serialization</a> in the following ways:
        <ul>
            <li><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Elements</a> and
                <a title="concept-attribute" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attributes</a>
                will always be serialized such that their namespaceURI is preserved. In some cases
                this means that an existing prefix, prefix declaration attribute or default namespace
                declaration attribute might be dropped, substituted or changed.
                An <a title="concept-serialize-html">HTML serialization</a> does not attempt to
                preserve the namespaceURI.
            <li><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Elements</a> not in the
                <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a> containing no <a title="concept-tree-child"
                data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">children</a>, are serialized using
                the self-closing tag syntax (i.e., according to the <code>EmptyElemTag</code>
                production of [[XML10]]).
        </ul>

        <p>Otherwise, the algorithm for producing an <a title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</a>
            is designed to produce a serialization that is compatible with the
            <a title="html-parser" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">HTML parser</a>. For example,
            elements in the <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a> that contain no child nodes are serialized
            with an explicit begin and end tag rather than using the self-closing tag syntax [[XML10]].

        <p class="note">Per [[DOM4]], <code><a title="interface-attr" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Attr</a></code>
            objects do not inherit from <code><a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a></code>, and thus cannot
            be serialized by the <a title="concept-xml-serialization-algorithm">XML serialization algorithm</a>.
            An attempt to serialize an <code><a title="interface-attr" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Attr</a></code>
            object will result in a <code>TypeError</code> exception [[WEBIDL]].

        <p>To run the <dfn title="concept-xml-serialization-algorithm">XML serialization algorithm</dfn> on
            a <var>node</var> given a <a title="concept-context-namespace">context namespace</a>
            <var>namespace</var>, a <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a>
            <var>prefix map</var>, a <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated namespace prefix index</a>
            <var>prefix index</var>, and a flag <var>require well-formed</var>, the user agent must run the
            appropriate steps, depending on <var>node</var>'s interface:</p>

        <dl class=switch>
            <dt><code><a title="interface-element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>
            <dd>
                <p>Run the following algorithm:
                <ol>
                    <!-- "namespace" was passed via the caller, it's the default namespace scope -->
                    <!-- "prefix map" was passed via the caller, it's the namespace->prefix map -->
                    <!-- "prefix index" was passed via the caller, it's a number for generating prefixes if necessary -->
                    <!-- "require well-formed" was passed via the caller, it's a flag (true/false) for whether certain validation steps should be taken during serialization. -->
                    <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                        <code>true</code>), and this <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                        attribute contains the character "<code>:</code>" (U+003A COLON) or does not match the
                        XML <code>Name</code> production [[XML10]], then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an
                        exception</a>; the serialization of this <var>node</var> would not be a well-formed element.
                    <li>Let <var>markup</var> be the string "<code>&lt;</code>" (U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN).
                    <li>Let <var>qualified name</var> be an empty string.
                    <li>Let a <var>skip end tag</var> flag have the value <code>false</code>.
                    <li>Let an <var>ignore namespace definition attribute</var> flag have the value <code>false</code>.
                    <li>Let <var>map</var> be a copy of the <var>prefix map</var>.
                    <li>Let <var>element prefixes list</var> be an empty list. <span class="note">This list is
                        local to each element. Its purpose is to ensure that there are no conflicting prefixes
                        should a new namespace prefix attribute need to be generated.</span>
                    <li>Let <var>duplicate prefix definition</var> be <code>null</code>.
                    <li>Let <var>local default namespace</var> be the result of
                        <a title="concept-record-namespace-info">recording the namespace information</a> for
                        <var>node</var> given <var>map</var>, <var>element prefixes list</var>, and
                        <var>duplicate prefix definition</var>.
                    <p class="note">This above step will update the <var>map</var> with any found namespace prefix
                        definitions, add the found prefix definitions to the <var>element prefixes list</var>, optionally
                        set the <var>duplicate prefix definition</var> value, and return a local default namespace
                        value defined by a default namespace attribute if one exists. Otherwise it returns
                        <code>null</code>.</p>
                    <li>Let <var>inherited ns</var> be a copy of <var>namespace</var>.
                    <li>Let <var>ns</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-element-namespaceuri" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespaceURI</a></code>
                        attribute.
                    <li>If <var>inherited ns</var> is equal to <var>ns</var>, then:
                    <ol>
                        <li>If <var>local default namespace</var> is not <code>null</code>, then set <var>ignore
                            namespace definition attribute</var> to <code>true</code>.
                        <li>If <var>ns</var> is the <a title="xml-ns">XML namespace</a>, then let <var>qualified name</var>
                            be the concatenation of the string "<code>xml:</code>" and the value of <var>node</var>'s
                            <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>.
                        <li>Otherwise, let <var>qualified name</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s
                            <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>.
                            <span class="note">The <var>node</var>'s prefix is always dropped.</span>
                        <li>Append the value of <var>qualified name</var> to <var>markup</var>.
                    </ol>
                    <li>Otherwise, <var>inherited ns</var> is not equal to <var>ns</var> (the <var>node</var>'s
                        own namespace is different from the context namespace of its parent). Run these sub-steps:
                    <!-- The serialization algorithm must differentiate this node's namespace from it's parent's default
                        namespace. There are two ways to do this: (1) [preferred due to assumed minimum length] use a
                        namespace prefix if one is available or (2) use a default namespace declaration. Both cases can
                        run into conflicts with existing attributes on the element and are handled accordingly. -->
                    <ol>
                        <li>Let <var>prefix</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s
                            <code><a title="dom-element-prefix" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">prefix</a></code>
                            attribute.
                        <li>Let <var>candidate prefix</var> be a value from <var>map</var> where there exists a key in
                            <var>map</var> that matches the value of <var>ns</var> or if there is no such key, then let
                            <var>candidate prefix</var> be <code>null</code>.
                        <!-- Found a suitable prefix to use, either locally, or inherited through a parent node that
                            matches the node's namespaceURI. This prefix will be used in serialization even if the node
                            doesn't have a real prefix. -->
                        <li>If <var>candidate prefix</var> is not <code>null</code> (a suitable namespace prefix is defined
                            which maps to <var>ns</var>), then:
                        <ol>
                            <li>Let <var>qualified name</var> be the concatenation of <var>candidate prefix</var>,
                                "<code>:</code>" (U+003A COLON), and <var>node</var>'s <code>
                                <a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>.
                                <span class="note">There exists on this <var>node</var> or the <var>node</var>'s ancestry a
                                namespace prefix definition that defines the <var>node</var>'s namespace.</span>
                            <li>If <var>local default namespace</var> is not <code>null</code> (there exists a locally-defined
                                default namespace declaration attribute), then let <var>inherited ns</var> get the value of
                                <var>ns</var>.
                            <li>Append the value of <var>qualified name</var> to <var>markup</var>.
                        </ol>
                        <!-- Now there's no existing namespace->prefix mapping to override; try to use a prefix: -->
                        <li>Otherwise, if <var>prefix</var> is not <code>null</code> and <var>local default namespace</var> is
                            <code>null</code>, then:
                        <ol>
                            <li>If the <var>element prefixes list</var> contains the value of <var>prefix</var>, then
                                let <var>prefix</var> be the result of
                                <a title="concept-generate-prefix">generating a prefix</a> providing as input the
                                <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a> <var>map</var>,
                                <var>node</var>'s <var>ns</var> string, and the <var>prefix index</var> integer.
                            <li>Otherwise, append to <var>map</var> a new key <var>ns</var> whose key value is
                                <var>prefix</var>.
                            <!-- Prefix is now either real or generated, and added to the map. -->
                            <li>Let <var>qualified name</var> be the concatenation
                            of <var>prefix</var>, "<code>:</code>" (U+003A COLON), and <var>node</var>'s
                            <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>.
                            <li>Append the value of <var>qualified name</var> to <var>markup</var>.
                            <li>Append the following to <var>markup</var>, in the order listed: <span class="note">The following
                                serializes the new namespace/prefix association just added to the <var>map</var>.</span>
                            <ol>
                                <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                                <li>The string "<code>xmlns:</code>";
                                <li>The value of <var>prefix</var>;
                                <li>"<code>="</code>" (U+003D EQUALS SIGN, U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                                <li>The result of <a title="concept-serialize-attr-value">serializing an attribute value</a>
                                    given <var>ns</var> and the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag
                                    as input;
                                <li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK).
                            </ol>
                        </ol>
                        <!-- Giving up on the prefix route, try to use a default namespace instead (stomping on an existing
                             one if necessary) and dropping the node's prefix -->
                        <li>Otherwise, if <var>local default namespace</var> is <code>null</code>, or <var>local default
                            namespace</var> is not <code>null</code> and its value is not equal to <var>ns</var>, then:
                        <ol>
                            <li>Set the <var>ignore namespace definition attribute</var> flag to <code>true</code>.
                            <li>Let <var>qualified name</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s <code><a title="dom-element-localname"
                                data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>.
                            <li>Let the value of <var>inherited ns</var> be <var>ns</var>. <span class="note">The new
                                default namespace will be used in the serialization to define this <var>node</var>'s
                                namespace and act as the context namespace for its <a title="concept-tree-child"
                                data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">children</a>.</span>
                            <li>Append the value of <var>qualified name</var> to <var>markup</var>.
                            <li>Append the following to <var>markup</var>, in the order listed: <span class="note">The following
                                serializes the new (or replacement) default namespace definition.</span>
                            <ol>
                                <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                                <li>The string "<code>xmlns</code>";
                                <li>"<code>="</code>" (U+003D EQUALS SIGN, U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                                <li>The result of <a title="concept-serialize-attr-value">serializing an attribute value</a>
                                    given <var>ns</var> and the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag
                                    as input;
                                <li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK).
                            </ol>
                        </ol>
                        <!-- Finally, regardless of prefix, the node has a local default namespace that matches 'ns'.
                            So, we'll just use that and drop the prefix -->
                        <li>Otherwise, the <var>node</var> has a <var>local default namespace</var> that matches
                            <var>ns</var>. Let <var>qualified name</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s
                            <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>,
                            let the value of <var>inherited ns</var> be <var>ns</var>, and append the value of
                            <var>qualified name</var> to <var>markup</var>.
                    </ol>
                    <li>Append to <var>markup</var> the result of the
                        <a title="concept-serialize-xml-attributes">XML serialization of <var>node</var>'s
                        attributes</a> given the
                        <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a> <var>map</var>,
                        the <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated prefix index</a> <var>prefix index</var>, the
                        flag <var>ignore namespace definition attribute</var> and the value of <var>duplicate
                        prefix definition</var>.
                    <li>If <var>ns</var> is the <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a>,
                        and the <var>node</var>'s list of
                        <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">children</a>
                        is empty, and the <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                        matches any one of the following
                        <a title="void-elements" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">void elements</a>:
                        "<code>area</code>",
                        "<code>base</code>",
                        "<code>basefont</code>",
                        "<code>bgsound</code>",
                        "<code>br</code>",
                        "<code>col</code>",
                        "<code>embed</code>",
                        "<code>frame</code>",
                        "<code>hr</code>",
                        "<code>img</code>",
                        "<code>input</code>",
                        "<code>keygen</code>",
                        "<code>link</code>",
                        "<code>menuitem</code>",
                        "<code>meta</code>",
                        "<code>param</code>",
                        "<code>source</code>",
                        "<code>track</code>",
                        "<code>wbr</code>";
                        then append the following to <var>markup</var>, in the order listed:
                        <ol>
                            <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                            <li>"<code>/</code>" (U+002F SOLIDUS).
                        </ol>
                        and set the <var>skip end tag</var> flag to <code>true</code>.
                    <li>If <var>ns</var> is not the <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a>,
                        and the <var>node</var>'s list of
                        <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">children</a>
                        is empty, then append "<code>/</code>" (U+002F SOLIDUS) to <var>markup</var>
                        and set the <var>skip end tag</var> flag to <code>true</code>.
                    <li>Append "<code>&gt;</code>" (U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN) to <var>markup</var>.
                    <li>If the value of <var>skip end tag</var> is <code>true</code>, then return
                        the value of <var>markup</var> and skip the remaining steps. The
                        <var>node</var> is a leaf-node.
                    <li>If <var>ns</var> is the <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a>, and the <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                        matches the string "<code>template</code>", then this is a
                        <code><a title="the-template-element" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">template</a></code> element.
                        Append to <var>markup</var> the result of running the
                        <a title="concept-xml-serialization-algorithm">XML serialization algorithm</a> on the
                        <a title="the-template-element" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">template</a> element's
                        <a title="template-contents" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">template contents</a>
                        (a <code><a title="interface-documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>),
                        providing the value of <var>inherited ns</var> for the
                        <a title="concept-context-namespace">context namespace</a>,
                        <var>map</var> for the <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a>,
                        <var>prefix index</var> for the
                        <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated namespace prefix index</a>, and the value
                        of the <var>require well-formed</var> flag. <span class="note">This allows
                        <a title="template-contents" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">template content</a> to
                        round-trip , given the rules for
                        <a title="parsing-xhtml-documents" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">parsing XHTML documents</a>
                        [[HTML5]].</span>
                    <li>Otherwise, append to <var>markup</var> the result of running the
                        <a title="concept-xml-serialization-algorithm">XML serialization algorithm</a> on each
                        of <var>node</var>'s
                        <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">children</a>,
                        in <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-order" class="externalDFN">tree order</a>,
                        providing the value of <var>inherited ns</var> for the
                        <a title="concept-context-namespace">context namespace</a>,
                        <var>map</var> for the <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a>,
                        <var>prefix index</var> for the
                        <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated namespace prefix index</a>, and the value
                        of the <var>require well-formed</var> flag.
                    <li>Append the following to <var>markup</var>, in the order listed:
                        <ol>
                            <li>"<code>&lt;/</code>" (U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN, U+002F SOLIDUS);
                            <li>The value of <var>qualified name</var>;
                            <li>"<code>&gt;</code>" (U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN).
                        </ol>
                    <li>Return the value of <var>markup</var>.
                </ol>

            <dt><code><a title="interface-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>
            <dd>
                <p>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                    <code>true</code>), and this <var>node</var> has no
                    <code><a title="dom-document-documentelement" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">documentElement</a></code>
                    (the <code><a title="dom-document-documentelement" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">documentElement</a></code>
                    attribute's value is <code>null</code>), then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an
                    exception</a>; the serialization of this <var>node</var> would not be a well-formed document.
                <p>Otherwise, run the following steps:
                <ol>
                    <li>Let <var>serialized document</var> be an empty string.
                    <li>Append to <var>serialized document</var> the string produced by running the steps to
                        <a title="concept-serialize-doctype">produce a DocumentType serialization</a>
                        of <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-document-doctype" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">doctype</a></code>
                        attribute provided the <var>require well-formed</var> flag if <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-document-doctype" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">doctype</a></code>
                        attribute is not <code>null</code>.
                    <li>For each <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">child</a>
                        <var>child</var> of <var>node</var>, in
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-order" class="externalDFN">tree order</a>, run the
                        <a title="concept-xml-serialization-algorithm">XML serialization algorithm</a>
                        on the <var>child</var> given a <a title="concept-context-namespace">context namespace</a>
                        <var>namespace</var>, a <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a>
                        <var>prefix map</var>, a reference to a <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated
                        namespace prefix index</a> <var>prefix index</var>, flag <var>require well-formed</var>, and
                        append the result to <var>serialized document</var>.
                    <li>Return the value of <var>serialized document</var>.
                </ol>

            <dt><code><a title="interface-comment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Comment</a></code>
            <dd>
                <p>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                    <code>true</code>), and <var>node</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>
                    contains characters that are not matched by the XML <code>Char</code> production [[XML10]] or
                    contains "<code>--</code>" (two adjacent U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS characters) or that ends with
                    a "<code>-</code>" (U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS) character, then
                    <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an exception</a>; the serialization of this
                    <var>node</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>
                    would not be well-formed.
                <p>Return the concatenation of "<code>&lt;!--</code>", <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>, and
                "<code>--></code>".

            <!-- Removing CDATA Serialization steps as this interface type is removed from DOM4:
            <dt><code><a title="cdata" data-spec="DOML2" class="externalDFN">CDATASection</a></code>
            <dd><ol>
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> be the concatenation of "<code>&lt;![CDATA[</code>",
                    <var>node</var>'s <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4"
                    class="externalDFN">data</a></code>, and "<code>]]></code>".
                <li>Return the value of <var>markup</var>.
              </ol>

              <p class=note>CDATASection objects may be created by the historical
            <code>document.createCDATASection</code> API, or as a result of parsing an
            <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>.
            -->

            <dt><code><a title="interface-text" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Text</a></code>
            <dd><ol>
                <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                    <code>true</code>), and <var>node</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>
                    contains characters that are not matched by the XML <code>Char</code> production [[XML10]],
                    then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an exception</a>; the serialization of this
                    <var>node</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>
                    would not be well-formed.
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>.

                <li>Replace any occurrences of "<code>&amp;</code>" in <var>markup</var> by
                "<code>&amp;amp;</code>".

                <li>Replace any occurrences of "<code>&lt;</code>" in <var>markup</var> by
                "<code>&amp;lt;</code>".

                <li>Replace any occurrences of "<code>&gt;</code>" in <var>markup</var> by
                "<code>&amp;gt;</code>".

                <li>Return the value of <var>markup</var>.
              </ol>
            <dt><code><a title="interface-documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>
            <dd><ol>
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> the empty string.

                <li>For each <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">child</a>
                    <var>child</var> of <var>node</var>, in
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-order" class="externalDFN">tree order</a>,
                    run the <a title="concept-xml-serialization-algorithm">XML serialization algorithm</a>
                    on the <var>child</var> given
                    a <a title="concept-context-namespace">context namespace</a> <var>namespace</var>, a
                    <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a> <var>prefix map</var>,
                    a reference to a <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated namespace prefix index</a>
                    <var>prefix index</var>, and flag <var>require well-formed</var>. Concatenate the result
                    to <var>markup</var>.
                <li>Return the value of <var>markup</var>.
              </ol>

            <dt><code><a title="interface-documenttype" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentType</a></code>
            <dd>Run the steps to <a title="concept-serialize-doctype">produce a DocumentType
                serialization</a> of <var>node</var> given the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a>
                flag, and return the string this produced.

            <dt><code><a title="interface-processinginstruction" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">ProcessingInstruction</a></code>
            <dd><ol>
                <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                    <code>true</code>), and <var>node</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-processinginstruction-target" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">target</a></code>
                    contains a "<code>:</code>" (U+003A COLON) character or is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a>
                    match for the string "<code>xml</code>", then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an
                    exception</a>; the serialization of this <var>node</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-processinginstruction-target" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">target</a></code>
                    would not be well-formed.
                <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                    <code>true</code>), and <var>node</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>
                    contains characters that are not matched by the XML <code>Char</code> production [[XML10]] or
                    contains the string "<code>?></code>" (U+003F QUESTION MARK, U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN),
                    then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an exception</a>; the serialization of this
                    <var>node</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>
                    would not be well-formed.
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> be the concatenation of the following, in the order listed:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code>&lt;?</code>" (U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN, U+003F QUESTION MARK);
                    <li>The value of <var>node</var>'s <code><a title="dom-processinginstruction-target"
                        data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">target</a></code>;
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    <li>The value of <var>node</var>'s <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data"
                        data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>;
                    <li>"<code>?></code>" (U+003F QUESTION MARK, U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN).
                </ol>
                <li>Return the value of <var>markup</var>.
              </ol>

        </dl>

        <p>To <dfn title="concept-serialize-doctype">produce a DocumentType serialization</dfn> of a
            <code><a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a></code> <var>node</var>, given a
            <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag, the user agent must return
            the result of the following algorithm:</p>

        <ol>
            <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is <code>true</code>
                and the <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-publicid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">publicId</a></code>
                attribute contains characters that are not matched by the XML <code>PubidChar</code> production
                [[XML10]], then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an exception</a>; the serialization
                of this <var>node</var> would not be a well-formed document type declaration.
            <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is <code>true</code>
                and the <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-systemid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">systemId</a></code>
                attribute contains characters that are not matched by the XML <code>Char</code> production
                [[XML10]] or that contains both a "<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK) and a "<code>'</code>"
                (U+0027 APOSTROPHE), then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an exception</a>; the
                serialization of this <var>node</var> would not be a well-formed document type declaration.
            <li>Let <var>markup</var> be an empty string.
            <li>Append the string "<code>&lt;!DOCTYPE</code>" to <var>markup</var>.
            <li>Append "<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE) to <var>markup</var>.
            <li>Append the value of the <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-name" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">name</a></code>
                attribute to <var>markup</var>. For a <var>node</var> belonging to an
                <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>,
                the value will be all lowercase.
            <li>If the <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-publicid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">publicId</a></code>
                is not the empty string then append the following, in the order listed, to <var>markup</var>:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    <li>The string "<code>PUBLIC</code>";
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    <li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                    <li>The value of the <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-documenttype-publicid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">publicId</a></code>
                        attribute;
                    <li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK).
                </ol>
            </li>
            <li>If the <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-systemid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">systemId</a></code>
                is not the empty string and the <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-publicid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">publicId</a></code>
                is set to the empty string, then append the following, in the order listed, to <var>markup</var>:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    <li>The string "<code>SYSTEM</code>".
                </ol>
            </li>
            <li>If the <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-systemid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">systemId</a></code>
                is not the empty string then append the following, in the order listed, to <var>markup</var>:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    <li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                    <li>The value of the <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-documenttype-systemid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">systemId</a></code>
                        attribute;
                    <li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK).
                </ol>
            </li>
            <!-- Removing internalSubset serialization steps as this property is not supported by DOM4. Also,
                optional requirements don't help improve interoperability:
            <li>Optional: if the <var>node</var> has an (historical)
                <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                and the
                <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                attribute's value is a non-empty string, then append the following,
                in the order listed, to <var>markup</var>:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    <li>"<code>[</code>" (U+005B LEFT SQUARE BRACKET);
                    <li>The value of the <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                        attribute;
                    <li>"<code>]</code>" (U+005D RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET);
                </ol>
                <p class=note>A <var>node</var> belonging to an
                   <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>
                   will never have an
                   <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                   because any <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                   markup is ignored by the parser.</p>
            </li>
            -->
            <li>Append "<code>&gt;</code>" (U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN) to <var>markup</var>.
            <li>Return the value of <var>markup</var>.
        </ol>

        <p>To <dfn title="concept-record-namespace-info">record the namespace information</dfn> for an
            <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> <var>element</var>, given a
            <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a> <var>map</var>, an
            <var>element prefixes list</var> (initially empty), and a <var>duplicate prefix
            definition</var> reference, the user agent must run the following steps:
        <ol>
            <li>Let <var>default namespace attr value</var> be <code>null</code>.
            <li><dfn title="record-namespace-loop">Main</dfn>: For each <a title="concept-attribute" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attribute</a>
                <var>attr</var> in <var>element</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-element-attributes" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attributes</a></code>,
                in the order they are specified in the <var>element</var>'s
                <a title="dom-element-attributes" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attribute list</a>:

                <p class="note">The following conditional steps add namespace prefixes
                    into the <var>element prefixes list</var> and add or replace them in the <var>map</var>.
                    Only attributes in the <a title="xmlns-ns">XMLNS namespace</a> are
                    considered (e.g., attributes made to look like namespace declarations via
                    <code><a title="dom-element-setattribute" data-spec="DOM4"
                    class="externalDFN">setAttribute</a>(<em>"xmlns:pretend-prefix"</em>,
                    <em>"pretend-namespace"</em>)</code> are not included).</p>
            <ol>
                <li>Let <var>attribute namespace</var> be the value of <var>attr</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-attr-namespaceuri" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespaceURI</a></code>
                    value.
                <li>Let <var>attribute prefix</var> be the value of <var>attr</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-attr-prefix" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">prefix</a></code>.
                <li>If the <var>attribute namespace</var> is the <a title="xmlns-ns">XMLNS namespace</a>, then:
                <ol>
                    <li>If <var>attribute prefix</var> is <code>null</code>, then <var>attr</var> is a
                        default namespace declaration. Set the <var>default namespace attr value</var> to
                        <var>attr</var>'s <code><a title="dom-attr-value" data-spec="DOM4"
                        class="externalDFN">value</a></code> and stop running these steps, returning to
                        <a title="record-namespace-loop">Main</a> to visit the next attribute.
                    <li>Otherwise, the <var>attribute prefix</var> is not <code>null</code> and <var>attr</var>
                        is a namespace prefix definition. Run the following steps:
                    <ol>
                        <li>Let <var>prefix definition</var> be the value of <var>attr</var>'s
                            <code><a title="dom-attr-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>.
                        <li>Let <var>namespace definition</var> be the value of <var>attr</var>'s
                            <code><a title="dom-attr-value" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">value</a></code>.
                        <li>If a key matching the value of <var>namespace definition</var> already exists in
                            <var>map</var>, and the key's value matches <var>prefix definition</var>, then
                            this is a duplicate namespace prefix definition. Set the value of <var>duplicate
                            prefix definition</var> to <var>prefix definition</var>.
                        <li>Otherwise, if the key matching the value of <var>namespace definition</var> already
                            exists in <var>map</var>, but the key's value does not match <var>prefix definition</var>,
                            then update the key's value to be <var>prefix definition</var>.
                        <li>Otherwise, no key matching the value of <var>namespace definition</var> exists;
                            append to <var>map</var> a new key <var>namespace definition</var>
                            whose key value is the <var>prefix definition</var>.
                        <li>Append the value of <var>prefix definition</var> to <var>element prefixes list</var>.
                    </ol>
                </ol>
            </ol>
            <li>Return the value of <var>default namespace attr value</var>.
        </ol>

        <p>To <dfn title="concept-generate-prefix">generate a prefix</dfn> given a
            <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix map</a> <var>map</var>, a
            string <var>new namespace</var>, and a reference to a
            <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated namespace prefix index</a> <var>prefix
            index</var>, the user agent must run the following steps:
        <ol>
            <li>Let <var>generated prefix</var> be the concatenation of the string "<code>ns</code>" and
                the current numerical value of <var>prefix index</var>.
            <li>Let the value of <var>prefix index</var> be incremented by one.
            <li>Append to <var>map</var> a new key <var>new namespace</var> whose key value is the
                <var>generated prefix</var>.
            <li>Return the value of <var>generated prefix</var>.
        </ol>

        <p>The <dfn title="concept-serialize-xml-attributes">XML serialization of the attributes</dfn>
            of an <code><a title="concept-element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>
            <var>element</var> together with a <a title="concept-namespace-prefix-map">namespace prefix
            map</a> <var>map</var>, a <a title="concept-generated-prefix">generated prefix index</a>
            <var>prefix index</var> reference, a flag <var>ignore namespace definition attribute</var>, a
            <var>duplicate prefix definition</var> value, and a flag <var>require well-formed</var>,
            is the result of the following algorithm:
        <ol>
            <li>Let <var>result</var> be the empty string.
            <li>Let <var>localname set</var> be a new empty
                <dfn title="concept-namespace-localname-set">namespace localname set</dfn>. This <var>localname
                set</var> will contain tuples of unique attribute
                <code><a title="dom-attr-namespaceuri" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespaceURI</a></code>
                and <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                pairs, and is populated as each <var>attr</var> is processed.
                <span class="note">This set is used to [optionally] enforce the well-formed constraint that an
                element cannot have two attributes with the same
                <code><a title="dom-attr-namespaceuri" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespaceURI</a></code>
                and <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>.
                This can occur when two otherwise identical attributes on the same element differ only by their
                prefix values.</span>
            <li><dfn title="serialize-attributes-loop">Main</dfn>: For each <a title="concept-attribute" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attribute</a>
                <var>attr</var> in <var>element</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-element-attributes" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attributes</a></code>,
                in the order they are specified in the <var>element</var>'s
                <a title="dom-element-attributes" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attribute list</a>:
            <ol>
                <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                    <code>true</code>), and the <var>localname set</var> contains a tuple whose values match those
                    of a new tuple consisting of <var>attr</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-attr-namespaceuri" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespaceURI</a></code>
                    attribute and <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                    attribute, then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an exception</a>; the serialization of this
                    <var>attr</var> would fail to produce a well-formed element serialization.
                <li>Create a new tuple consisting of <var>attr</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-attr-namespaceuri" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespaceURI</a></code>
                    attribute and <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                    attribute, and add it to the <var>localname set</var>.
                <li>Let <var>attribute namespace</var> be the value of <var>attr</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-attr-namespaceuri" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespaceURI</a></code>
                    value.
                <!-- Check for an unregistered attribute namespace, and if so, serialize a definition for it -->
                <li>Let <var>candidate prefix</var> be <code>null</code>.
                <li>If <var>attribute namespace</var> is not <code>null</code>, then run these sub-steps:
                <ol>
                    <li>If the value of <var>attribute namespace</var> is the
                        <a title="xmlns-ns">XMLNS namespace</a> and either the <var>attr</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-attr-prefix" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">prefix</a></code>
                        is <code>null</code> and the <var>ignore namespace definition
                        attribute</var> flag is <code>true</code> or the <var>attr</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-attr-prefix" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">prefix</a></code>
                        is not <code>null</code> and the <var>attr</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-attr-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                        matches the value of <var>duplicate prefix definition</var>, then stop running
                        these steps and goto <a title="serialize-attributes-loop">Main</a> to visit the next attribute.
                    <li>Otherwise, if there exists a key in <var>map</var> that matches the value of <var>attribute
                        namespace</var>, then let <var>candidate prefix</var> be that key's value from the
                        <var>map</var>.
                    <li>Otherwise, there is no key matching <var>attribute namespace</var> in <var>map</var> and
                        the <var>attribute namespace</var> is not the <a title="xmlns-ns">XMLNS namespace</a>.
                        Run these steps:
                    <ol>
                        <li>Let <var>candidate prefix</var> be the result of
                            <a title="concept-generate-prefix">generating a prefix</a> providing <var>map</var>,
                            <var>attribute namespace</var>, and <var>prefix index</var> as input.
                        <li>Append the following to <var>result</var>, in the order listed:
                        <ol>
                            <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                            <li>The string "<code>xmlns:</code>";
                            <li>The value of <var>candidate prefix</var>;
                            <li>"<code>="</code>" (U+003D EQUALS SIGN, U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                            <li>The result of <a title="concept-serialize-attr-value">serializing an attribute value</a>
                                given <var>attribute namespace</var> and the
                                <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag as input;
                            <li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK).
                        </ol>
                    </ol>
                </ol>
                <!-- A namespace prefix has been set by this point if it needed to be set -->
                <li>Append a "<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE) to <var>result</var>.
                <li>If <var>candidate prefix</var> is not <code>null</code>, then append to <var>result</var>
                    the concatenation of <var>candidate prefix</var> with "<code>:</code>" (U+003A COLON).
                <!-- Check for well-formed localName -->
                <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                    <code>true</code>), and this <var>attr</var>'s
                    <code><a title="dom-element-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                    attribute contains the character "<code>:</code>" (U+003A COLON) or does not match the XML
                    <code>Name</code> production [[XML10]] or equals "<code>xmlns</code>" and <var>attribute
                    namespace</var> is <code>null</code>, then <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an
                    exception</a>; the serialization of this <var>attr</var> would not be a well-formed attribute.
                <!-- Write out the standard attribute -->
                <li>Append the following strings to <var>result</var>, in the order listed:
                <ol>
                    <li>The value of <var>attr</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-attr-localname" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>;
                    <li>"<code>="</code>" (U+003D EQUALS SIGN, U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                    <li>The result of <a title="concept-serialize-attr-value">serializing an attribute value</a>
                        given <var>attr</var>'s
                        <code><a title="concept-attribute-value" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">value</a></code>
                        attribute and the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag as input;
                    <li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK).
                </ol>
            </ol>
            <li>Return the value of <var>result</var>.
        </ol>

        <p>To <dfn title="concept-serialize-attr-value">serialize an attribute value</dfn> given an
            <var>attribute value</var> and <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag,
            the user agent must run the following steps:
        <ol>
            <li>If the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag is set (its value is
                <code>true</code>), and <var>attribute value</var> contains characters that are not matched
                by the XML <code>Char</code> production [[XML10]], then
                <a title="concept-algorithm-exception">throw an exception</a>; the serialization of this
                <var>attribute value</var> would fail to produce a well-formed element serialization.
            <li>If <var>attribute value</var> is <code>null</code>, then return the empty string.
            <li>Otherwise, <var>attribute value</var> is a string. Return the value of
                <var>attribute value</var>, first replacing any occurrences of the following:
            <ol>
                <li>"<code>&quot;</code>" with "<code>&amp;quot;</code>"
                <li>"<code>&amp;</code>" with "<code>&amp;amp;</code>"
                <li>"<code>&lt;</code>" with "<code>&amp;lt;</code>"
                <li>"<code>&gt;</code>" with "<code>&amp;gt;</code>"
            </ol>
            <p class="note">This matches behavior present in browsers, and goes above
                and beyond the grammar requirement in the XML specification's AttValue
                production [[XML10]] by also replacing "<code>&gt;</code>" characters.</p>
        </ol>
    </section>
</section>

<section>
    <h1>The <code>DOMParser</code> interface</h1>

<pre class=extraidl>enum <span class=idlInterfaceID>SupportedType</span> {
    "text/html",
    "text/xml",
    "application/xml",
    "application/xhtml+xml",
    "image/svg+xml"
};</pre>

    <p>The <dfn title="dom-domparser"><code>DOMParser()</code></dfn> constructor
    must return a new <code>DOMParser</code> object.

    <dl class="idl" title="[Constructor] interface DOMParser">
        <dt>[NewObject] Document parseFromString(DOMString str, SupportedType type)</dt>
        <dd>
            <p>The
            <dfn title="dom-domparser-parsefromstring"><code>parseFromString(<var>str</var>, <var>type</var>)</code></dfn>
            method must run these steps, depending on <var>type</var>:

            <dl class=switch>
                <dt>"<code>text/html</code>"
                <dd>
                <p>Parse <var>str</var> with an
                <code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="html-parser" class="externalDFN">HTML parser</a></code>, and return the newly
                created <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a>.

                <p>The <a data-spec="HTML5" title="scripting-flag" class="externalDFN">scripting flag</a> must be set to
                "disabled".

                <p class=note><code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="meta" class="externalDFN">meta</a></code> elements are not
                taken into account for the encoding used, as a Unicode stream is passed into
                the parser.

                <p class=note><code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="script" class="externalDFN">script</a></code> elements get marked
                unexecutable and the contents of <code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="the-noscript-element" class="externalDFN">noscript</a></code>
                get parsed as markup.

                <dt>"<code>text/xml</code>"
                <dt>"<code>application/xml</code>"
                <dt>"<code>application/xhtml+xml</code>"
                <dt>"<code>image/svg+xml</code>"
                <dd>
                <ol>
                    <li>Parse <var>str</var> with a namespace-enabled
                    <code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="xml-parser" class="externalDFN">XML parser</a></code>.

                    <p class="note">For all XHTML <code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="script" class="externalDFN">script</a></code>
                        elements parsed using the <code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="xml-parser" class="externalDFN">XML parser</a></code>,
                        the equivalent of the <a data-spec="HTML5" title="scripting-flag" class="externalDFN">scripting flag</a> must
                        be set to "disabled".</p>

                    <li>If the previous step didn't return an error, return the newly
                    created <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a>.

                    <!-- This seemed like a good idea, but isn't web compatible, unfortunately.
                    <li>Otherwise, throw a
                    <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code>
                    with name <code>SyntaxError</code>. -->

                    <li>Let <var>document</var> be a newly-created
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="xml-document" class="externalDFN">XML Document</a>.
                    <span class="note">The <var>document</var> will use the
                    <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="document" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code> interface
                    rather than the <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="xmldocument" class="externalDFN">XMLDocument</a></code>
                    interface.</span>

                    <li>
                    <p>Let <var>root</var> be a new
                    <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>, with its
                    <a title="concept-element-local-name" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">local name</a>
                    set to "<code>parsererror</code>" and its
                    <a title="concept-element-namespace" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>
                    set to
                    "<code>http://www.mozilla.org/newlayout/xml/parsererror.xml</code>".
                    <!-- see https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=45566 -->
                    <p>At this point user agents may
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-append" class="externalDFN">append</a> nodes
                    to <var>root</var>, for example to describe the nature of the
                    error.

                    <li><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-append" class="externalDFN">Append</a>
                    <var>root</var> to <var>document</var>.

                    <li>Return the value of <var>document</var>.
                </ol>
            </dl>

            <p>In any case, the returned
            <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a>'s
            <a title="concept-document-content-type" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">content type</a>
            must be the <var>type</var> argument. Additionally, the
            <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a> must have a
            <a title="concept-document-url" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">URL</a> value equal to
            the URL of the
            <a title="active-document" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">active document</a>, a
            <a title="location" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">location</a> value of <code>null</code>.

            <p class=note>The returned
            <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a>'s
            <a title="concept-document-encoding" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">encoding</a> is
            the default, UTF-8.
        </dd>
    </dl>
</section>

<section>
    <h1>The <code>XMLSerializer</code> interface</h1>

    <p>The <dfn title="dom-xmlserializer"><code>XMLSerializer()</code></dfn>
    constructor must return a new <code>XMLSerializer</code> object.

    <dl class="idl" title="[Constructor] interface XMLSerializer">
        <dt>DOMString serializeToString(Node root)</dt>

        <dd>The <dfn title="dom-xmlserializer-serializetostring"><code>serializeToString(<var>root</var>)</code></dfn>
        method must <a title="concept-serialize-xml">produce an XML serialization</a> of <var>root</var> passing
        a value of <code>false</code> for the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> parameter, and return the result.</dd>
    </dl>
</section>

<section>
    <h1>Extensions to the <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> interface</h1>

    <dl class="idl" title="partial interface Element">
        <dt>[TreatNullAs=EmptyString] attribute DOMString innerHTML</dt>
        <dd>
            <p>The <dfn title="dom-element-innerhtml"><code>innerHTML</code></dfn> IDL
            attribute represents the markup of the
            <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>'s contents.

            <dl class=domintro>
                <!--doc.ih
                <dt><var>document</var> . <code title="dom-document-innerhtml">innerHTML</code> [ = <var>value</var> ]
                <dd>
                <p>Returns a fragment of HTML or XML that represents the
                <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>.

                <p>Can be set, to replace the
                <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>'s contents with the result of
                parsing the given string.

                <p>In the case of an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>,
                will throw an
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>InvalidStateError</code>
                if the <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code> cannot be serialized
                to XML, and a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>SyntaxError</code>
                if the given string is not well-formed.
                -->

                <dt><var>element</var> . <code title="dom-element-innerhtml">innerHTML</code> [ = <var>value</var> ]
                <dd>
                <p>Returns a fragment of HTML or XML that represents the element's
                contents.

                <p>Can be set, to replace the contents of the element with nodes
                parsed from the given string.

                <p>In the case of an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>,
                will throw a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="invalidstateerror" class="externalDFN">InvalidStateError</a></code>"
                if the <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> cannot be serialized
                to XML, and a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="syntaxerror" class="externalDFN">SyntaxError</a></code>"
                if the given string is not well-formed.
            </dl>

            <p>On getting, return the result of invoking the
                <a title="concept-fragment-serializing-algorithm">fragment serializing algorithm</a> on the
                <a title="context object">context object</a> providing <code>true</code> for the
                <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a> flag (this might throw an exception
                instead of returning a string).

            <p>On setting, these steps must be run:
            <ol>
                <li>Let <var>fragment</var> be the result of invoking the
                <a title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</a> with
                the new value as <var>markup</var>, and the
                <a title="context object">context object</a> as the <var>context element</var>.

                <li><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-replace-all" class="externalDFN">Replace all</a>
                with <var>fragment</var> within the <a title="context object">context object</a>.
            </ol>
        </dd>

        <!-- outerHTML -->
        <dt>[TreatNullAs=EmptyString] attribute DOMString outerHTML</dt>
        <dd>
            <p>The <dfn title="dom-element-outerhtml"><code>outerHTML</code></dfn> IDL
            attribute represents the markup of the
            <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> and its contents.

            <dl class=domintro>
              <dt><var>element</var> . <code title="dom-element-outerhtml">outerHTML</code> [ = <var>value</var> ]
              <dd>
                <p>Returns a fragment of HTML or XML that represents the element and its
                contents.

                <p>Can be set, to replace the element with nodes parsed from the given
                string.

                <p>In the case of an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>,
                will throw a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="invalidstateerror" class="externalDFN">InvalidStateError</a></code>"
                if the element cannot be serialized to XML, and a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="syntaxerror" class="externalDFN">SyntaxError</a></code>"
                if the given string is not well-formed.

                <p>Throws a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="nomodificationallowederror" class="externalDFN">NoModificationAllowedError</a></code>"
                if the parent of the element is the
                <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code> node.
            </dl>

            <p>On getting, return the result of invoking the
                <a title="concept-fragment-serializing-algorithm">fragment serializing algorithm</a> on a
                fictional node whose only child is the <a title="context object">context object</a>
                providing <code>true</code> for the <a title="concept-well-formed">require well-formed</a>
                flag (this might throw an exception instead of returning a string).

            <p>On setting, the following steps must be run:

            <ol>
                <li>Let <var>parent</var> be the <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>.

                <li>If <var>parent</var> is null, terminate these steps. There would be no
                way to obtain a reference to the nodes created even if the remaining steps
                were run.

                <li>If <var>parent</var> is a
                <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>, throw a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="nomodificationallowederror" class="externalDFN">NoModificationAllowedError</a></code>"
                exception.

                <li>If <var>parent</var> is a
                <code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>, let
                <var>parent</var> be a new
                <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> with

                <ul>
                    <li><code>body</code> as its
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>,

                    <li>The <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a> as its
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>, and
                    <li>The <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                    <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                    as its
                    <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.
                </ul>

                <li>Let <var>fragment</var> be the result of invoking the
                <a title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</a> with
                the new value as <var>markup</var>, and <var>parent</var> as
                the <var>context element</var>.

                <li><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-replace" class="externalDFN">Replace</a>
                the <a title="context object">context object</a> with <var>fragment</var> within
                the <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>.
            </ol>
        </dd>

        <!-- insertAdjacentHTML -->
        <dt>void insertAdjacentHTML(DOMString position, DOMString text)</dt>
        <dd>
             <dl class=domintro>
                  <dt><var>element</var> . <code title="dom-element-insertadjacenthtml">insertAdjacentHTML</code>(<var>position</var>, <var>text</var>)

                  <dd>
                    <p>Parses the given string <var>text</var> as HTML or XML and inserts
                    the resulting nodes into the tree in the position given by the
                    <var>position</var> argument, as follows:

                    <dl>
                      <dt>"beforebegin"
                      <dd>Before the element itself.

                      <dt>"afterbegin"
                      <dd>Just inside the element, before its first child.

                      <dt>"beforeend"
                      <dd>Just inside the element, after its last child.

                      <dt>"afterend"
                      <dd>After the element itself.
                    </dl>

                    <p>Throws a <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                    "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="syntaxerror" class="externalDFN">SyntaxError</a></code>"
                    if the arguments have invalid values (e.g., in the case of an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="xml-document" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>, if the given string is
                    not well-formed).

                    <p>Throws a
                    <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                    "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="nomodificationallowederror" class="externalDFN">NoModificationAllowedError</a></code>"
                    if the given position isn't possible (e.g. inserting elements
                    after the root element of a <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>).
                </dl>

                <p>The
                <dfn title="dom-element-insertadjacenthtml"><code>insertAdjacentHTML(<var>position</var>, <var>text</var>)</code></dfn>
                method must run these steps:

                <ol>
                    <li>Use the first matching item from this list:

                    <dl class=switch>
                        <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                        the string "beforebegin"

                        <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                        the string "afterend"

                        <dd>
                            <p>Let <var>context</var> be the <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                            <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>.

                            <p>If <var>context</var> is null or a
                            <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="concept-document">document</a>, throw
                            a
                            <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name
                            "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="nomodificationallowederror" class="externalDFN">NoModificationAllowedError</a></code>".

                        <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                        the string "afterbegin"

                        <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                        the string "beforeend"

                        <dd>Let <var>context</var> be the <a title="context object">context object</a>.

                        <dt>Otherwise
                        <dd>
                            <p>Throw a <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code>
                            with name "<code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="syntaxerror" class="externalDFN">SyntaxError</a></code>".
                    </dl>

                  <li>If <var>context</var> is not an
                    <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> or the following are all true:

                    <ul>
                      <li><var>context</var>'s
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                      is an <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>,

                      <li><var>context</var>'s
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>
                      is "<code>html</code>", and

                      <li><var>context</var>'s
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>
                      is the <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a>;
                    </ul>

                    <p>let <var>context</var> be a new
                    <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> with

                    <ul>
                      <li><code>body</code> as its
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>,

                      <li>The <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a> as its
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>, and

                      <li>The <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                      as its
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.
                    </ul>

                <li>Let <var>fragment</var> be the result of invoking the
                <a title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</a> with <var>text</var> as
                <var>markup</var>, and <var>context</var> as the <var>context element</var>.

                <li>Use the first matching item from this list:

                <dl class=switch>
                    <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                    the string "beforebegin"

                    <dd><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-insert" class="externalDFN">Insert</a>
                    <var>fragment</var> into the <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>
                    before the <a title="context object">context object</a>.

                    <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                    the string "afterbegin"

                    <dd><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-insert" class="externalDFN">Insert</a>
                    <var>fragment</var> into the <a title="context object">context object</a>
                    before its
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-first-child" class="externalDFN">first child</a>.

                    <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                    the string "beforeend"

                    <dd><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-append" class="externalDFN">Append</a>
                    <var>fragment</var> to the <a title="context object">context object</a>.

                    <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                    the string "afterend"

                    <dd><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-insert" class="externalDFN">Insert</a>
                    <var>fragment</var> into the <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>
                    before the <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-next-sibling" class="externalDFN">next sibling</a>.
                </dl>
            </ol>
        </dd>

    </dl>
</section>

<!-- Dropping this extention as it is not implemented, nor does it appear that any browser
     is currently interested in supporting it. Perhaps it can come back in a V2 of this spec
     if browsers become interested.
<section>
    <h1>Extensions to the <code><a title="text" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Text</a></code> interface</h1>

    <dl class="idl" title="partial interface Text">
        <dt>attribute boolean serializeAsCDATA</dt>
        <dd>
            <dl class=domintro>
              <dt><var>text</var> .
                  <code title="dom-text-serializeascdata">serializeAsCDATA</code> [ = <var>value</var> ]
              <dd>Controls whether, in XML, this node is serialized as a CDATA section.
            </dl>

            <p><code><a title="text" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Text</a></code> nodes have an additional
            associated flag, the <dfn>serialize as CDATA flag</dfn>.

            <p>The
            <dfn title="dom-text-serializeascdata"><code>serializeAsCDATA</code></dfn>
            attribute must return true if the <a title="context object">context object</a> has its
            <a>serialize as CDATA flag</a> set, or false otherwise.

            <p>Setting the <code title="dom-text-serializeascdata">serializeAsCDATA</code>
            attribute must, if the new value is true, set the
            <a title="context object">context object</a>'s <a>serialize as CDATA flag</a>, or unset
            it otherwise.
        </dd>
    </dl>
</section>
-->

<section>
    <h1>Extensions to the <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="range" class="externalDFN">Range</a></code> interface</h1>

    <dl class="idl" title="partial interface Range">
        <dt>[NewObject] DocumentFragment createContextualFragment(DOMString fragment)</dt>
        <dd>
            <dl class=domintro>
              <dt><var>docFragment</var> = <var>range</var> . <code title="dom-range-createcontextualfragment">createContextualFragment</code>(<var>markupString</var>)
              <dd>Returns a <code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>, created
                from the markup string given.
            </dl>

            <p>The
            <dfn title="dom-range-createcontextualfragment"><code>createContextualFragment(<var>fragment</var>)</code></dfn>
            method must run these steps:

            <ol>
                <li>Let <var>node</var> be the <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-range-start-node" class="externalDFN">start node</a>.

                <p>Let <var>element</var> be as follows, depending on <var>node</var>'s interface:

                <dl class=switch>
                    <dt><code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>
                    <dt><code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>
                    <dd>null

                    <dt><code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>
                    <dd><var>node</var>

                    <dt><code><a title="text" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Text</a></code>
                    <dt><code><a title="comment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Comment</a></code>
                    <dd><var>node</var>'s
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="parent-element">parent element</a>

                    <dt><code><a title="documenttype" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentType</a></code>
                    <dt><code><a title="processinginstruction" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">ProcessingInstruction</a></code>
                    <dd>[[DOM4]] prevents this case.
                </dl>

                <li>If either <var>element</var> is null or the following are all true:

                    <ul>
                      <li><var>element</var>'s
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                      is an <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>,

                      <li><var>element</var>'s
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>
                      is "<code>html</code>", and

                      <li><var>element</var>'s
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>
                      is the <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a>;
                    </ul>

                    <p>let <var>element</var> be a new
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element" class="externalDFN">element</a> with

                    <ul>
                      <li>"<code>body</code>" as its
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>,

                      <li>The <a title="html-ns">HTML namespace</a> as its
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>, and

                      <li>The <a title="context object">context object</a>'s
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                      as its
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.
                    </ul>

                <li>Let <var>fragment node</var> be the result of invoking the
                <a title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</a> with <var>fragment</var> as
                <var>markup</var>, and <var>element</var> as the <var>context element</var>.

                <li>Unmark all scripts in <var>fragment node</var> as "already started".

                <li>Return the value of <var>fragment node</var>.
            </ol>
        </dd>
    </dl>
</section>

<section class="appendix">
    <h1>Revision History</h1>
    <p>The following is an informative summary of the changes since the last publication of this 
        specification. A complete revision history of the Editor's Drafts of this specification 
        can be found <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/innerhtml/summary/">here</a>.</p>
    
    <ul>
       <li><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/innerhtml/raw-file/tip/LC2_comments.html">Incorporated 
        non-normative changes from previous Last Call document.</a>
    </ul>
</section>

<section class="appendix">
    <h1>Acknowledgements</h1>
    <p>Thanks to Ms2ger [<a href="http://www.mozilla.org">Mozilla</a>] for maintaining the initial
       drafts of this specification and for its continued improvement in the
       <a href="http://domparsing.spec.whatwg.org/">Living Specification</a>.

    <p>Thanks to
        Victor Costan,
        Aryeh Gregor,
        Anne van Kesteren,
        Arkadiusz Michalski,
        Simon Pieters,
        Henri Sivonen,
        Josh Soref
        and Boris Zbarsky,
        for their useful comments.

    <p>Special thanks to Ian Hickson for defining the
    <code title="dom-element-innerhtml">innerHTML</code> and
    <code title="dom-element-outerhtml">outerHTML</code> attributes, and the
    <code title="dom-element-insertadjacenthtml">insertAdjacentHTML()</code> method in
    [[HTML5]] and his useful comments.
</section>

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