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<body class="h-entry" id="respecDocument"><div class="head" id="respecHeader">
      <a href=""><img width="72" height="48" src="" alt="W3C" /></a>
  <h1 class="title p-name" id="title">DOM Level 3 KeyboardEvent code Values</h1>
  <h2 id="w3c-first-public-working-draft-12-june-2014"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> First Public Working Draft <span class="dt-published time">12 June 2014</span></h2>
      <dt>This version:</dt>
      <dd><a class="u-url" href=""></a></dd>
      <dt>Latest published version:</dt>
      <dd><a href=""></a></dd>
      <dt>Latest editor's draft:</dt>
      <dd><a href=""></a></dd>
    <dd class="p-author h-card vcard"><span><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" href="">Gary Kacmarcik</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="">Google, Inc.</a></span>
<dd class="p-author h-card vcard"><span><a class="u-url url p-name fn" rel="foaf:homepage" href="">Travis Leithead</a>, <a rel="foaf:workplaceHomepage" class="p-org org h-org h-card" href="">Microsoft Corp.</a></span>

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        <a href="">Copyright</a> ©
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  <hr />
<!-- Section: Abstract ========================================================-->

	<div id="abstract" class="introductory section"><h2 id="h2_abstract">Abstract</h2>
		<p>This specification defines the values for the 
			<code>KeyboardEvent.code</code> attribute, which is defined as part of the
			Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Events Specification [<a href="#references-D3E">DOM3 Events</a>].
			The <code>code</code> value contains information about the key event that
			can use used identify the physical key being pressed by the user.
	</div><div id="sotd" class="introductory section"><h2 id="h2_sotd">Status of This Document</h2>
          <em>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication.
          Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> publications and the
          latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <a href=""><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> technical reports index</a> at
		<p>This document is a Working Draft of the
			<em>DOM Level 3 KeyboardEvent <code>code</code> Values</em>
			It is expected that this specification will progress to
			<abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> 
			Recommendation status after review and refinement.

		<p id="this-document-is-produced-by-the-web-app">
			This document is produced by the
				<a href="">Web Applications WG</a>,
			part of the
				<a href="">Rich Web Clients Activity</a>
			in the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>
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			It is expected that this document will progress along the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>'s Recommendation track.
			Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Membership.
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			It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

		<p id="latest-editors-draft">
			<strong>You can find the latest
				<a href="">Editor's Draft</a>
			of this document in the
				<a href=""><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr>'s Mercurial repository</a>,
			which is updated on a regular basis.</strong>

		<p id="unstable">
			<strong class="redNote">Implementers should be aware that this document is not stable.</strong>
			Implementers who are not taking part in the discussions are likely to find the
			specification changing out from under them in incompatible ways.
			Vendors interested in implementing this document before it eventually reaches
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			and take part in the discussions.
          This document was published by the <a href="">Web Applications Working Group</a> as a First Public Working Draft.
            This document is intended to become a <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Recommendation.
            If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to 
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            All comments are welcome.
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            Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other
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            This document was produced by a group operating under the 
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</div><div id="toc" class="section"><h2 class="introductory" id="h2_toc">Table of Contents</h2><ul class="toc" id="respecContents"><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-layout" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1. </span>Keyboard Layout</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-common-layouts" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Standard Keyboard Layouts</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-sections" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.1 </span>Keyboard Sections</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-101" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.2 </span>Standard &quot;101&quot; Keyboard Layout</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-101alt" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.3 </span>Alternate &quot;101&quot; Keyboard Layout</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-102" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.4 </span>Standard &quot;102&quot; Keyboard Layout</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-103" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.5 </span>Korean &quot;103&quot; Keyboard Layout</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-104" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.6 </span>Brazilian &quot;104&quot; Keyboard Layout</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-106" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.7 </span>Japanese &quot;106&quot; Keyboard Layout</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-mac" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.8 </span>Apple Keyboard Layout</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-laptops" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.1.9 </span>Laptop Keyboard Layouts</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-mobile" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Mobile Keypads</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#remote-control" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Media Remote Controls</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-chording-virtual" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">1.4 </span>Virtual Keyboards and Chording Keyboards</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#code-value-tables" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2. </span>Keyboard Event <code>code</code> Value Tables</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#keyboard-key-codes" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Key Codes for Standard Keyboards</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-alphanumeric-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Alphanumeric Section</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-alphanumeric-writing-system" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> </span>Writing System Keys</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-alphanumeric-functional" class="tocxref"><span class="secno"> </span>Functional Keys</a></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-controlpad-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.2 </span>Control Pad Section</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-arrowpad-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.3 </span>Arrow Pad Section</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-numpad-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.4 </span>Numpad Section</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-function-section" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.5 </span>Function Section</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-media" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.6 </span>Media Keys</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#key-legacy" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">2.1.7 </span>Legacy Keys and Non-Standard Keys</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#acknowledgements-contributors" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">3. </span>Acknowledgements</a></li><li class="tocline"><a href="#references" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4. </span>References</a><ul class="toc"><li class="tocline"><a href="#references-References-Normative" class="tocxref"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Normative References</a></li></ul></li></ul></div>  
<!-- abstract -->

<!-- Section: SOTD ========================================================-->

<!-- sotd -->

<!-- Section 6: Keyboard and key values ========================================================-->

	<div id="keyboard-layout" class="section">
<h2 id="h2_keyboard-layout"><span class="secno">1. </span>Keyboard Layout</h2>
		<p><em>This section is informative</em></p>

		<p>Alphanumeric keyboards are the most common way for users to generate keyboard events.
			This section provides an overview of standard keyboards and their physical layouts.

		<div id="keyboard-common-layouts" class="section">
			<h3 id="h3_keyboard-common-layouts"><span class="secno">1.1 </span>Standard Keyboard Layouts</h3>

			<p>This section describes the physical layouts found on commonly available keyboards.

			<div id="keyboard-sections" class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-sections"><span class="secno">1.1.1 </span>Keyboard Sections</h4>
				<p>When discussing keyboard layouts, it is convenient to divide the standard keyboard into distinct sections
					and to label each row.

				<div id="figure-keyboard-sections" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-sections.svg" width="684" height="225" alt="The five general sections of a standard keyboard" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">1</span> <span class="fig-title">The five general sections of a standard keyboard</span></div>

				<p>These keyboard sections are:

					<li>The <em>Alphanumeric</em> section is the main part of the keyboard and is where most of the keyboard variation occurs.
						When a user selects a keyboard layout, it is the keys in this sections that are most affected.
					<li>The <em>Control Pad</em> and <em>Arrow Pad</em> sections contain the arrow keys and other editing keys.
					<li>The <em>Numpad</em> (also known as the &quot;numeric keypad&quot; or &quot;number pad&quot;) contains number and math keys to make it 
						easier to enter numeric data.
					<li>And finally, the <em>Function</em> section contains miscellaneous function keys and special keys like Escape.
				<p>To make it easier to identify keys, the rows on the keyboard are named starting with &quot;A&quot;
					for the bottom row up to &quot;E&quot; for the top row. The row of keys in the Function section are considered
					to be in row &quot;K&quot;.
					These row names are consistent with those given in the ISO/IEC 9995-1 specification.
				<p>Note that many keyboards (both modern and legacy) have extra keys that do not fit neatly into the above sections.
					Some of these keys are covered in the <a href="#key-media">Media Keys</a> section.
<!-- keyboard-sections -->

			<div id="keyboard-101"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-101"><span class="secno">1.1.2 </span>Standard &quot;101&quot; Keyboard Layout</h4>
				<p>The standard &quot;101&quot; keyboard (commonly referred to as the &quot;US layout&quot;) is the only layout that uses the <code class="code">'Backslash'</code> code.
				   All the other layouts omit this key and expand the <code class="code">'Enter'</code> key to occupy

				<div id="figure-keyboard-101-us" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-101-us.svg" width="684" height="225" alt="Standard '101' keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">2</span> <span class="fig-title">Standard '101' keyboard layout showing unmodified US key values</span></div>

				<p>Modern standard &quot;101&quot;-layout keyboards actually contain 104 keys: 61 keys in the alphanumeric section
				   and 43 keys in the numpad, control pad, arrow pad and function sections.
				   The &quot;101&quot; name for this keyboard layout dates to the time when this standard keyboard did in fact contain
				   101 keys. The two <code class="glyph">'OS'</code> keys,
				   and the <code class="glyph">'Menu'</code> key were
				   added later to bring the total to 104 keys.

			<div id="keyboard-101alt"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-101alt"><span class="secno">1.1.3 </span>Alternate &quot;101&quot; Keyboard Layout</h4>
				<p>The alternate &quot;101&quot; keyboard removes the <code class="code">'Backslash'</code> key to create a
				   large <code class="code">'Enter'</code> key and shrinks the <code class="code">'Backspace'</code>
				   key to make room for the <code class="code">'IntlYen'</code> key (The <code class="code">'IntlYen'</code> name comes from the
				   Japanese layout — in the Russian layout shown above this key maps to a <code class="glyph">'\'</code>.

				<div id="figure-keyboard-101-russian" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-101-russian.svg" width="684" height="225" alt="Alternate '101' keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">3</span> <span class="fig-title">Alternate '101' keyboard layout showing unmodified Russian key values</span></div>

				<p>Modern alternate &quot;101&quot;-layout keyboards contain 104 keys: 61 keys in the alphanumeric section and 43 keys in the numpad,
				   control pad, arrow pad and function sections.

			<div id="keyboard-102"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-102"><span class="secno">1.1.4 </span>Standard &quot;102&quot; Keyboard Layout</h4>
				<p>The standard &quot;102&quot; keyboard is common throughout Europe and adds two keys that don't exist on the
				   &quot;101&quot; layouts:
				   The <code class="code">'IntlBackslash'</code> key next to the left shift key,
				   and the <code class="code">'IntlHash'</code> key which is partially tucked under the
				   <code class="code">'Enter'</code> key.

				<div id="figure-keyboard-102-uk" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-102-uk.svg" width="684" height="225" alt="Standard '102' keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">4</span> <span class="fig-title">Standard '102' keyboard layout showing unmodified French key values</span></div>

				<p>Modern &quot;102&quot;-layout keyboards contain 105 keys: 62 keys in the alphanumeric section and 43 keys in the numpad,
				   control pad, arrow pad and function sections.

			<div id="keyboard-103"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-103"><span class="secno">1.1.5 </span>Korean &quot;103&quot; Keyboard Layout</h4>
				<p>The Korean &quot;103&quot; keyboard is based on the alternate 101 layout and adds two additional keys
				   (one on each side of the spacebar) to handle Korean-specific input modes.
				   These keys are
				   <code class="code">'Hanja'</code> (labelled <code class="keycap">한자</code> <span class="phonetic">hanja</span>) and
				   <code class="code">'HangulMode'</code> (labelled <code class="keycap">한/영</code> <span class="phonetic">han/yeong</span>).

				<div id="figure-keyboard-103-korean" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-103-korean.svg" width="684" height="225" alt="Korean '103' keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">5</span> <span class="fig-title">Korean '103' keyboard layout showing unmodified Korean key values</span></div>

				<p>Modern &quot;103&quot;-layout keyboards contain 106 keys: 63 keys in the alphanumeric section and 43 keys in the numpad,
				   control pad, arrow pad and function sections.

			<div id="keyboard-104"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-104"><span class="secno">1.1.6 </span>Brazilian &quot;104&quot; Keyboard Layout</h4>
				<p>The &quot;104&quot; layout used in Brazil adds 4 new keys: the two non-US keys from the &quot;102&quot; layout
				   (<code class="code">'IntlHash'</code> and <code class="code">'IntlBackslash'</code>)
				   plus the <code class="code">'IntlRo'</code> key (next to the right shift
				   key) and an extra key on the numeric keypad. This new keypad key is called 
				   <code class="code">'KeypadComma'</code> because it represents the thousands separator. On the
				   Brazilian key layout, this key has a keycap of <code class="keycap">.</code> and the <code class="code">'KeypadPeriod'</code>
				   key has a keycap of <code class="keycap">,</code>.

				<div id="figure-keyboard-104-brazilian" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-104-brazilian.svg" width="684" height="225" alt="Standard '104' keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">6</span> <span class="fig-title">Standard '104' keyboard layout showing unmodified Brazilian key values</span></div>

				<p>Modern &quot;104&quot;-layout keyboards contain 107 keys: 63 keys in the alphanumeric section and 44 keys in the numpad,
				   control pad, arrow pad and function sections. Some Brazilian keyboards lack the extra keypad
				   key and have only 106 keys.

			<div id="keyboard-106"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-106"><span class="secno">1.1.7 </span>Japanese &quot;106&quot; Keyboard Layout</h4>
				<p>The Japanese &quot;106&quot; keyboard layout adds 3 new keys:
				   <code class="code">'IntlYen'</code>, 
				   <code class="code">'IntlHash'</code> and
				   <code class="code">'IntlRo'</code>.
				   It also shrinks the <code class="code">'Space'</code> key to make room for 3 input mode keys:
				   <code class="code">'NonConvert'</code> (labelled <code class="keycap">無変換</code> <span class="phonetic">muhenkan</span>),
				   <code class="code">'Convert'</code> (labelled <code class="keycap">変換</code> <span class="phonetic">henkan</span>),
				   <code class="code">'KanaMode'</code> (labelled <code class="keycap">カタカナ/ひらがな/ローマ字</code> <span class="phonetic">katakana/hiragana/romaji</span>).

				<div id="figure-keyboard-106-japanese" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-106-japanese.svg" width="684" height="225" alt="Standard '106' keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">7</span> <span class="fig-title">Standard '106' keyboard layout showing unmodified Japanese key values</span></div>

				<p>Modern &quot;106&quot;-layout keyboards contain 109 keys: 66 keys in the alphanumeric section and 43 keys in the numpad,
				   control pad, arrow pad and function sections.

			<div id="keyboard-mac"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-mac"><span class="secno">1.1.8 </span>Apple Keyboard Layout</h4>
				<p>In general, Apple keyboards follow the same layout as PC keyboards, but there are some differences as
				   noted in the following figure.

				<div id="figure-keyboard-mac" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-mac.svg" width="684" height="225" alt="Apple extended keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">8</span> <span class="fig-title">Apple extended keyboard layout showing unmodified English key values</span></div>

				<p>In this figure, the green keys are those
				   that have been moved to a new location while the blue keys indicate keys that have been added.

			<div id="keyboard-laptops"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_keyboard-laptops"><span class="secno">1.1.9 </span>Laptop Keyboard Layouts</h4>

				<p>The limited space available on laptop keyboards often means that the physical key layout needs
					to be adjusted to fit all the required keys. The writing system keys in the Alphanumeric section tend
					to remain intact, but the other keyboard sections are usually combined with other keys or
					removed altogether.

				<div id="figure-keyboard-laptop-mac" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-laptop-mac.svg" width="420" height="180" alt="Apple laptop keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">9</span> <span class="fig-title">Apple laptop keyboard layout</span></div>

				<p>In this Apple laptop keyboard, the right control key has been removed to make room for half-height
					arrow keys and a <code class="code">'Fn'</code> key is added on the left.

				<div id="figure-keyboard-laptop" class="figure">
					<img src="images/keyboard-laptop.svg" width="460" height="180" alt="Sample PC laptop keyboard layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">10</span> <span class="fig-title">Sample PC laptop keyboard layout</span></div>

				<p>PC laptop keyboards vary considerably, but this sample keyboard demonstrates some commonly found aspects.
					The control pad keys are added along the right-hand side with the arrow keys tucked in along the bottom.
					The right shift key is often shrunk to make room for the up arrow key and the right OS key
					is typically removed altogether.
<!-- keyboard-laptops -->

<!-- keyboard-common-layouts -->

		<div id="keyboard-mobile"  class="section">
			<h3 id="h3_keyboard-mobile"><span class="secno">1.2 </span>Mobile Keypads</h3>

			<p>In the case where a content author wishes to rely on the mechanical layout of a mobile keypad, this specification suggests the keyboard configuration specified
				in ISO/IEC 9995-8:2006 [<cite><a class="informative" href="#references-ISO-9995-8">ISO-9995-8</a></cite>], which defines a numeric keypad layout and secondary assignment
				of Unicode characters in the range <code class="char">'\u0061'</code>..<code class="char">'\u007A'</code> to the number keys <code>2</code> through <code>9</code>, as a common layout appropriate to some
				international uses.</p>

			<div class="note"><div class="note-title" id="h_note_1"><span>Note</span></div><p class=""><strong>Note:</strong> This keypad layout, and in particular the distribution of letters is for English devices, and will not match the keypads
				or configurations of many users.  Content authors cannot rely upon any particular configuration, and are expected to create content in an internationalized and
				localizable manner.</p></div>

			<div id="figure-numeric-keypad" class="figure">
				<img src="images/ISOIEC-9995-8-2006.svg" width="180" height="240" alt="ISO/IEC 9995-8:2006 keypad layout" />
				<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">11</span> <span class="fig-title">A graphical depiction of an ISO standard defining layouts of numeric keypads, with distribution of letters on the keys, ISO/IEC 9995-8:2006.</span></div>
<!-- keyboard-mobile -->

		<div id="remote-control"  class="section">
			<h3 id="h3_remote-control"><span class="secno">1.3 </span>Media Remote Controls</h3>

			<p>Many keyboards contain special keys to control media functions.  Increasingly, many media devices, especially televisions, are Web-enabled.  Hybrid keyboard/remote-control
				devices are becoming more common.  To meet the needs of these hybrid Web/media devices, this specification defines keys that are common as remote control buttons,
				in addition to traditional keyboard keys.</p>

			<p>Because of the smaller form factor, keys (or buttons) on a remote control will often be modal,
				with one key performing different functions based on the context of the on-screen content.
				Additionally, many keys serve as toggles, to change back and forth between two or more states
				(see toggling keys).
				These remote control buttons typically do not have modifier states so each button is assigned a
				single function (like &quot;Play&quot;, &quot;Pause&quot;, &quot;Up&quot;, &quot;Menu&quot; or &quot;Exit&quot;).

			<div id="figure-media-remote-control" class="figure">
				<img src="images/remote-control.svg" width="102" height="422" alt="A sample media remote control" />
				<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">12</span> <span class="fig-title">A graphical depiction of a media remote control, with buttons mapped to specific keys values.</span></div>

<!-- remote-control -->

		<div id="keyboard-chording-virtual"  class="section">
			<h3 id="h3_keyboard-chording-virtual"><span class="secno">1.4 </span>Virtual Keyboards and Chording Keyboards</h3>

			<p>Virtual keyboards are software-based sets of keys, in a variety of different arrangements, commonly found on touch-screen devices. They are often modal, with the
				ability to switch between different dynamic sets of keys, such as alphabetic, numeric, or symbolic keys.  Because of the lack of physical constraints, these keyboards
				<em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> present the widest range of characters, including emoticons and other symbols, and <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> have keys not represented by Unicode [<a href="#references-Unicode">Unicode</a>]
				or by the <a href="#key-value-tables">key values</a> defined in this specification.  Wherever possible, however, virtual keyboards <em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">SHOULD</em> produce the normal range
				of keyboard events and values, for ease of authoring and compatibility with existing content.</p>

			<p>Chording keyboards, also know as chorded keysets or chord keyboards, are key input devices which produce values by pressing several keys in combination or sequence,
				normally to simulate a full range of characters or commands on a reduced set of keys, often for single-handed use.  A chording keyboard <em class="rfc2119" title="MAY">MAY</em> have additional mode
				keys to switch between key values, and the number and type of keys pressed to produce a key value will vary, but the final key values produced by such keyboards
				<em class="rfc2119" title="SHOULD">SHOULD</em> match the range of key values described in this specification.</p>

			<p>For these and other alternative modal keyboards, the key values <a href="#key-Alphanumeric"><code class="key">'Alphanumeric'</code></a>, <a href="#key-CapsLock">
				<code class="key">'CapsLock'</code></a>, <a href="#key-NumLock"><code class="key">'NumLock'</code></a>, and <a href="#key-SymbolLock"><code class="key">
				'SymbolLock'</code></a> are <em class="rfc2119" title="RECOMMENDED">RECOMMENDED</em> for the keys which switch between different modes.</p>

<!-- keyboard-chording-virtual -->

<!-- keyboard-layout -->

	<div id="code-value-tables"  class="section">
<h2 id="h2_code-value-tables"><span class="secno">2. </span>Keyboard Event <code>code</code> Value Tables</h2>
		<p>This section defines a list of <code>code</code> values which implementations <em class="rfc2119" title="MUST">MUST</em> support.

		<div id="keyboard-key-codes"  class="section">
			<h3 id="h3_keyboard-key-codes"><span class="secno">2.1 </span>Key Codes for Standard Keyboards</h3>
			<p>This section describes the various keyboard sections in more detail and defines the <code>code</code>
			   values that should be used for each key.

			<div id="key-alphanumeric-section"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_key-alphanumeric-section"><span class="secno">2.1.1 </span>Alphanumeric Section</h4>
				<p>The Alphanumeric section keys fall into two general categories: &quot;writing system&quot; keys whose meaning changes based on
					the current keyboard layout, and &quot;functional&quot; keys which are (mostly) the same for all layouts.
				<div id="key-alphanumeric-writing-system" class="section">
					<h5 id="h5_key-alphanumeric-writing-system"><span class="secno"> </span>Writing System Keys</h5>
					<p>The &quot;writing system&quot; keys are those that change meaning based on the current keyboard layout.
					<div id="figure-keyboard-codes-alphanum1" class="figure">
						<img src="images/keyboard-codes-alphanum1.svg" width="653" height="225" alt="The writing system keys" />
						<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">13</span> <span class="fig-title">The writing system keys in the alphanumeric section</span></div>
					<p>This figure shows a hypothetical keyboard that combines all the writing system keys (shown in
						blue and green) found on the various keyboards.
						Blue keys are present on all standard keyboards while green keys are only available on some keyboards.
					<p>The name shown on each key is the <code>code</code> assigned to that key.
						Wherever possible, the <code>code</code> names are based on the name for the US key
						in that position (i.e., they are based on the US keyboard layout). For keys that don't
						exist on the US keyboard, names from the UK or Japanese layouts are used instead.
					<table id="table-key-code-alphanumeric-writing-system" class="data-table full-width">
						<caption>List of code values for writing system keys in the Alphanumeric section.</caption>
						<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>USB Usage ID<br />Page 0x07<br />(Informative)</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Backquote" class="code">'Backquote'</code></td>
								<td>0x35</td><td><code class="keycap">`</code> and <code class="keycap">~</code> on a US keyboard. This is the <code class="keycap">半角/全角/漢字</code> (<span class="phonetic">hankaku/zenkaku/kanji</span>) key on Japanese keyboards</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Backslash" class="code">'Backslash'</code></td>
								<td>0x31</td><td><code class="keycap">\</code> and <code class="keycap">|</code> on a US keyboard. Found only on standard 101-key layouts.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Backspace" class="code">'Backspace'</code></td>
								<td>0x2a</td><td>Labelled <code class="keycap">Delete</code> on Macintosh keyboards.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-BracketLeft" class="code">'BracketLeft'</code></td>
								<td>0x2f</td><td><code class="keycap">[</code> and <code class="keycap">{</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-BracketRight" class="code">'BracketRight'</code></td>
								<td>0x30</td><td><code class="keycap">]</code> and <code class="keycap">}</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Comma" class="code">'Comma'</code></td>
								<td>0x36</td><td><code class="keycap">,</code> and <code class="keycap">&lt;</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>

							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-0" class="code">'Digit0'</code></td>
								<td>0x27</td><td><code class="keycap">0</code> and <code class="keycap">)</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-1" class="code">'Digit1'</code></td>
								<td>0x1e</td><td><code class="keycap">1</code> and <code class="keycap">!</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-2" class="code">'Digit2'</code></td>
								<td>0x1f</td><td><code class="keycap">2</code> and <code class="keycap">@</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-3" class="code">'Digit3'</code></td>
								<td>0x20</td><td><code class="keycap">3</code> and <code class="keycap">#</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-4" class="code">'Digit4'</code></td>
								<td>0x21</td><td><code class="keycap">4</code> and <code class="keycap">$</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-5" class="code">'Digit5'</code></td>
								<td>0x22</td><td><code class="keycap">5</code> and <code class="keycap">%</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-6" class="code">'Digit6'</code></td>
								<td>0x23</td><td><code class="keycap">6</code> and <code class="keycap">^</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-7" class="code">'Digit7'</code></td>
								<td>0x24</td><td><code class="keycap">7</code> and <code class="keycap">&amp;</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-8" class="code">'Digit8'</code></td>
								<td>0x25</td><td><code class="keycap">8</code> and <code class="keycap">*</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Digit-9" class="code">'Digit9'</code></td>
								<td>0x26</td><td><code class="keycap">9</code> and <code class="keycap">(</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>

							<tr><td><code id="code-Equal" class="code">'Equal'</code></td>
								<td>0x2e</td><td><code class="keycap">=</code> and <code class="keycap">+</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-IntlBackslash" class="code">'IntlBackslash'</code></td>
								<td>0x64</td><td>Located between the <code class="code">'ShiftLeft'</code> and <code class="code">'KeyZ'</code> keys. The <code class="keycap">\</code> and <code class="keycap">|</code> key on a UK keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-IntlHash" class="code">'IntlHash'</code></td>
								<td>0x32</td><td>Located between the <code class="code">'Quote'</code> and <code class="code">'Enter'</code> keys on row E of the keyboard. The <code class="keycap">#</code> and <code class="keycap">~</code> key on a UK keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-IntlRo" class="code">'IntlRo'</code></td>
								<td>0x87</td><td>Located between the <code class="code">'Slash'</code> and <code class="code">'ShiftRight'</code> keys. The <code class="keycap">\</code> and <code class="keycap">ろ</code> (<span class="phonetic">ro</span>) key on a Japanese keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-IntlYen" class="code">'IntlYen'</code></td>
								<td>0x89</td><td>Located between the <code class="code">'Equal'</code> and <code class="code">'Backspace'</code> keys. The <code class="keycap">¥</code> (<span class="phonetic">yen</span>) key on a Japanese keyboard. The <code class="keycap">\</code> and <code class="keycap">/</code> key on a Russian keyboard.</td></tr>

							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyA" class="code">'KeyA'</code></td>
								<td>0x04</td><td><code class="keycap">a</code> on a US keyboard. Labelled <code class="keycap">q</code> on an AZERTY (e.g., French) keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyB" class="code">'KeyB'</code></td>
								<td>0x05</td><td><code class="keycap">b</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyC" class="code">'KeyC'</code></td>
								<td>0x06</td><td><code class="keycap">c</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyD" class="code">'KeyD'</code></td>
								<td>0x07</td><td><code class="keycap">d</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyE" class="code">'KeyE'</code></td>
								<td>0x08</td><td><code class="keycap">e</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyF" class="code">'KeyF'</code></td>
								<td>0x09</td><td><code class="keycap">f</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyG" class="code">'KeyG'</code></td>
								<td>0x0a</td><td><code class="keycap">g</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyH" class="code">'KeyH'</code></td>
								<td>0x0b</td><td><code class="keycap">h</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyI" class="code">'KeyI'</code></td>
								<td>0x0c</td><td><code class="keycap">i</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyJ" class="code">'KeyJ'</code></td>
								<td>0x0d</td><td><code class="keycap">j</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyK" class="code">'KeyK'</code></td>
								<td>0x0e</td><td><code class="keycap">k</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyL" class="code">'KeyL'</code></td>
								<td>0x0f</td><td><code class="keycap">l</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyM" class="code">'KeyM'</code></td>
								<td>0x10</td><td><code class="keycap">m</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyN" class="code">'KeyN'</code></td>
								<td>0x11</td><td><code class="keycap">n</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyO" class="code">'KeyO'</code></td>
								<td>0x12</td><td><code class="keycap">o</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyP" class="code">'KeyP'</code></td>
								<td>0x13</td><td><code class="keycap">p</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyQ" class="code">'KeyQ'</code></td>
								<td>0x14</td><td><code class="keycap">q</code> on a US keyboard. Labelled <code class="keycap">a</code> on an AZERTY (e.g., French) keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyR" class="code">'KeyR'</code></td>
								<td>0x15</td><td><code class="keycap">r</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyS" class="code">'KeyS'</code></td>
								<td>0x16</td><td><code class="keycap">s</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyT" class="code">'KeyT'</code></td>
								<td>0x17</td><td><code class="keycap">t</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyU" class="code">'KeyU'</code></td>
								<td>0x18</td><td><code class="keycap">u</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyV" class="code">'KeyV'</code></td>
								<td>0x19</td><td><code class="keycap">v</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyW" class="code">'KeyW'</code></td>
								<td>0x1a</td><td><code class="keycap">w</code> on a US keyboard. Labelled <code class="keycap">z</code> on an AZERTY (e.g., French) keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyX" class="code">'KeyX'</code></td>
								<td>0x1b</td><td><code class="keycap">x</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyY" class="code">'KeyY'</code></td>
								<td>0x1c</td><td><code class="keycap">y</code> on a US keyboard. Labelled <code class="keycap">z</code> on a QWERTZ (e.g., German) keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KeyZ" class="code">'KeyZ'</code></td>
								<td>0x1d</td><td><code class="keycap">z</code> on a US keyboard. Labelled <code class="keycap">w</code> on an AZERTY (e.g., French) keyboard, and <code class="keycap">y</code> on a QWERTZ (e.g., German) keyboard.</td></tr>

							<tr><td><code id="code-Minus" class="code">'Minus'</code></td>
								<td>0x2d</td><td><code class="keycap">-</code> and <code class="keycap">_</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Period" class="code">'Period'</code></td>
								<td>0x37</td><td><code class="keycap">.</code> and <code class="keycap">&gt;</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Quote" class="code">'Quote'</code></td>
								<td>0x34</td><td><code class="keycap">'</code> and <code class="keycap">&quot;</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Semicolon" class="code">'Semicolon'</code></td>
								<td>0x33</td><td><code class="keycap">;</code> and <code class="keycap">:</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Slash" class="code">'Slash'</code></td>
								<td>0x38</td><td><code class="keycap">/</code> and <code class="keycap">?</code> on a US keyboard.</td></tr>

				<div id="key-alphanumeric-functional"  class="section">
					<h5 id="h5_key-alphanumeric-functional"><span class="secno"> </span>Functional Keys</h5>
					<p>The Functional keys (<em>not to be confused with the
					   <a href="#key-function-section">Function keys</a> described later</em>) are those
					   keys in the Alphanumeric section that provide general editing functions that are common to all locales
					   (like Shift, Tab, Enter and Backspace).
					   With a few exceptions, these keys do not change meaning based on the current keyboard layout.

					<div id="figure-keyboard-codes-alphanum2" class="figure">
						<img src="images/keyboard-codes-alphanum2.svg" width="653" height="225" alt="The standard set of functional keys" />
						<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">14</span> <span class="fig-title">The standard set of functional keys in the alphanumeric section</span></div>

					<table id="table-key-code-alphanumeric-functional-1" class="data-table full-width">
						<caption>List of code values for functional keys in the Alphanumeric section.</caption>
						<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>USB Usage ID<br />Page 0x07<br />(Informative)</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
							<tr><td><code id="code-AltLeft" class="code">'AltLeft'</code></td>
								<td>0xe2</td><td>Labelled <code class="keycap">Alt</code> or <code class="keycap">Option</code>.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-AltRight" class="code">'AltRight'</code></td>
								<td>0xe6</td><td>Labelled <code class="keycap">Alt</code> or <code class="keycap">Option</code>. This is the <code class="keycap">AltGr</code> key on many keyboard layouts.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-CapsLock" class="code">'CapsLock'</code></td>
							<tr><td><code id="code-ContextMenu" class="code">'ContextMenu'</code></td>
								<td>0x65</td><td>The application context menu key, which is typically found between the right OS key and the right Control key.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-ControlLeft" class="code">'ControlLeft'</code></td>
							<tr><td><code id="code-ControlRight" class="code">'ControlRight'</code></td>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Enter" class="code">'Enter'</code></td>
								<td>0x28</td><td>Labelled <code class="keycap">Enter</code> and <code class="keycap">Return</code> on Macintosh keyboards.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-OSLeft" class="code">'OSLeft'</code></td>
								<td>0xe3</td><td>The Windows, <code class="keycap">⌘</code>, <code class="keycap">Command</code> or other OS symbol key.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-OSRight" class="code">'OSRight'</code></td>
								<td>0xe7</td><td>The Windows, <code class="keycap">⌘</code>, <code class="keycap">Command</code> or other OS symbol key.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-ShiftLeft" class="code">'ShiftLeft'</code></td>
							<tr><td><code id="code-ShiftRight" class="code">'ShiftRight'</code></td>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Space" class="code">'Space'</code></td>
								<td>0x2c</td><td>The <code class="keycap"> </code> key.</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Tab" class="code">'Tab'</code></td>
					<p>On some keyboards (notably Japanese and Korean) the spacebar is reduced in size to make room
					   for extra keys on the bottom row. These keys typically allow the users to change the current input
					   mode. Note that even though some of these Japanese and Korean keys occupy the same physical location on the
					   keyboard, they use different <code>code</code> values.
					<div id="figure-function-row-a" class="figure">
						<img src="images/functional-row-a.svg" width="700" height="160" alt="Comparison of the lower row of functional keys" />
						<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">15</span> <span class="fig-title">Comparison of the lower row of functional keys on different keyboards</span></div>
					<table id="table-key-code-alphanumeric-functional-2" class="data-table full-width">
						<caption>List of code values for functional keys found on Japanese and Korean keyboards.</caption>
						<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>USB Usage ID<br />Page 0x07<br />(Informative)</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Convert" class="code">'Convert'</code></td>
								<td>0x8a</td><td>Japanese: <code class="keycap">変換</code> (<span class="phonetic">henkan</span>)</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-KanaMode" class="code">'KanaMode'</code></td>
								<td>0x88</td><td>Japanese: <code class="keycap">カタカナ/ひらがな/ローマ字</code> (<span class="phonetic">katakana/hiragana/romaji</span>)</td></tr>
							<tr><td><code id="code-Lang1" class="code">'Lang1'</code></td>
								<td>Korean: <code class="keycap">한/영</code> (<span class="phonetic">han/yeong</span>)<br />
									Japanese (Mac keyboard): <code class="keycap">かな</code> (<span class="phonetic">kana</span>)
							<tr><td><code id="code-Lang2" class="code">'Lang2'</code></td>
								<td>Korean: <code class="keycap">한자</code> (<span class="phonetic">hanja</span>)<br />
									Japanese (Mac keyboard): <code class="keycap">英数</code> (<span class="phonetic">eisu</span>)
							<tr><td><code id="code-Lang3" class="code">'Lang3'</code></td>
								<td>Japanese (word-processing keyboard): Katakana
							<tr><td><code id="code-Lang4" class="code">'Lang4'</code></td>
								<td>Japanese (word-processing keyboard): Hiragana
							<tr><td><code id="code-Lang5" class="code">'Lang5'</code></td>
								<td>Japanese (word-processing keyboard): Zenkaku/Hankaku
							<tr><td><code id="code-NonConvert" class="code">'NonConvert'</code></td>
								<td>0x8b</td><td>Japanese: <code class="keycap">無変換</code> (<span class="phonetic">muhenkan</span>)</td></tr>
					<p>On Apple keyboards, some keys on the bottom row are omitted and others are arranged in
					   a different order.

			<div id="key-controlpad-section"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_key-controlpad-section"><span class="secno">2.1.2 </span>Control Pad Section</h4>
				<p>The Control Pad contains keys for navigating and editing documents.
				<div id="figure-control-pad" class="figure">
					<img src="images/control-pad.svg" width="495" height="135" alt="Standard Control Pad layouts" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">16</span> <span class="fig-title">Standard Control Pad layouts</span></div>
				<table id="table-key-code-controlpad" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for keys in the ControlPad section.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>USB Usage ID<br />Page 0x07<br />(Informative)</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Delete" class="code">'Delete'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-End" class="code">'End'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Help" class="code">'Help'</code></td>
							<td>0x75</td><td>Not present on standard PC keyboards.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Home" class="code">'Home'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Insert" class="code">'Insert'</code></td>
							<td>0x49</td><td>Not present on Apple keyboards.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-PageUp" class="code">'PageDown'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-PageDown" class="code">'PageUp'</code></td>
				<p>Note: The <code>code</code> for the <code class="code">'Fn'</code> key (found on
				   some Apple keyboards) is defined below in the Function Section.

			<div id="key-arrowpad-section" class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_key-arrowpad-section"><span class="secno">2.1.3 </span>Arrow Pad Section</h4>
				<p>The Arrow Pad section contains the 4 arrow keys.
				<div id="figure-arrow-pad" class="figure">
					<img src="images/arrow-pad.svg" width="160" height="115" alt="Standard Arrow Pad layout" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">17</span> <span class="fig-title">Standard Arrow Pad layout</span></div>
				<table id="table-key-code-arrowpad" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for keys in the ArrowPad section.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>USB Usage ID<br />Page 0x07<br />(Informative)</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-ArrowDown" class="code">'ArrowDown'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-ArrowLeft" class="code">'ArrowLeft'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-ArrowRight" class="code">'ArrowRight'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-ArrowUp" class="code">'ArrowUp'</code></td>

			<div id="key-numpad-section" class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_key-numpad-section"><span class="secno">2.1.4 </span>Numpad Section</h4>
				<p>The Numpad Section contains numeric and mathematical operator keys arranged in a calculator-grid
				   to facilitate numeric data entry.
				<div id="figure-numpad" class="figure">
					<img src="images/numpad.svg" width="606" height="247" alt="Standard Numpad layouts" />
					<div class="figcaption">Fig. <span class="figno">18</span> <span class="fig-title">Standard Numpad layouts</span></div>
				<p>The standard Numpad is sometimes extended with additional keys for parentheses, operators,
				   hexadecimal symbols, or calculator functions (like backspace). Some of the commonly added keys are
				   listed in the table below.
				<table id="table-key-code-numpad" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for keys in the Numpad section.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>USB Usage ID<br />Page 0x07<br />(Informative)</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumLock" class="code">'NumLock'</code></td>
							<td>0x53</td><td>On the Mac, the <code class="code">'NumLock'</code> code should be used for the numpad <code class="glyph">'Clear'</code> key.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad0" class="code">'Numpad0'</code></td>
							<td>0x62</td><td><code class="keycap">0</code> and <code class="keycap">Insert</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad1" class="code">'Numpad1'</code></td>
							<td>0x59</td><td><code class="keycap">1</code> and <code class="keycap">End</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad2" class="code">'Numpad2'</code></td>
							<td>0x5a</td><td><code class="keycap">2</code> and <code class="keycap">ArrowDown</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad3" class="code">'Numpad3'</code></td>
							<td>0x5b</td><td><code class="keycap">3</code> and <code class="keycap">PageDown</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad4" class="code">'Numpad4'</code></td>
							<td>0x5c</td><td><code class="keycap">4</code> and <code class="keycap">ArrowLeft</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad5" class="code">'Numpad5'</code></td>
							<td>0x5d</td><td><code class="keycap">5</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad6" class="code">'Numpad6'</code></td>
							<td>0x5e</td><td><code class="keycap">6</code> and <code class="keycap">ArrowRight</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad7" class="code">'Numpad7'</code></td>
							<td>0x5f</td><td><code class="keycap">7</code> and <code class="keycap">Home</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad8" class="code">'Numpad8'</code></td>
							<td>0x60</td><td><code class="keycap">8</code> and <code class="keycap">ArrowUp</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Numpad9" class="code">'Numpad9'</code></td>
							<td>0x61</td><td><code class="keycap">9</code> and <code class="keycap">PageUp</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadAdd" class="code">'NumpadAdd'</code></td>
							<td>0x57</td><td><code class="keycap">+</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadBackspace" class="code">'NumpadBackspace'</code></td>
							<td>0xbb</td><td>Found on the Microsoft Natural Keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadClear" class="code">'NumpadClear'</code></td>
							<td>0xd8</td><td>For use with numpads that have a <code class="glyph">'Clear'</code> key that is separate from the <code class="glyph">'NumLock'</code> key.
								On the Mac, the numpad <code class="glyph">'Clear'</code> key should always be encoded as <code class="code">'NumLock'</code>.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadClearEntry" class="code">'NumpadClearEntry'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadComma" class="code">'NumpadComma'</code></td>
							<td>0x85</td><td><code class="keycap">,</code> (thousands separator). For locales where the thousands separator is a <code class="glyph">'.'</code> (e.g., Brazil), this key may generate a <code class="glyph">'.'</code>.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadDecimal" class="code">'NumpadDecimal'</code></td>
							<td>0x63</td><td><code class="keycap">.</code> (decimal separator) and <code class="keycap">Delete</code>. For locales where the decimal separator is <code class="glyph">','</code> (e.g., Brazil), this key may generate a <code class="glyph">','</code>.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadDivide" class="code">'NumpadDivide'</code></td>
							<td>0x54</td><td><code class="keycap">/</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadEnter" class="code">'NumpadEnter'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadEqual" class="code">'NumpadEqual'</code></td>
							<td>0x67</td><td><code class="keycap">=</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadMemoryAdd" class="code">'NumpadMemoryAdd'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadMemoryClear" class="code">'NumpadMemoryClear'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadMemoryRecall" class="code">'NumpadMemoryRecall'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadMemoryStore" class="code">'NumpadMemoryStore'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadMemorySubtract" class="code">'NumpadMemorySubtract'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadMultiply" class="code">'NumpadMultiply'</code></td>
							<td>0x55</td><td><code class="keycap">*</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadParenLeft" class="code">'NumpadParenLeft'</code></td>
							<td>0xb6</td><td><code class="keycap">(</code> Found on the Microsoft Natural Keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadParenRight" class="code">'NumpadParenRight'</code></td>
							<td>0xb7</td><td><code class="keycap">)</code> Found on the Microsoft Natural Keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-NumpadSubtract" class="code">'NumpadSubtract'</code></td>
							<td>0x56</td><td><code class="keycap">-</code></td></tr>
				<p>For Numpads that provide keys not listed here, a <code>code</code> value string should be created by
				   starting with 'Numpad' and appending an appropriate description of the key.

			<div id="key-function-section"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_key-function-section"><span class="secno">2.1.5 </span>Function Section</h4>
				<p>The Function section runs along the top of the keyboard and contains the function keys and
				   a few additional special keys (for example, <code class="code">'Escape'</code> and
				   <code class="code">'PrintScreen'</code>).
				<p>On some keyboards (especially those found on laptops or other portable computers), the function keys
				   (<code class="code">'F1'</code> ... <code class="code">'F12'</code>)
				   are defined to have other primary functions (like controlling display brightness or
				   audio volume) and require that a separate <code class="code">'Fn'</code> key
				   be pressed to make them act as function keys.
				   Unfortunately, the primary functions assigned to these keys varies widely from one manufacturer to the next.
				   Because of this, the <code>code</code> is always set to the function key name.
				<table id="table-key-code-function" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for keys in the Function section.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>USB Usage ID<br />Page 0x07<br />(Informative)</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Escape" class="code">'Escape'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F1" class="code">'F1'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F2" class="code">'F2'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F3" class="code">'F3'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F4" class="code">'F4'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F5" class="code">'F5'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F6" class="code">'F6'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F7" class="code">'F7'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F8" class="code">'F8'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F9" class="code">'F9'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F10" class="code">'F10'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F11" class="code">'F11'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-F12" class="code">'F12'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Fn" class="code">'Fn'</code></td>
							<td></td><td>This is typically a hardware key that does not generate a separate code. Most keyboards do not place this key in the Function section, but it is included here to keep with related keys.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-FLock" class="code">'FLock'</code></td>
							<td></td><td>Found on the Microsoft Natural Keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-PrintScreen" class="code">'PrintScreen'</code></td>
							<td>0x46</td><td><code class="keycap">PrintScreen</code> and <code class="keycap">SysReq</code></td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-ScrollLock" class="code">'ScrollLock'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Pause" class="code">'Pause'</code></td>
							<td>0x48</td><td><code class="keycap">Pause</code> and <code class="keycap">Break</code></td></tr>
				<p>For keyboards that provide more than 12 function keys, the <code>code</code> value follows the pattern
				   shown above with 'F' followed by the function key number - <code class="code">'F13'</code>, <code class="code">'F14'</code>,
				   <code class="code">'F15'</code>, and so on.
				<p>Note: Apple keyboards may have <code class="code">'Eject'</code> or <code class="code">'Power'</code>
				   keys in the Function section. The <code>code</code> values
				   for these keys are defined in the Media Keys section.

			<div id="key-media"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_key-media"><span class="secno">2.1.6 </span>Media Keys</h4>
				<p>Keys that fall outside the sections listed above are referred to as &quot;media keys&quot; since
				   they commonly provide &quot;media&quot; functions like play, pause or volume control.
				<p>These are extra keys that many keyboard manufacturers add, but do not have a consistent location.
				   These keys are often distinct from normal typing keys in appearance and may be recessed in the
				<p>On laptop keyboards, these keys are often merged with the Function keys, with the &quot;media&quot; interpretation
				   being the primary function of the key and the &quot;function key&quot; interpretation requiring the
				   <code class="code">'Fn'</code> key to be pressed at the same time. In this configuration the
				   <code>code</code> should be set to match the function key (<code class="code">'F1'</code> ...
				   <code class="code">'F12'</code>). When the keys are merged in this fashion, the <code>code</code>
				   values are taken from the function key value since the &quot;media&quot; value is not consistent across
				<table id="table-key-code-media" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for media keys.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-BrowserBack" class="code">'BrowserBack'</code></td>
							<td>Some laptops place this key to the left of the <code class="code">'ArrowUp'</code> key.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-BrowserFavorites" class="code">'BrowserFavorites'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-BrowserForward" class="code">'BrowserForward'</code></td>
							<td>Some laptops place this key to the right of the <code class="code">'ArrowUp'</code> key.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-BrowserHome" class="code">'BrowserHome'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-BrowserRefresh" class="code">'BrowserRefresh'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-BrowserSearch" class="code">'BrowserSearch'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-BrowserStop" class="code">'BrowserStop'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Eject" class="code">'Eject'</code></td>
							<td>This key is placed in the Function section on some Apple keyboards.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-LaunchApp1" class="code">'LaunchApp1'</code></td>
							<td>Sometimes labelled <code class="keycap">My Computer</code> on the keyboard</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-LaunchApp2" class="code">'LaunchApp2'</code></td>
							<td>Sometimes labelled <code class="keycap">Calculator</code> on the keyboard</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-LaunchMail" class="code">'LaunchMail'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-MediaPlayPause" class="code">'MediaPlayPause'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-MediaSelect" class="code">'MediaSelect'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-MediaStop" class="code">'MediaStop'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-MediaTrackNext" class="code">'MediaTrackNext'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-MediaTrackPrevious" class="code">'MediaTrackPrevious'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Power" class="code">'Power'</code></td>
							<td>This key is placed in the Function section on some Apple keyboards, replacing the <code class="code">'Eject'</code> key.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Sleep" class="code">'Sleep'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-VolumeDown" class="code">'VolumeDown'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-VolumeMute" class="code">'VolumeMute'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-VolumeUp" class="code">'VolumeUp'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-WakeUp" class="code">'WakeUp'</code></td>

			<div id="key-legacy"  class="section">
				<h4 id="h4_key-legacy"><span class="secno">2.1.7 </span>Legacy Keys and Non-Standard Keys</h4>

				<p>These keys are not found on modern standard keyboards.
				   They are listed here for reference purposes.

				<table id="table-key-code-legacy-modifier" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for legacy modifier keys.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Hyper" class="code">'Hyper'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Super" class="code">'Super'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Turbo" class="code">'Turbo'</code></td>


				<table id="table-key-code-legacy-process" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for legacy process control keys.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Abort" class="code">'Abort'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Resume" class="code">'Resume'</code></td>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Suspend" class="code">'Suspend'</code></td>

				<table id="table-key-code-legacy-editing" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for legacy editing keys.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Again" class="code">'Again'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Copy" class="code">'Copy'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Cut" class="code">'Cut'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Find" class="code">'Find'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Open" class="code">'Open'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Paste" class="code">'Paste'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Props" class="code">'Props'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Select" class="code">'Select'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Undo" class="code">'Undo'</code></td>
							<td>Found on Sun's USB keyboard.</td></tr>

				<p>The following keys may be found on non-standard international keyboards.

				<table id="table-key-code-international" class="data-table full-width">
					<caption>List of code values for keys found on international keyboards.</caption>
					<thead><tr><th>Code Value</th><th>Notes (Informative)</th></tr></thead>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Hiragana" class="code">'Hiragana'</code></td>
							<td>Use for dedicated <code class="keycap">ひらがな</code> key found on some Japanese word processing keyboards.</td></tr>
						<tr><td><code id="code-Katakana" class="code">'Katakana'</code></td>
							<td>Use for dedicated <code class="keycap">カタカナ</code> key found on some Japanese word processing keyboards.</td></tr>


<!-- keyboard-key-codes -->

<!-- code-value-tables -->

<!-- Appendix G: Acknowledgements ========================================================-->

	<div id="acknowledgements-contributors"  class="section">
<h2 id="h2_acknowledgements-contributors"><span class="secno">3. </span>Acknowledgements</h2>

		<p class="1st">Considerable thanks are due to the following participants of the
			WebApps Working Group for providing substantial material contributions
			in the process of developing this specification.

		<p>Gary Kacmarcik (Google), Masayuki Nakano (Mozilla)

<!-- acknowledgements-contributors -->

<!-- Appendix H: References ========================================================-->

	<div id="references"  class="section">
<h2 id="h2_references"><span class="secno">4. </span>References</h2>

		<p>For the latest version of any <abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> specification please consult the list of
			<a class="normative" href=""><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr> Technical Reports</a>
			available at

		<div id="references-References-Normative"  class="section">
			<h3 id="h3_references-References-Normative"><span class="secno">4.1 </span>Normative References</h3>

				<dt id="references-D3E"><strong>[DOM3 Events]</strong></dt>
				<dd><cite><a href="">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Events Specification</a></cite>,<br />
					G. Kacmarcik, T. Leithead, Editors.<br />
					World Wide Web Consortium, April 2014.<br />
					This version of the Document Object Model Level 3 Events Specification is<br />
					The <a class="normative" href="">latest version of Document Object Model Level 3 Events</a>
					is available at

				<dt id="references-ISO-9995-2-3"><strong>[ISO9995-2/3]</strong></dt>
				<dd><cite><a href=";published=on">ISO/IEC 9995, Information technology
					-- Keyboard layouts for text and office systems
					-- Part 2: Alphanumeric Section and Part 3: Complementary layouts of the alphanumeric zone of the alphanumeric section.</a></cite>

				<dt id="references-ISO-9995-8"><strong>[ISO9995-8]</strong></dt>
				<dd><cite><a href=";published=on">ISO/IEC 9995-8:2006, Information technology
					-- Keyboard layouts for text and office systems
					-- Part 8: Allocation of letters to the keys of a numeric keypad.</a></cite>

				<dt id="references-Unicode"><strong>[Unicode]</strong></dt>
				<dd><cite>The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0</cite>,<br />
					ISBN 0-321-48091-0, as updated periodically by the publication of new versions.<br />
					See also <a class="normative" href="">Versions of the Unicode Standard</a>,
					available at for
					latest version and additional information on versions of the standard and of the Unicode Character Database.
<!-- references -->