LCWD-DOM-Parsing-20131205.html
author Art Barstow <art.barstow@gmail.com>
Sun, 05 Oct 2014 08:38:12 -0400
changeset 75 5b04cbad78d9
parent 29 9425d4d28248
permissions -rw-r--r--
Add an explicit URL to file a bug
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<body id="respecDocument" role="document" class="h-entry"><div id="respecHeader" role="contentinfo" class="head">
  <p>
    
      <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" alt="W3C" height="48" width="72"></a>
    
  </p>
  <h1 class="title p-name" id="title" property="dcterms:title">DOM Parsing and Serialization</h1>
  
    <h2 property="bibo:subtitle" id="subtitle">DOMParser, XMLSerializer, innerHTML, and similar APIs</h2>
  
  <h2 id="w3c-last-call-working-draft-10-december-2013" property="dcterms:issued" datatype="xsd:dateTime" content="2013-12-04T02:16:56.000Z"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Last Call Working Draft <time class="dt-published" datetime="2013-12-10">10 December 2013</time></h2>
  <dl>
    
      <dt>This version:</dt>
      <dd><a class="u-url" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-DOM-Parsing-20131210/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/WD-DOM-Parsing-20131210/</a></dd>
      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
      <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Parsing/">http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Parsing/</a></dd>
    
    
      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
      <dd><a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/innerhtml/raw-file/tip/index.html">https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/innerhtml/raw-file/tip/index.html</a></dd>
    
    
      <dt>Test suite:</dt>
      <dd><a href="https://github.com/whatwg/domparsing/tree/master/tests">https://github.com/whatwg/domparsing/tree/master/tests</a></dd>
    
    
    
    
      <dt>Previous version:</dt>
      <dd><a rel="dcterms:replaces" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-DOM-Parsing-20120920/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-DOM-Parsing-20120920/</a></dd>
    
    
    <dt>Editor:</dt>
    <dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><span property="foaf:name" class="p-name fn">Travis Leithead</span>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.microsoft.com">Microsoft</a>, <span class="ed_mailto"><a class="u-email email" rel="foaf:mbox" href="mailto:travis.leithead@microsoft.com">travis.leithead@microsoft.com</a></span></span>
</dd>

<!-- <dd class="p-author h-card vcard" rel="bibo:editor" inlist=""><span typeof="foaf:Person"><span property="foaf:name" class="p-name fn">Ms2ger</span>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="http://www.mozilla.org/">Mozilla</a> (Upstream WHATWG version)</span>
</dd> -->
    
    
      
        
       <!--   <dt>WHATWG Living Standard:</dt>
          
             
                
                  <dd>
                    <a href="http://domparsing.spec.whatwg.org/">
                      http://domparsing.spec.whatwg.org/
                    </a>
                  </dd> -->
                
             
          
        
      
    
  </dl>
  
  
  
  
    
      <p class="copyright">
        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright">Copyright</a> ©
        2013
        
        <a href="http://www.w3.org/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup>
        (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>,
        <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>,
        <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, <a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), 
        
        All Rights Reserved.
        
        <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>,
        <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a> and
        
          <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents">document use</a>
        
        rules apply.
      </p>
    
  
  <hr>
</div>

    <section rel="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" typeof="bibo:Chapter" datatype="" property="dcterms:abstract" class="introductory" id="abstract"><h2 id="h2_abstract" role="heading" aria-level="1">Abstract</h2>
       <p>This specification defines various APIs for programmatic access to 
          HTML and generic XML parsers by web applications for use in parsing 
          and serializing DOM nodes.</p>
    </section><section rel="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="sotd" class="introductory"><h2 id="h2_sotd" role="heading" aria-level="1">Status of This Document</h2>
  
    
      
        <p>
          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication.
          Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the
          latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports index</a> at
          http://www.w3.org/TR/.</em>
        </p>
        
        <p>This specification is based on the original work of the <a href="http://domparsing.spec.whatwg.org/">
            DOM Parsing and Serialization</a> Living Specification, though it has diverged in terms of 
            supported features, normative requirements, and algorithm specificity. As appropriate, 
            relevant fixes from the living standard are incorporated into this document. 
    </p>
        <p>
          This document was published by the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2008/webapps/">Web Applications Working Group</a> as a Last Call Working Draft.
          
            This document is intended to become a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.
          
          
            If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
            <a href="mailto:www-dom@w3.org?subject=DOM-Parsing">www-dom@w3.org</a> 
            (<a href="mailto:www-dom-request@w3.org?subject=subscribe">subscribe</a>,
            <a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-dom/">archives</a>)
              with <code>DOM-Parsing</code> at the start of your email's subject.
          
          The Last Call comment period ends 07 January 2014.
          
          
            All comments are welcome.
          
        </p>
        
        
          <p>
            Publication as a Last Call Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>
            Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other
            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in
            progress.
          </p>
        
        
          <p>
            This is a Last Call Working Draft and thus the Working Group has determined that this
            document has satisfied the relevant technical requirements and is sufficiently stable to
            advance through the Technical Recommendation process.
          </p>
        
        <p>
          
            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
            <a id="sotd_patent" about="" rel="w3p:patentRules" href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent
            Policy</a>.
          
          
          
            
              <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/42538/status" rel="disclosure">public list of any patent
              disclosures</a> 
            
            made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes
            instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent
            which the individual believes contains
            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential
            Claim(s)</a> must disclose the information in accordance with
            <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section
            6 of the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Patent Policy</a>.
          
          
        </p>
        
      
    
  
</section><section id="toc"><h2 id="h2_toc" role="heading" aria-level="1" class="introductory">Table of Contents</h2><ul id="respecContents" role="directory" class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#conformance"><span class="secno">1. </span>Conformance</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#dependencies"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Dependencies</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#extensibility"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Extensibility</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#terminology"><span class="secno">2. </span>Terminology</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#parsing-and-serializing-nodes"><span class="secno">3. </span>Parsing and serializing <span title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="formerLink">Node</span>s</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#parsing"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Parsing</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#serializing"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Serializing</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#the-domparser-interface"><span class="secno">4. </span>The <code>DOMParser</code> interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#methods"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#the-xmlserializer-interface"><span class="secno">5. </span>The <code>XMLSerializer</code> interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#methods-1"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#extensions-to-the-element-interface"><span class="secno">6. </span>Extensions to the <code><span title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="formerLink">Element</span></code> interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#attributes"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>Attributes</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#methods-2"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#extensions-to-the-range-interface"><span class="secno">7. </span>Extensions to the <code><span data-spec="DOM4" title="range" class="formerLink">Range</span></code> interface</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#methods-3"><span class="secno">7.1 </span>Methods</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#acknowledgements"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#references"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#normative-references"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</a></li><li class="tocline"><a class="tocxref" href="#informative-references"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</a></li></ul></li></ul></section>

    


    <section rel="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="issues" class="introductory">
        <h1 id="h1_issues" role="heading" aria-level="1">Issues</h1>
        
        <div class="issue"><div id="h_issue_1" role="heading" aria-level="2" class="issue-title"><span>Issue 1</span></div><p class="">Open issues that appear throughout the remainder of this 
        document will be highlighted like this.</p></div>
        
        <!-- I don't believe this is a point of contention anymore...
        <p class="issue">This specification currently requires using the XML 
        Parser for some APIs, when in an XML document. It is unclear whether 
        consensus can be found for this approach.</p>
        -->
    </section>

    <section rel="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="conformance"><!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_conformance" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">1. </span>Conformance</h2>
<p>
  As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples,
  and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is
  normative.
</p>
<p>
  The key words <em title="MUST" class="rfc2119">MUST</em>, <em title="MUST NOT" class="rfc2119">MUST NOT</em>, <em title="REQUIRED" class="rfc2119">REQUIRED</em>, <em title="SHOULD" class="rfc2119">SHOULD</em>, <em title="SHOULD NOT" class="rfc2119">SHOULD NOT</em>, <em title="RECOMMENDED" class="rfc2119">RECOMMENDED</em>, <em title="MAY" class="rfc2119">MAY</em>,
  and <em title="OPTIONAL" class="rfc2119">OPTIONAL</em> in this specification are to be interpreted as described in [<cite><a href="#bib-RFC2119" class="bibref">RFC2119</a></cite>].
</p>

        <p>Requirements phrased in the imperative as part of algorithms
        (such as "strip any leading space characters" or "return false and
        terminate these steps") are to be interpreted with the meaning of the
        key word ("must", "should", "may", etc) used in introducing the
        algorithm.</p>

        <p>Conformance requirements phrased as algorithms or specific steps
        may be implemented in any manner, so long as the end result is
        equivalent. (In particular, the algorithms defined in this
        specification are intended to be easy to follow, and not intended to
        be performant.)</p>

        <p id="hardwareLimitations">User agents may impose
        implementation-specific limits on otherwise unconstrained inputs,
        e.g. to prevent denial of service attacks, to guard against running
        out of memory, or to work around platform-specific limitations.</p>

        <p>When a method or an attribute is said to call another method or 
        attribute, the user agent must invoke its internal API for that 
        attribute or method so that e.g. the author can't change the behavior 
        by overriding attributes or methods with custom properties or functions 
        in ECMAScript.</p>

        <p>Unless otherwise stated, string comparisons are done in a <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="case-sensitive">
        case-sensitive</a> manner.</p>

        <p>If an algorithm calls into another algorithm, any exception that is 
        thrown by the latter (unless it is explicitly caught), must cause the 
        former to terminate, and the exception to be propagated up to 
        <em>its</em> caller.</p>
    
        <section id="dependencies">
            <h3 id="h3_dependencies" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Dependencies</h3>

            <p>The IDL fragments in this specification must be interpreted as
            required for conforming IDL fragments, as described in the Web IDL
            specification. [<cite><a href="#bib-WEBIDL" class="bibref">WEBIDL</a></cite>]</p>

            <p>Some of the terms used in this specification are defined in
            [<cite><a href="#bib-DOM4" class="bibref">DOM4</a></cite>], [<cite><a href="#bib-HTML5" class="bibref">HTML5</a></cite>], and [<cite><a href="#bib-XML10" class="bibref">XML10</a></cite>].
        </p></section>

        <section id="extensibility">
            <h3 id="h3_extensibility" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Extensibility</h3>

            <p>Vendor-specific proprietary extensions to this specification are
            strongly discouraged. Authors must not use such extensions, as
            doing so reduces interoperability and fragments the user base,
            allowing only users of specific user agents to access the content in
            question.</p>

            <p>If vendor-specific extensions are needed, the members should be
            prefixed by vendor-specific strings to prevent clashes with future
            versions of this specification. Extensions must be defined so that
            the use of extensions neither contradicts nor causes the
            non-conformance of functionality defined in the specification.</p>

            <p>When vendor-neutral extensions to this specification are needed,
            either this specification can be updated accordingly, or an
            extension specification can be written that overrides the
            requirements in this specification. When someone applying this
            specification to their activities decides that they will recognise
            the requirements of such an extension specification, it becomes an
            <dfn id="dfn-other-applicable-specifications" title="other applicable specifications">applicable
            specification</dfn> for the purposes of conformance requirements in
            this specification.</p>
            <!-- http://www.w3.org/mid/17E341CD-E790-422C-9F9A-69347EE01CEB@iki.fi -->
        </section>
    </section>

    <section id="terminology">
        <!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_terminology" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">2. </span>Terminology</h2>

        <p>The term <dfn id="dfn-context-object">context object</dfn> means the object on which the method or
        attribute being discussed was called.
    </p></section>


    <section id="parsing-and-serializing-nodes">
        <!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_parsing-and-serializing-nodes" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">3. </span>Parsing and serializing <a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a>s</h2>

        <section id="parsing">
            <h3 id="h3_parsing" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">3.1 </span>Parsing</h3>

            <p>The following steps form the
            <dfn id="dfn-concept-parse-fragment" title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</dfn>, whose
            arguments are a <var>markup</var> string and a
            <var>context element</var>.

            </p><ol>
              <li>
                <p>If the <var>context element</var>'s
                <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                is an <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>: let
                <var>algorithm</var> be the
                <a title="html-fragment-parsing-algorithm" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">HTML 
                fragment parsing algorithm</a>.</p>

                <p>If the <var>context element</var>'s
                <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                is an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>: let
                <var>algorithm</var> be the
                <a title="xml-fragment-parsing-algorithm" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">XML 
                fragment parsing algorithm</a>.</p>
              </li>

              <li>Invoke <var>algorithm</var> with <var>markup</var> as
              the <var>input</var>, and <var>context element</var> as the
              <var><a data-spec="HTML5" title="concept-frag-parse-context" class="externalDFN">context</a></var>
              element.</li>

              <li>Let <var>new children</var> be the nodes returned.</li>

              <li>Let <var>fragment</var> be a new
              <code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code> whose
              <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
              is <var>context element</var>'s
              <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.

              </li><li><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-append" class="externalDFN">Append</a>
              each <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node" class="externalDFN">node</a> in
              <var>new children</var> to <var>fragment</var> (in order).

              <div class="note"><div id="h_note_1" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">This ensures the
              <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
              for the new <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node" class="externalDFN">nodes</a> is correct.

              </p></div></li><li>Return <var>fragment</var>.
            </li></ol>
    </section>

    <section id="serializing">
        <h3 id="h3_serializing" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">3.2 </span>Serializing</h3>
        <p>To <dfn id="dfn-concept-serialize" title="concept-serialize">serialize</dfn> a
        <a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a> <var>node</var>, the user agent
        must run the following steps:

        </p><ol>
            <li>Let <var>document</var> be <var>node</var>'s
                <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.
            </li><li>If <var>document</var> is an
                <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>, 
                return an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-html" title="concept-serialize-html">HTML serialization</a> of <var>node</var>.
            </li><li>Otherwise, <var>document</var> is an
                <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>.
            </li><li>Let <var>context namespace</var> be <code>null</code>.
            </li><li>Let <var>prefix list</var> be an empty list. The <var>prefix list</var> will 
                contain strings that represent a history of namespace prefixes [<cite><a href="#bib-XML-NAMES" class="bibref">XML-NAMES</a></cite>]
                that have been serialized by the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml" title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</a>
                algorithm for a subtree.
            </li><li>Return an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml" title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</a> of <var>node</var>
                providing to the algorithm <var>context namespace</var> as the <var>namespace</var>
                and <var>prefix list</var> as <var>prefixes</var>.
        </li></ol>

        <p>To produce an <dfn id="dfn-concept-serialize-html" title="concept-serialize-html">HTML serialization</dfn> of a
        <a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a> <var>node</var>, the user agent
        must run the
        <a data-spec="HTML5" title="html-fragment-serialization-algorithm" class="externalDFN">HTML 
        fragment serialization algorithm</a> [<cite><a href="#bib-HTML5" class="bibref">HTML5</a></cite>] on <var>node</var> and return the string produced.
          
        </p><p>To produce an <dfn id="dfn-concept-serialize-xml" title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</dfn> of a
            <a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a> <var>node</var> given a
            context namespace <var>namespace</var> and prefix list <var>prefixes</var>, the user 
            agent must run the appropriate steps, depending on <var>node</var>'s interface:</p>
        
        <div class="note"><div id="h_note_2" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">The following steps for serializing a <var>node</var> belonging to an
            <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a> are 
            designed to produce a serialization that is compatible with the
            <a title="html-parser" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">HTML parser</a>. For example,
            elements in the XHTML namespace that contain no child nodes are serialized with
            an explicit begin and end tag rather than using the XML self-closing syntax. Exceptions 
            to this rule occur when an XHTML element's equivalent HTML element is a 
            <a title="void-elements" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">void element</a> that 
            would be auto-closed by the 
            <a title="html-parser" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">HTML parser</a>.
            
        </p></div><dl class="switch">
            <dt><code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>
            </dt><dd>
                <p>Run the following algorithm:
                </p><ol>
                    <!-- "namespace" was passed via the caller -->
                    <li>Let <var>markup</var> be an empty string.
                    </li><li>Let <var>list</var> be a copy of the <var>prefixes</var> array.
                    </li><li>Let <var>prefix</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s 
                        <code><a title="dom-Element-prefix" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">prefix</a></code>
                        attribute.
                    </li><li>Let <var>ns</var> be the value of <var>node</var>'s 
                        <code><a title="dom-Element-namespaceURI" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespaceURI</a></code>
                        attribute.
                    </li><li>Let a <var>skip end tag</var> flag have the value <code>false</code>.
                    </li><li>Append "<code>&lt;</code>" (U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN) to <var>markup</var>.
                    </li><li>If <var>prefix</var> is not <code>null</code> then append the following to
                        <var>markup</var>:
                        <ol>
                            <li>The value of <var>prefix</var>;
                            </li><li>"<code>:</code>" (U+003A COLON).
                        </li></ol>
                    </li><li>Append the value of <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-Element-localName" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                        attribute to <var>markup</var>.
                    <!-- Tried ":" in names, but this doesn't trick the serializer-it just produces 
                        a serialization that is not round-trippable
                        <p class="issue">escaping / throwing -->
                    </li><li>If <var>namespace</var> is not equal to <var>ns</var> (the <var>node</var>'s
                        own namespace is different from its parent), and <var>prefix</var> is not 
                        <code>null</code>, then run these sub-steps:
                        <div class="note"><div id="h_note_3" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">These steps determine whether a namespace prefix is 
                            serialized for this node.
                        </p></div><ol>
                            <li>If <var>list</var> contains the value of <var>prefix</var>, then
                                abort these sub-steps. This namespace prefix
                                was already serialized.
                            </li><li>Add the value of <var>prefix</var> to <var>list</var>.
                            </li><li>If <var>node</var> has an attribute whose 
                                <a title="concept-attribute-name" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">name</a>
                                attribute value is equal to the concatenation of the string 
                                "<code>xmlns:</code>" with the value of <var>prefix</var>, abort 
                                these sub-steps. The <var>prefix</var> namespace definition will be 
                                serialized later as part of the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml-attributes" title="concept-serialize-xml-attributes">XML 
                                serialization of <var>node</var>'s attributes</a>.
                            </li><li>Append the following to <var>markup</var>, in order:
                            <ol>
                                <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                                </li><li>The string "<code>xmlns:</code>";
                                </li><li>The value of <var>prefix</var>;
                                </li><li>"<code>="</code>" (U+003D EQUALS SIGN, U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                                </li><li>The value of <var>ns</var>;
                                </li><li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                            </li></ol>
                        </li></ol>
                    </li><li>If <var>namespace</var> is not equal to <var>ns</var>, and <var>prefix</var>
                        is <code>null</code>, then run these sub-steps:
                        <div class="note"><div id="h_note_4" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">These steps determine whether a default namespace is 
                            serialized for this node.
                        </p></div><ol>
                            <li>If <var>node</var> has an attribute whose 
                                <a title="concept-attribute-name" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">name</a>
                                attribute value is equal to "<code>xmlns</code>", abort 
                                these sub-steps. The default namespace will be 
                                serialized later as part of the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml-attributes" title="concept-serialize-xml-attributes">XML 
                                serialization of <var>node</var>'s attributes</a>.
                            </li><li>Append the following to <var>markup</var>, in order:
                            <ol>
                                <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                                </li><li>The string "<code>xmlns</code>";
                                </li><li>"<code>="</code>" (U+003D EQUALS SIGN, U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                                </li><li>The value of <var>ns</var>;
                                </li><li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                            </li></ol>
                        </li></ol>
                    </li><li>Append to <var>markup</var> the result of the 
                        <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml-attributes" title="concept-serialize-xml-attributes">XML 
                        serialization of <var>node</var>'s attributes</a>, passing <var>list</var>
                        as the <var>prefixes</var>.
                    </li><li>If the value of <var>ns</var> is the string "<code>http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml</code>",
                        and the <var>node</var>'s list of 
                        <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">children</a>
                        is empty, and the <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-Element-tagName" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">tagName</a></code>
                        matches any one of the following 
                        <a title="void-elements" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">void elements</a>:
                        "<code>area</code>",
                        "<code>base</code>",
                        "<code>br</code>",
                        "<code>col</code>",
                        "<code>embed</code>",
                        "<code>hr</code>",
                        "<code>img</code>",
                        "<code>input</code>",
                        "<code>keygen</code>",
                        "<code>link</code>",
                        "<code>menuitem</code>",
                        "<code>meta</code>",
                        "<code>param</code>",
                        "<code>source</code>",
                        "<code>track</code>",
                        "<code>wbr</code>";
                        then append the following to <var>markup</var>, in order:
                        <ol>
                            <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                            </li><li>"<code>/</code>" (U+002F SOLIDUS);
                        </li></ol>
                        and set the <var>skip end tag</var> flag to <code>true</code>.
                    </li><li>If the value of <var>ns</var> is not the string "<code>http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml</code>",
                        and the <var>node</var>'s list of 
                        <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">children</a>
                        is empty, then append "<code>/</code>" (U+002F SOLIDUS) to <var>markup</var>
                        and set the <var>skip end tag</var> flag to <code>true</code>.
                    </li><li>Append "<code>&gt;</code>" (U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN) to <var>markup</var>.
                    </li><li>If the value of <var>skip end tag</var> is <code>true</code>, then return 
                        the value of <var>markup</var> and skip the remaining steps. The 
                        <var>node</var> is a leaf-node.
                    </li><li>Append to <var>markup</var> the result of performing an 
                        <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml" title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</a> of each of 
                        <var>node</var>'s
                        <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">children</a>,
                        in order, providing the value of <var>ns</var> for the <var>namespace</var>
                        and <var>list</var> for the <var>prefixes</var>.
                    </li><li>Append "<code>&lt;/</code>" (U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN, U+002F SOLIDUS) to 
                        <var>markup</var>.
                    </li><li>If the value of <var>prefix</var> is not <code>null</code>, then append the 
                        following to <var>markup</var>, in order:
                        <ol>
                            <li>The value of <var>prefix</var>;
                            </li><li>"<code>:</code>" (U+003A COLON).
                        </li></ol>
                    </li><li>Append the value of <var>node</var>'s
                        <code><a title="dom-Element-localName" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">localName</a></code>
                        attribute to <var>markup</var>.
                    </li><li>Append "<code>&gt;</code>" (U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN) to <var>markup</var>.
                    </li><li>Return the value of <var>markup</var>.
                </li></ol>

            </dd><dt><code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>
            </dt><dd>
                <p>Return the result of concatenating the following, in order:
                </p><ol>
                    <li>The string produced by running the steps to 
                        <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-doctype" title="concept-serialize-doctype">produce a DocumentType serialization</a>
                        of <var>node</var>'s 
                        <a title="dom-Document-doctype" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">doctype</a>
                        attribute;
                    </li><li>The string produced by an <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml" title="concept-serialize-xml">XML serialization</a>
                        of <var>node</var>'s 
                        <a title="dom-Document-documentElement" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">documentElement</a>
                        attribute, providing <code>null</code> as the <var>namespace</var> and an 
                        empty list as <var>prefixes</var>. 
                </li></ol>

            </dd><dt><code><a title="comment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Comment</a></code>
            </dt><dd><ol>
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> be the concatenation of "<code>&lt;!--</code>", <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>, and
                "<code>--&gt;</code>".

                </li><li>If <var>markup</var> matches the
                <code><a data-spec="XML10" title="comment" class="externalDFN">Comment</a></code> production, return
                <var>markup</var>. Otherwise, throw a
                <code><a title="domexception" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code>
                with name <code>InvalidStateError</code>.
              </li></ol>
            </dd><dt><code><a title="cdata" data-spec="DOML2" class="externalDFN">CDATASection</a></code>
            </dt><dd><ol>
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> be the concatenation of "<code>&lt;![CDATA[</code>", 
                <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>, 
                and "<code>]]&gt;</code>".

                <!-- This does not actually appear to be the case in implementations today.
                <p>If <var>data</var> doesn't match the
                  <code><a title="NT-CData" data-spec="XML10" class="externalDFN">CDSect</a></code> production, throw a
                  <code><a title=domexception data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code>
                  with name <code>InvalidStateError</code> and terminate the entire algorithm.
                -->
                
                </li><li>Return <var>markup</var>.
              </li></ol>

              <div class="note"><div id="h_note_5" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">CDATASection objects may be created by the historical 
            <code>document.createCDATASection</code> API, or as a result of parsing an
            <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>.

            </p></div></dd><dt><code><a title="text" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Text</a></code>
            </dt><dd><ol>
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> be <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>.

                </li><li>Replace any occurrences of "<code>&amp;</code>" in <var>markup</var> by
                "<code>&amp;amp;</code>".
                
                </li><li>Replace any occurrences of "<code>&lt;</code>" in <var>markup</var> by
                "<code>&amp;lt;</code>".
                
                </li><li>Replace any occurrences of "<code>&gt;</code>" in <var>markup</var> by
                "<code>&amp;gt;</code>".
                
                </li><li>Return <var>data</var>.
              </li></ol>
            </dd><dt><code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>
            </dt><dd><ol>
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> the empty string.

                </li><li>For each
                <a title="concept-tree-child" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">child</a> of
                <var>node</var>, in order,
                <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml" title="concept-serialize-xml">produce an XML serialization</a>
                of the child and concatenate the result to <var>markup</var>.

                </li><li>Return <var>markup</var>.
              </li></ol>
            </dd><dt><code><a title="documenttype" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentType</a></code>
            </dt><dd>Run the steps to <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-doctype" title="concept-serialize-doctype">produce a DocumentType 
                serialization</a> of <var>node</var>
                and return the string this produced.           
            
            </dd><dt><code><a title="processinginstruction" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">ProcessingInstruction</a></code>
            </dt><dd><ol>
                <li>Let <var>markup</var> be the concatenation of "<code>&lt;?</code>", 
                <var>node</var>'s
                <code><a title="dom-characterdata-data" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">data</a></code>, 
                and "<code>?&gt;</code>".

                <!-- This does not actually appear to be the case in implementations today.
                <p>If <var>data</var> doesn't match the
                  <code><a title="NT-PI" data-spec="XML10" class="externalDFN">PI</a></code> production, throw a
                  <code><a title=domexception data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code>
                  with name <code>InvalidStateError</code> and terminate the entire algorithm.
                -->
                
                </li><li>Return <var>markup</var>.
              </li></ol>
            <div class="note"><div id="h_note_6" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">ProcessingInstruction objects may be created by the historical 
            <code>document.createProcessingInstruction</code> API, or as a result of parsing an
            <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>.
         
        </p></div></dd></dl>

        <p>To <dfn id="dfn-concept-serialize-doctype" title="concept-serialize-doctype">produce a DocumentType serialization</dfn> of a
        <a title="node" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Node</a> <var>node</var>, the user agent
        must return the result of the following algorithm:</p>
                
        <ol>
            <li>Let <var>markup</var> be an empty string.
            </li><li>Append the string "<code>&lt;!DOCTYPE</code>" to <var>markup</var>.
            </li><li>Append "<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE) to <var>markup</var>.
            </li><li>Append the value of the <var>node</var>'s 
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-name" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">name</a></code>
                attribute to <var>markup</var>. For a <var>node</var> belonging to an
                <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>,
                the value will be all lowercase.
            </li><li>If the <var>node</var>'s 
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-publicid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">publicId</a></code>
                is not the empty string then append the following, in order, to <var>markup</var>:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    </li><li>The string "<code>PUBLIC</code>";
                    </li><li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    </li><li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                    </li><li>The value of the <var>node</var>'s 
                        <code><a title="dom-documenttype-publicid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">publicId</a></code>
                        attribute;
                    </li><li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                </li></ol>
            </li>
            <li>If the <var>node</var>'s 
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-systemid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">systemId</a></code>
                is not the empty string and the <var>node</var>'s 
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-publicid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">publicId</a></code>
                is set to the empty string, then append the following, in order, to <var>markup</var>:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    </li><li>The string "<code>SYSTEM</code>";
                </li></ol>
            </li>
            <li>If the <var>node</var>'s 
                <code><a title="dom-documenttype-systemid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">systemId</a></code>
                is not the empty string then append the following, in order, to <var>markup</var>:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    </li><li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                    </li><li>The value of the <var>node</var>'s 
                        <code><a title="dom-documenttype-systemid" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">systemId</a></code>
                        attribute;
                    </li><li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                </li></ol>
            </li>
            <li>Optional: if the <var>node</var> has an (historical) 
                <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                and the
                <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                attribute's value is a non-empty string, then append the following,
                in order, to <var>markup</var>:
                <ol>
                    <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                    </li><li>"<code>[</code>" (U+005B LEFT SQUARE BRACKET);
                    </li><li>The value of the <var>node</var>'s 
                        <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                        attribute;
                    </li><li>"<code>]</code>" (U+005D RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET);
                </li></ol>
                <div class="note"><div id="h_note_7" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">A <var>node</var> belonging to an
                   <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>
                   will never have an 
                   <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                   because any <code><a title="ID-Core-DocType-internalSubset" data-spec="DOM3" class="externalDFN">internalSubset</a></code>
                   markup is ignored by the parser.</p></div>
            </li>
            <li>Append "<code>&gt;</code>" (U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN) to <var>markup</var>.
        </li></ol>

        
        <p>The <dfn id="dfn-concept-serialize-xml-attributes" title="concept-serialize-xml-attributes">XML serialization of the attributes</dfn>
        of an <a title="concept-element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">element</a>
        <var>element</var> together with a prefix list <var>prefixes</var> is the result of the 
        following algorithm:

        </p><ol>
            <li>Let <var>result</var> be the empty string.
            </li><li>For each
                <a title="concept-attribute" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attribute</a>
                <var>attr</var> in <var>element</var>'s
                <a title="concept-element-attribute" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">attributes</a>,
                in order:
                <ol>
                    <li>Append the following strings to <var>result</var>:
                        <ol>
                            <li>"<code> </code>" (U+0020 SPACE);
                            </li><li><var>attr</var>'s
                            <a title="concept-attribute-name" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">name</a>;
                            <!--<p class="issue">escaping / throwing  NO issues here to my knowledge -->
                            </li><li>"<code>="</code>" (U+003D EQUALS SIGN, U+0022 QUOTATION MARK);
                            </li><li><var>attr</var>'s
                            <a title="concept-attribute-value" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">value</a>,
                            replacing any occurrences of the following:
                            <ol>
                                <li>"<code>"</code>" with "<code>&amp;quot;</code>"
                                </li><li>"<code>&amp;</code>" with "<code>&amp;amp;</code>"
                            </li></ol>
                            </li><li>"<code>"</code>" (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK).
                        </li></ol>
                    </li><li>If the first six characters of the value of <var>attr</var>'s 
                        <a title="concept-attribute-name" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">name</a> 
                        attribute case-sensitively match the string "<code>xmlns:</code>", then:
                        <ol>
                            <li>Let <var>prefix definition</var> be the result of trimming 
                                "<code>xmlns:</code>" from the beginning of the value of <var>attr</var>'s 
                                <a title="concept-attribute-name" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">name</a>.
                            </li><li>Add the value of <var>prefix definition</var> to <var>prefixes</var>. 
                                Since this namespace prefix definition has been serialized, it is 
                                unnecessary to serialize it again if subsequently encountered in 
                                <var>element</var>'s children.
                        </li></ol>
                </li></ol>
            </li><li>Return <var>result</var>.
        </li></ol>
    </section>
</section>

<section id="the-domparser-interface">
    <!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_the-domparser-interface" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">4. </span>The <code>DOMParser</code> interface</h2>
    
<pre class="extraidl">enum <span class="idlInterfaceID">SupportedType</span> {
    "text/html",
    "text/xml",
    "application/xml",
    "application/xhtml+xml",
    "image/svg+xml"
};</pre>

    <p>The <dfn id="dfn-dom-domparser" title="dom-DOMParser"><code>DOMParser()</code></dfn> constructor
    must return a new <code>DOMParser</code> object.

    </p><pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-DOMParser">[<span class="extAttr">Constructor</span>]
interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">DOMParser</span> {
<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType">Document</span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-DOMParser-parseFromString-Document-DOMString-str-SupportedType-type">parseFromString</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType">DOMString</span> <span class="idlParamName">str</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType">SupportedType</span> <span class="idlParamName">type</span></span>);</span>
};</span></pre><section id="methods"><h3 id="h3_methods" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Methods</h3><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-DOMParser-parseFromString-Document-DOMString-str-SupportedType-type"><code>parseFromString</code></dt><dd>
            <p>The
            <dfn id="dfn-dom-domparser-parsefromstring" title="dom-DOMParser-parseFromString"><code>parseFromString(<var>str</var>, <var>type</var>)</code></dfn>
            method must run these steps, depending on <var>type</var>:

            </p><dl class="switch">
                <dt>"<code>text/html</code>"
                </dt><dd>
                <p>Parse <var>str</var> with an
                <code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="html-parser" class="externalDFN">HTML parser</a></code>, and return the newly
                created <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a>.

                </p><p>The <a data-spec="HTML5" title="scripting-flag" class="externalDFN">scripting flag</a> must be set to
                "disabled".

                </p><div class="note"><div id="h_note_8" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class=""><code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="meta" class="externalDFN">meta</a></code> elements are not
                taken into account for the encoding used, as a Unicode stream is passed into
                the parser.

                </p></div><div class="note"><div id="h_note_9" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class=""><code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="script" class="externalDFN">script</a></code> elements get marked
                unexecutable and the contents of <code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="noscript" class="externalDFN">noscript</a></code>
                get parsed as markup.

                </p></div></dd><dt>"<code>text/xml</code>"
                </dt><dt>"<code>application/xml</code>"
                </dt><dt>"<code>application/xhtml+xml</code>"
                </dt><dt>"<code>image/svg+xml</code>"
                </dt><dd>
                <ol>
                    <li>Parse <var>str</var> with a namespace-enabled
                    <code><a data-spec="HTML5" title="xml-parser" class="externalDFN">XML parser</a></code>.

                    </li><li>If the previous step didn't return an error, return the newly
                    created <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a>
                    and terminate these steps.

                    </li><li>Otherwise, throw a 
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a> 
                    with name <code>SyntaxError</code>.
                    
                    <div class="note"><div id="h_note_10" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">Some UAs do not throw an exception, but rather return a minimal 
                    well-formed XML document that describes the error. In these cases, the error 
                    document's root element will be named <code>parsererror</code> and its namespace
                    will be set to "<code>http://www.mozilla.org/newlayout/xml/parsererror.xml</code>".
                    
                    <!--
                    It does not make sense to pave the cow paths by standardizing the 
                    mozilla error handling approach, when there is clear objection to that approach
                    from web developers who expect success to load the document they want, rather
                    than an error document. Browsers are reluctant to change behavior due to web
                    compatibility, but IE has thrown in these cases for multiple releases now without
                    any significant compatibility impact, and thus it seems feasable to spec the 
                    simpler and developer-expected behavior here.
                    appropriate behavior here.
                    
                    <li>Let <var>document</var> be a newly-created
                    <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="xmldocument" class="externalDFN">XMLDocument</a></code>.

                    <li>
                    <p>Let <var>root</var> be a new
                    <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>, with its
                    <a title=concept-element-local-name data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">local name</a>
                    set to "<code>parsererror</code>" and its
                    <a title=concept-element-namespace data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>
                    set to
                    "<code>http://www.mozilla.org/newlayout/xml/parsererror.xml</code>". -->
                    <!-- see https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=45566 --><!--
                    <p>At this point user agents may
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title=concept-node-append class="externalDFN">append</a> nodes
                    to <var>root</var>, for example to describe the nature of the
                    error.

                    <li><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-append" class="externalDFN">Append</a>
                    <var>root</var> to <var>document</var>.

                    <li>Return <var>document</var>.
                    -->
                </p></div></li></ol>
            </dd></dl>

            <p>In any case, the returned
            <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a>'s
            <a title="concept-document-content-type" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">content type</a>
            must be the <var>type</var> argument. Additionally, the 
            <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a> must have a
            <a title="concept-document-url" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">URL</a> value equal to 
            the URL of the 
            <a title="active-document" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">active document</a>, a 
            <a title="location" data-spec="HTML5" class="externalDFN">location</a> value of <code>null</code>.

            </p><div class="note"><div id="h_note_11" role="heading" aria-level="3" class="note-title"><span>Note</span></div><p class="">The returned
            <a title="concept-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">document</a>'s
            <a title="concept-document-encoding" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">encoding</a> is
            the default, UTF-8.
        </p></div><table class="parameters"><tbody><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">str</td><td class="prmType"><code>DOMString</code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">type</td><td class="prmType"><code>SupportedType</code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr></tbody></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code>Document</code></div></dd></dl></section>
</section>

<section id="the-xmlserializer-interface">
    <!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_the-xmlserializer-interface" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">5. </span>The <code>XMLSerializer</code> interface</h2>

    <p>The <dfn id="dfn-dom-xmlserializer" title="dom-XMLSerializer"><code>XMLSerializer()</code></dfn>
    constructor must return a new <code>XMLSerializer</code> object.

    </p><pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-XMLSerializer">[<span class="extAttr">Constructor</span>]
interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">XMLSerializer</span> {
<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType">DOMString</span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-XMLSerializer-serializeToString-DOMString-Node-root">serializeToString</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType">Node</span> <span class="idlParamName">root</span></span>);</span>
};</span></pre><section id="methods-1"><h3 id="h3_methods-1" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">5.1 </span>Methods</h3><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-XMLSerializer-serializeToString-DOMString-Node-root"><code>serializeToString</code></dt><dd>The <code>serializeToString(<var>root</var>)</code>
        method must <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-serialize-xml" title="concept-serialize-xml">produce an XML serialization</a> of <var>root</var> and return the result.<table class="parameters"><tbody><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">root</td><td class="prmType"><code>Node</code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr></tbody></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code>DOMString</code></div></dd></dl></section>
</section>

<section id="extensions-to-the-element-interface">
    <!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_extensions-to-the-element-interface" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">6. </span>Extensions to the <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> interface</h2>

    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Element">partial interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Element</span> {
<span class="idlAttribute">    [<span class="extAttr">TreatNullAs=EmptyString</span>]
                attribute <span class="idlAttrType">DOMString</span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Element-innerHTML">innerHTML</a></span>;</span>
<span class="idlAttribute">    [<span class="extAttr">TreatNullAs=EmptyString</span>]
                attribute <span class="idlAttrType">DOMString</span> <span class="idlAttrName"><a href="#widl-Element-outerHTML">outerHTML</a></span>;</span>
<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType">void</span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-Element-insertAdjacentHTML-void-DOMString-position-DOMString-text">insertAdjacentHTML</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType">DOMString</span> <span class="idlParamName">position</span></span>, <span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType">DOMString</span> <span class="idlParamName">text</span></span>);</span>
};</span></pre><section id="attributes"><h3 id="h3_attributes" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">6.1 </span>Attributes</h3><dl class="attributes"><dt id="widl-Element-innerHTML"><code>innerHTML</code> of type <span class="idlAttrType">DOMString</span>,            </dt><dd>
            <p>The <dfn id="dfn-dom-element-innerhtml" title="dom-Element-innerHTML"><code>innerHTML</code></dfn> IDL
            attribute represents the markup of the
            <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>'s contents.

            </p><dl class="domintro">
                <!--doc.ih
                <dt><var>document</var> . <code title=dom-Document-innerHTML>innerHTML</code> [ = <var>value</var> ]
                <dd>
                <p>Returns a fragment of HTML or XML that represents the
                <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>.

                <p>Can be set, to replace the
                <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>'s contents with the result of
                parsing the given string.

                <p>In the case of an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>,
                will throw an
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title=domexception class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>InvalidStateError</code>
                if the <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code> cannot be serialized
                to XML, and a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title=domexception class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>SyntaxError</code>
                if the given string is not well-formed.
                -->

                <dt><var>element</var> . <code title="dom-Element-innerHTML">innerHTML</code> [ = <var>value</var> ]
                </dt><dd>
                <p>Returns a fragment of HTML or XML that represents the element's
                contents.

                </p><p>Can be set, to replace the contents of the element with nodes
                parsed from the given string.

                </p><p>In the case of an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>,
                will throw a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>InvalidStateError</code>
                if the <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> cannot be serialized
                to XML, and a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>SyntaxError</code>
                if the given string is not well-formed.
            </p></dd></dl>

            <p>On getting, if the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
            <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
            is an <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>, then the attribute
            must return the result of running the
            <a data-spec="HTML5" title="html-fragment-serialization-algorithm" class="externalDFN">HTML fragment serialization algorithm</a> on the
            <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>; otherwise, the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
            <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
            is an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>, and the attribute must
            return the result of running the        
            <a data-spec="HTML5" title="xml-fragment-serialization-algorithm" class="externalDFN">XML fragment serialization algorithm</a> on the
            <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a> instead (this might throw an
            exception instead of returning a string).

            </p><p>On setting, these steps must be run:

            </p><ol>
                <li>Let <var>fragment</var> be the result of invoking the
                <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-parse-fragment" title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</a> with
                the new value as <var>markup</var>, and the
                <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a> as the <var>context element</var>.

                </li><li><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-replace-all" class="externalDFN">Replace all</a>
                with <var>fragment</var> within the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>.
            </li></ol>
        </dd><dt id="widl-Element-outerHTML"><code>outerHTML</code> of type <span class="idlAttrType">DOMString</span>,            </dt><dd>
            <p>The <dfn id="dfn-dom-element-outerhtml" title="dom-Element-outerHTML"><code>outerHTML</code></dfn> IDL
            attribute represents the markup of the
            <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> and its contents.

            </p><dl class="domintro">
              <dt><var>element</var> . <code title="dom-Element-outerHTML">outerHTML</code> [ = <var>value</var> ]
              </dt><dd>
                <p>Returns a fragment of HTML or XML that represents the element and its
                contents.

                </p><p>Can be set, to replace the element with nodes parsed from the given
                string.

                </p><p>In the case of an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>,
                will throw a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>InvalidStateError</code>
                if the element cannot be serialized to XML, and a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>SyntaxError</code>
                if the given string is not well-formed.

                </p><p>Throws a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>NoModificationAllowedError</code>
                if the parent of the element is the
                <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code> node.
            </p></dd></dl>

            <p>On getting, if the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
            <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
            is an <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>, then the attribute
            must return the result of running the
            <a data-spec="HTML5" title="html-fragment-serialization-algorithm" class="externalDFN">HTML fragment serialization algorithm</a> on a
            fictional node whose only child is <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>; otherwise, the
            <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
            <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
            is an <a title="xml-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>, and the attribute must
            return the result of running the
            <a data-spec="HTML5" title="xml-fragment-serialization-algorithm" class="externalDFN">XML fragment serialization algorithm</a> on that
            fictional node instead (this might throw an exception instead of returning a
            string).

            </p><p>On setting, the following steps must be run:

            </p><ol>
                <li>Let <var>parent</var> be the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>.

                </li><li>If <var>parent</var> is null, terminate these steps. There would be no
                way to obtain a reference to the nodes created even if the remaining steps
                were run.

                </li><li>If <var>parent</var> is a
                <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>, throw a
                <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>NoModificationAllowedError</code>
                exception and terminate these steps.

                </li><li>If <var>parent</var> is a
                <code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>, let
                <var>parent</var> be a new
                <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> with

                <ul>
                    <li><code>body</code> as its
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>,

                    </li><li>the <a data-spec="DOM4" title="html-namespace" class="externalDFN">HTML namespace</a> as its
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>, and
                    </li><li>the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                    <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                    as its
                    <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.
                </li></ul>

                </li><li>Let <var>fragment</var> be the result of invoking the
                <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-parse-fragment" title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</a> with
                the new value as <var>markup</var>, and <var>parent</var> as
                the <var>context element</var>.

                </li><li><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-replace" class="externalDFN">Replace</a>
                the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a> with <var>fragment</var> within
                the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>.
            </li></ol>
        </dd></dl></section><section id="methods-2"><h3 id="h3_methods-2" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">6.2 </span>Methods</h3><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-Element-insertAdjacentHTML-void-DOMString-position-DOMString-text"><code>insertAdjacentHTML</code></dt><dd>
             <dl class="domintro">
                  <dt><var>element</var> . <code title="dom-Element-insertAdjacentHTML">insertAdjacentHTML</code>(<var>position</var>, <var>text</var>)

                  </dt><dd>
                    <p>Parses the given string <var>text</var> as HTML or XML and inserts
                    the resulting nodes into the tree in the position given by the
                    <var>position</var> argument, as follows:

                    </p><dl>
                      <dt>"beforebegin"
                      </dt><dd>Before the element itself.

                      </dd><dt>"afterbegin"
                      </dt><dd>Just inside the element, before its first child.

                      </dd><dt>"beforeend"
                      </dt><dd>Just inside the element, after its last child.

                      </dd><dt>"afterend"
                      </dt><dd>After the element itself.
                    </dd></dl>

                    <p>Throws a <code>SyntaxError</code> exception if the arguments have invalid values (e.g., in the case of an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="XML-document" class="externalDFN">XML document</a>, if the given string is
                    not well-formed).

                    </p><p>Throws a
                    <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>NoModificationAllowedError</code>
                    if the given position isn't possible (e.g. inserting elements
                    after the root element of a <code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>).
                </p></dd></dl>

                <p>The
                <dfn id="dfn-dom-element-insertadjacenthtml" title="dom-Element-insertAdjacentHTML"><code>insertAdjacentHTML(<var>position</var>, <var>text</var>)</code></dfn>
                method must run these steps:

                </p><ol>
                    <li>Use the first matching item from this list:

                    <dl class="switch">
                        <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                        the string "beforebegin"

                        </dt><dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                        the string "afterend"

                        </dt><dd>
                            <p>Let <var>context</var> be the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                            <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>.

                            </p><p>If <var>context</var> is null or a
                            <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="concept-document">document</a>, throw
                            a
                            <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="domexception" class="externalDFN">DOMException</a></code> with name <code>NoModificationAllowedError</code>
                            and terminate these steps.

                        </p></dd><dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                        the string "afterbegin"

                        </dt><dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                        <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                        the string "beforeend"

                        </dt><dd>Let <var>context</var> be the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>.

                        </dd><dt>Otherwise
                        </dt><dd>
                            <p>Throw a <code>SyntaxError</code> exception.
                    </p></dd></dl>

                  </li><li>If <var>context</var> is not an
                    <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> or the following are all true:

                    <ul>
                      <li><var>context</var>'s
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                      is an <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>,

                      </li><li><var>context</var>'s
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>
                      is "<code>html</code>", and

                      </li><li><var>context</var>'s
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>
                      is the <a data-spec="DOM4" title="html-namespace" class="externalDFN">HTML namespace</a>;
                    </li></ul>

                    <p>let <var>context</var> be a new
                    <code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code> with

                    </p><ul>
                      <li><code>body</code> as its
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>,

                      </li><li>the <a data-spec="DOM4" title="html-namespace" class="externalDFN">HTML namespace</a> as its
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>, and

                      </li><li>the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                      as its
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.
                    </li></ul>

                </li><li>Let <var>fragment</var> be the result of invoking the
                <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-parse-fragment" title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</a> with <var>text</var> as 
                <var>markup</var>, and <var>parent</var> as the <var>context element</var>.

                </li><li>Use the first matching item from this list:

                <dl class="switch">
                    <dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                    the string "beforebegin"
            
                    </dt><dd><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-insert" class="externalDFN">Insert</a>
                    <var>fragment</var> into the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>
                    before the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>.

                    </dd><dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                    the string "afterbegin"

                    </dt><dd><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-insert" class="externalDFN">Insert</a>
                    <var>fragment</var> into the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>
                    before its
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-first-child" class="externalDFN">first child</a>.

                    </dd><dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                    the string "beforeend"

                    </dt><dd><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-append" class="externalDFN">Append</a>
                    <var>fragment</var> to the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>.

                    </dd><dt>If <var>position</var> is an
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="ascii-case-insensitive">ASCII case-insensitive</a> match for
                    the string "afterend"

                    </dt><dd><a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-node-insert" class="externalDFN">Insert</a>
                    <var>fragment</var> into the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-parent" class="externalDFN">parent</a>
                    before the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-tree-next-sibling" class="externalDFN">next sibling</a>.
                </dd></dl>
            </li></ol>
        <table class="parameters"><tbody><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">position</td><td class="prmType"><code>DOMString</code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr><tr><td class="prmName">text</td><td class="prmType"><code>DOMString</code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr></tbody></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code>void</code></div></dd></dl></section>
</section>

<!-- Dropping this extention as it is not implemented, nor does it appear that any browser
     is currently interested in supporting it. Perhaps it can come back in a V2 of this spec
     if browsers become interested.
<section>
    <h1>Extensions to the <code><a title="text" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Text</a></code> interface</h1>

    <dl class="idl" title="partial interface Text">
        <dt>attribute boolean serializeAsCDATA</dt>
        <dd>
            <dl class=domintro>
              <dt><var>text</var> .
                  <code title=dom-Text-serializeAsCDATA>serializeAsCDATA</code> [ = <var>value</var> ]
              <dd>Controls whether, in XML, this node is serialized as a CDATA section.
            </dl>

            <p><code><a title="text" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Text</a></code> nodes have an additional
            associated flag, the <dfn>serialize as CDATA flag</dfn>.

            <p>The
            <dfn title=dom-Text-serializeAsCDATA><code>serializeAsCDATA</code></dfn>
            attribute must return true if the <a title="context object">context object</a> has its
            <a>serialize as CDATA flag</a> set, or false otherwise.

            <p>Setting the <code title=dom-Text-serializeAsCDATA>serializeAsCDATA</code>
            attribute must, if the new value is true, set the
            <a title="context object">context object</a>'s <a>serialize as CDATA flag</a>, or unset
            it otherwise.
        </dd>
    </dl>
</section>
-->

<section id="extensions-to-the-range-interface">
    <!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_extensions-to-the-range-interface" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">7. </span>Extensions to the <code><a data-spec="DOM4" title="range" class="externalDFN">Range</a></code> interface</h2>

    <pre class="idl"><span class="idlInterface" id="idl-def-Range">partial interface <span class="idlInterfaceID">Range</span> {
<span class="idlMethod">    <span class="idlMethType">DocumentFragment</span> <span class="idlMethName"><a href="#widl-Range-createContextualFragment-DocumentFragment-DOMString-fragment">createContextualFragment</a></span> (<span class="idlParam"><span class="idlParamType">DOMString</span> <span class="idlParamName">fragment</span></span>);</span>
};</span></pre><section id="methods-3"><h3 id="h3_methods-3" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">7.1 </span>Methods</h3><dl class="methods"><dt id="widl-Range-createContextualFragment-DocumentFragment-DOMString-fragment"><code>createContextualFragment</code></dt><dd>
            <dl class="domintro">
              <dt><var>fragment</var> = <var>range</var> . <code title="dom-Range-createContextualFragment">createContextualFragment</code>(<var>fragment</var>)
              </dt><dd>Returns a <code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>, created
                from the markup string given.
            </dd></dl>

            <p>The
            <dfn id="dfn-dom-range-createcontextualfragment" title="dom-Range-createContextualFragment"><code>createContextualFragment(<var>fragment</var>)</code></dfn>
            method must run these steps:

            </p><ol>
                <li>Let <var>node</var> the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-range-start-node" class="externalDFN">start node</a>.

                <p>Let <var>element</var> be as follows, depending on <var>node</var>'s interface:

                </p><dl class="switch">
                    <dt><code><a title="document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Document</a></code>
                    </dt><dt><code><a title="documentfragment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentFragment</a></code>
                    </dt><dd>null

                    </dd><dt><code><a title="element" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Element</a></code>
                    </dt><dd><var>node</var>

                    </dd><dt><code><a title="text" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Text</a></code>
                    </dt><dt><code><a title="comment" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">Comment</a></code>
                    </dt><dd><var>node</var>'s
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN" title="parent-element">parent element</a>

                    </dd><dt><code><a title="documenttype" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">DocumentType</a></code>
                    </dt><dt><code><a title="processinginstruction" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">ProcessingInstruction</a></code>
                    </dt><dd>[<cite><a href="#bib-DOM4" class="bibref">DOM4</a></cite>] prevents this case.
                </dd></dl>

                </li><li>If either <var>element</var> is null or the following are all true:

                    <ul>
                      <li><var>element</var>'s
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                      is an <a title="html-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">HTML document</a>,

                      </li><li><var>element</var>'s
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>
                      is "<code>html</code>", and

                      </li><li><var>element</var>'s
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>
                      is the <a data-spec="DOM4" title="html-namespace" class="externalDFN">HTML namespace</a>;
                    </li></ul>

                    <p>let <var>element</var> be a new
                    <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element" class="externalDFN">element</a> with

                    </p><ul>
                      <li>"<code>body</code>" as its
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-local-name" class="externalDFN">local name</a>,

                      </li><li>the <a data-spec="DOM4" title="html-namespace" class="externalDFN">HTML namespace</a> as its
                      <a data-spec="DOM4" title="concept-element-namespace" class="externalDFN">namespace</a>, and

                      </li><li>the <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-context-object" title="context object">context object</a>'s
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>
                      as its
                      <a title="concept-node-document" data-spec="DOM4" class="externalDFN">node document</a>.
                    </li></ul>

                </li><li>Let <var>fragment node</var> be the result of invoking the
                <a class="internalDFN" href="#dfn-concept-parse-fragment" title="concept-parse-fragment">fragment parsing algorithm</a> with <var>fragment</var> as 
                <var>markup</var>, and <var>element</var> as the <var>context element</var>.

                </li><li>Unmark all scripts in <var>fragment node</var> as "already started".

                </li><li>Return <var>fragment node</var>.
            </li></ol>
        <table class="parameters"><tbody><tr><th>Parameter</th><th>Type</th><th>Nullable</th><th>Optional</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td class="prmName">fragment</td><td class="prmType"><code>DOMString</code></td><td class="prmNullFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmOptFalse"><span role="img" aria-label="False">✘</span></td><td class="prmDesc"></td></tr></tbody></table><div><em>Return type: </em><code>DocumentFragment</code></div></dd></dl></section>
</section>

<section id="acknowledgements" class="appendix">
    <!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_acknowledgements" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">A. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>
    <p>Thanks to Ms2ger [<a href="http://www.mozilla.org/">Mozilla</a>] for maintaining the initial 
       drafts of this specification and for its continued improvement in the 
       <a href="http://domparsing.spec.whatwg.org/">Living Standard</a>.

    </p><p>Thanks to Anne van Kesteren, Aryeh Gregor, Boris Zbarsky, Henri Sivonen, Simon Pieters and timeless
    for their useful comments.

    </p><p>Special thanks to Ian Hickson for defining the
    <code title="dom-Element-innerHTML">innerHTML</code> and
    <code title="dom-Element-outerHTML">outerHTML</code> attributes, and the
    <code title="dom-Element-insertAdjacentHTML">insertAdjacentHTML()</code> method in
    [<cite><a href="#bib-HTML5" class="bibref">HTML5</a></cite>] and his useful comments.
</p></section>


<section rel="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="references" class="appendix"><!--OddPage--><h2 id="h2_references" role="heading" aria-level="1"><span class="secno">B. </span>References</h2><section rel="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="normative-references"><h3 id="h3_normative-references" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">B.1 </span>Normative references</h3><dl about="" class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-HTML5">[HTML5]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Robin Berjon; Steve Faulkner; Travis Leithead; Erika Doyle Navara; Edward O'Connor; Silvia Pfeiffer. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/"><cite>HTML5</cite></a>. 6 August 2013. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/">http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">S. Bradner. <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt"><cite>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.</cite></a> March 1997. Internet RFC 2119.  URL: <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</a> 
</dd><dt id="bib-WEBIDL">[WEBIDL]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:requires">Cameron McCormack. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WebIDL/"><cite>Web IDL</cite></a>. 19 April 2012. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WebIDL/">http://www.w3.org/TR/WebIDL/</a>
</dd></dl></section><section rel="bibo:Chapter" resource="#ref" typeof="bibo:Chapter" id="informative-references"><h3 id="h3_informative-references" role="heading" aria-level="2"><span class="secno">B.2 </span>Informative references</h3><dl about="" class="bibliography"><dt id="bib-DOM4">[DOM4]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Anne van Kesteren; Aryeh Gregor; Ms2ger; Alex Russell; Robin Berjon. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/"><cite>W3C DOM4</cite></a>. 7 November 2013. W3C Working Draft. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/">http://www.w3.org/TR/dom/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-XML-NAMES">[XML-NAMES]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Tim Bray; Dave Hollander; Andrew Layman; Richard Tobin; Henry Thompson et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names/"><cite>Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition)</cite></a>. 8 December 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names/</a>
</dd><dt id="bib-XML10">[XML10]</dt><dd rel="dcterms:references">Tim Bray; Jean Paoli; Michael Sperberg-McQueen; Eve Maler; François Yergeau et al. <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml/"><cite>Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)</cite></a>. 26 November 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xml/</a>
</dd></dl></section></section></body></html>