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<!DOCTYPE html> 
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<html lang="en"> 
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<head> 
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<meta content="text/html; charset=utf8" httpequiv="contenttype"> 
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<meta name="keywords" content="W3C, World Wide Web, WWW, Consortium, process, Team, Recommendation, Advisory Committee, 
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Advisory Board, Working Group, Coordination Group, Interest Group, W3C Activity, Workshop, Symposium, charter, Activity Proposal,Working Draft, Process Document, Candidate Recommendation, Director, Proposed Recommendation, Last Call, Submission request"> 
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<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://www.w3.org/StyleSheets/TR/base.css"> 
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<title>World Wide Web Consortium Process Document</title> 
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<style type="text/css"> 
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table { marginleft: auto; marginright: auto } 
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.diagram { textalign: center; margin: 2.5em 0 } 
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.issue {border: 2px dashed red; backgroundcolor: #ffa;} 
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.issue .issue {backgroundcolor: #fcc;} 
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.rfc2119 {fontvariant:smallcaps} 
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</style> <![if lt IE 9]><script src='undefined://www.w3.org/2008/site/js/html5shiv.js'></script><![endif]> 
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</head> 
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<body> 
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<div class="head"><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img alt="W3C" src="https://www.w3.org/Icons/w3c_home" height="48" width="72"></a> 
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<h1>W3C Draft Process Document</h1> 
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<h2 class="notoc">23 April 2015 Editor's Draft</h2> 
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<dl> 
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<dt>Latest Editor's version:</dt> 
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<dd> <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/rawfile/default/cover.html">https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/rawfile/default/cover.html</a></dd> 
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<dt>Latest operative version:</dt> 
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<dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/">http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/</a></dd> 
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<dt>Editor:</dt> 
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<dd>Charles McCathie Nevile, <a style="color:black" href="http://yandex.com"><span style="color: red;">Y</span>andex</a>—<a style="color:black" 
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href="http://yandex.ru"><span style="color: red;">Я</span>ндекс</a></dd> 
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<dt>Previous editor:</dt> 
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<dd>Ian Jacobs, <a href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C</a></dd> 
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</dl> 
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<p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/iprnotice#Copyright">Copyright</a> © 19962015 <a href="/"><abbr title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</abbr></a><sup>®</sup> 
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(<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/"><abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/"><abbr 
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title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</abbr></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/">Keio</a>, 
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<a href="http://ev.buaa.edu.cn/">Beihang</a>), All Rights Reserved. W3C <a href="/Consortium/Legal/iprnotice#Legal_Disclaimer">liability</a>, 
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<a href="/Consortium/Legal/iprnotice#W3C_Trademarks">trademark</a>, <a rel="Copyright" href="/Consortium/Legal/copyrightdocuments">document 
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use</a> and <a rel="Copyright" href="/Consortium/Legal/copyrightsoftware">software licensing</a> rules apply. Your interactions 
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with this site are in accordance with our <a href="/Consortium/Legal/privacystatement#Public">public</a> and <a href="/Consortium/Legal/privacystatement#Members">Member</a> 
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privacy statements.</p> 
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<hr></div> 
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<h2 class="notoc"><a id="abstract">Abstract</a></h2> 
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<p>The mission of the World Wide Web Consortium (<abbr>W3C</abbr>) is to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing 
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common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability. The W3C Process Document describes the organizational 
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structure of the W3C and the processes related to the responsibilities and functions they exercise to enable W3C to accomplish its 
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mission. This document does not describe the internal workings of the Team or W3C's public communication mechanisms.</p> 
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<p>For more information about the W3C mission and the history of W3C, please refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/">About W3C</a> 
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[<a href="#refmission">PUB15</a>].</p> 
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<h2 class="notoc" id="status">Status of this Document</h2> 
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<p>W3C, including all existing chartered groups, follows the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/">most recent operative 
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Process Document</a> announced to the Membership.</p> 
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<p>This document is developed by the Advisory Board's Process Task Force (which anyone may join) working within the <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/">Revising 
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W3C Process Community Group</a>. This is the 23 April 2015 Editor's draft for the proposed next version of the W3C Process Document. 
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This document is based on the 3 March review draft which was proposed to the Advisory Committee as a "last call" for an update to the 
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1 August 2014 Process.</p> 
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<p>This draft is expected to be proposed to the Advisory Committee for a formal AC review on whether to adopt this as the new operative 
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Process document. Further revision to the Process is expected as needed.</p> 
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<p>Sections have been renumbered, with the most notable change from the current Operative version being that section numbers 5 and above 
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in this draft correspond to section numbers higher by 1 in the August 2014 Process.</p> 
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<p>In <em>this draft</em> <a href="http://www.w3.org/community/w3process/track/issues/152">ISSUE152</a> has been resolved, by 
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allowing a Working Group to propose editorial corrections directly as a Proposed Recommendation. A <a href="#changes">change history</a> 
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(compared to the 2014 Process Document) forms part of this draft.</p> 
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<p>Comment is invited on the draft. Please send comments to <a href="mailto:publicw3process@w3.org">publicw3process@w3.org</a> (<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/publicw3process/">Mailing 
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list archive</a>, publicly available) or to processissues@w3.org (<a href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Member/processissues">Memberonly 
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archive</a>). A <a href="https://www.w3.org/community/w3process/track/">Public Issue Tracker</a> and <a href="https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/AB/">detailed 

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changelogs</a> are available online. </p> 
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<h2 class="notoc" id="pp">Relation of Process Document to Patent Policy</h2> 
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<p>W3C Members' attention is called to the fact that provisions of the Process Document are binding on Members per the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/MemberAgreement">Membership 
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Agreement</a> [<a href="#refmemberagreement">PUB6</a>]. The Patent Policy <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C 
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Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>] is incorporated by normative reference as a part of the Process Document, 
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and is thus equally binding.</p> 
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<p>The Patent Policy places additional obligations on Members, Team, and other participants in W3C. The Process Document does not 
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restate those requirements but includes references to them. The Process Document and Patent Policy have been designed so that they may 
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evolve independently.</p> 
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<p>In the Process Document, the term "participant" refers to an individual, not an organization.</p> 
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<h2 class=".notoc">Conformance and specialized terms</h2> 
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<p>The terms <em class="rfc2119">must</em>, <em class="rfc2119">must not</em>, <em class="rfc2119">should</em>, <em class="rfc2119">should 
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not</em>, <em class="rfc2119">required</em>, and <em class="rfc2119">may</em> are used in accordance with <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">RFC 
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2119</a> [<a href="#refRFC2119">RFC2119</a>]. The term <dfn><em class="rfc2119">not required</em></dfn> is equivalent to the term 
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<em class="rfc2119">may</em> as defined in RFC 2119. </p> 
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<p>Some terms have been capitalized in this document (and in other W3C materials) to indicate that they are entities with special 
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relevance to the W3C Process. These terms are defined herein, and readers should be aware that the ordinary (English) definitions are 
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incomplete for purposes of understanding this document.</p> 
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<div class="toc" role="navigation"> 
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<h2 class="notoc" id="toc">Table of Contents</h2> 
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<div class="noprint"> 
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<ul class="toc"> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Intro" class="tocxref">1 Introduction</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Organization" class="tocxref">2 Members, Advisory Committee, Team, Advisory Board, Technical 
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Architecture Group</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Policies" class="tocxref">3 General Policies for W3C Groups</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#dissemination" class="tocxref">4 Dissemination Policies</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAGeneral" class="tocxref">5 Working Groups and Interest Groups</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Reports" class="tocxref">6 W3C Technical Report Development Process</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#ReviewAppeal" class="tocxref">7 Advisory Committee Reviews, Appeals, and Votes</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAEvents" class="tocxref">8 Workshops and Symposia</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Liaisons" class="tocxref">9 Liaisons</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Submission" class="tocxref">10 Member Submission Process</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAProcess" class="tocxref">11 Process Evolution</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#references" class="tocxref">12 References</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#acks" class="tocxref">13 Acknowledgments</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#changes" class="tocxref">14 Changes</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</div> 
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</div> 
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<div class="longtoc"> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Intro">1 Introduction</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Organization">2 Members, Advisory Committee, Team, Advisory Board, Technical Architecture Group</a> 
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Constraints</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#memberrep">3.1.2 Individuals Representing a Member Organization</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#Consensus">3.3 Consensus</a> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#managingdissent">3.3.1 Managing Dissent</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#WGArchiveMinorityViews">3.3.2 Recording and Reporting Formal Objections</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#resignation">3.6 Resignation from a Group</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#dissemination">4 Dissemination Policies</a> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#confidentialitylevels">4.1 Confidentiality Levels</a> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#confidentialitychange">4.1.1 Changing Confidentiality Level</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAGeneral">5 Working Groups and Interest Groups</a> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#ReqsAllGroups">5.1 Requirements for All Working and Interest Groups</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#GroupsWG">5.2 Working Groups and Interest Groups</a> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#groupparticipation">5.2.1 Working Group and Interest Group Participation Requirements</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#WGCharterDevelopment">5.2.2 Working Group and Interest Group Charter Development</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#CharterReview">5.2.3 Advisory Committee Review of a Working Group or Interest Group Charter</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#cfp">5.2.4 Call for Participation in a Working Group or Interest Group</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#charterextension">5.2.5 Working Group and Interest Group Charter Extension</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#WGCharter">5.2.6 Working Group and Interest Group Charters</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#GeneralTermination">5.2.8 Working Group and Interest Group Closure</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Reports">6 W3C Technical Report Development Process</a> 
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<li><a href="#recadvance">6.1 W3C Technical Reports</a> 
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<li><a href="#recsandnotes" id="returntowg">6.1.1 Recommendations and Notes</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#maturitylevels">6.1.2 Maturity Levels</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#requirementsanddefinitions">6.2 General requirements and definitions</a> 
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<li><a href="#generalrequirements">6.2.1 General requirements for Technical Reports</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#transitionreqs">6.2.2 Advancement on the Recommendation Track</a> 
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<li><a href="#substantivechange">6.2.2.1 Substantive Change</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#docreviews">6.2.3 Reviews and Review Responsibilities</a> 
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<li><a href="#widereview">6.2.3.1 Wide Review</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#implementationexperience">6.2.4 Implementation Experience</a> </li> 
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<li><a href="#correctionclasses">6.2.5 Classes of Changes to a Recommendation</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#workingdraft">6.3 Working Draft</a> 
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<li><a href="#firstwd">6.3.1 First Public Working Draft</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#revisedwd">6.3.2 Revising Public Working Drafts</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#candidaterec" id="cfi">6.4 Candidate Recommendation</a> 
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<li><a href="#revisedcr">6.4.1 Revising a Candidate Recommendation</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</li> 
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<li> <a href="#recpr" id="cfr">6.5 Proposed Recommendation</a></li> 
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<li> <a href="#recpublication">6.6 W3C Recommendation</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#recmodify">6.7 Modifying a W3C Recommendation</a> 
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<ul class="toc"> 
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<li><a href="#errata">6.7.1 Errata Management</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#revisedrec" id="cfredited">6.7.2 Revising a Recommendation</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</li> 
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<li><a href="#Note">6.8 Publishing a Working Group or Interest Group Note</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#recrescind">6.9 Rescinding a W3C Recommendation</a></li> 
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<li><a href="#furtherreading">Further reading</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#ReviewAppeal">7 Advisory Committee Reviews, Appeals, and Votes</a> 
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<ul class="toc"> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#ACReview">7.1 Advisory Committee Reviews</a> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#ACReviewStart">7.1.1 Start of a Review Period</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#ACReviewAfter">7.1.2 After the Review Period</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#ACAppeal">7.2 Appeal by Advisory Committee Representatives</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#ACVotes">7.3 Advisory Committee Votes</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAEvents">8 Workshops and Symposia</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Liaisons">9 Liaisons</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#Submission">10 Member Submission Process</a> 
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<ul class="toc"> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#SubmissionRights">10.1 Submitter Rights and Obligations</a> 
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<ul class="toc"> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#SubmissionScope">10.1.1 Scope of Member Submissions</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline4"><a href="#SubmissionReqs">10.1.2 Information Required in a Submission Request</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#TeamSubmissionRights">10.2 Team Rights and Obligations</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#SubmissionYes">10.3 Acknowledgment of a Submission Request</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#SubmissionNo">10.4 Rejection of a Submission Request</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#GAProcess">11 Process Evolution</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#references">12 References</a> 
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<ul class="toc"> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#publicrefs">12.1 Public Resources</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#memberrefs">12.2 Memberonly Resources</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline3"><a href="#otherrefs">12.3 Other References</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#acks">13 Acknowledgments</a></li> 
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<li class="tocline2"><a href="#changes">14 Changes</a></li> 
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</ul> 
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</div> 
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<main> 
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<h2 id="Intro">1 Introduction</h2> 
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<p>Most W3C work revolves around the standardization of Web technologies. To accomplish this work, W3C follows processes that promote 
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the development of highquality standards based on the <a href="#Consensus">consensus</a> of the Membership, Team, and public. W3C 
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processes promote fairness, responsiveness, and progress: all facets of the W3C mission. This document describes the processes W3C 
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follows in pursuit of its mission.</p> 
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<p>Here is a general overview of how W3C standardizes a Web technology. In many cases, the goal of this work is a <a href="#RecsW3C">W3C 
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Recommendation</a>, the W3C equivalent of a Web standard.</p> 
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<ol> 
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<li>People generate interest in a particular topic (e.g., Web services). For instance, Members express interest in the form of <a href="#Submission">Member 
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Submissions</a>, and the <a href="#Team">Team</a> monitors work inside and outside of W3C for signs of interest. Also, W3C is 
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likely to organize a <a href="#GAEvents">Workshop</a> to bring people together to discuss topics that interest the W3C community.</li> 
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<li>When there is enough interest in a topic (e.g., after a successful Workshop and/or discussion on an <a href="#ACCommunication">Advisory 
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Committee mailing list</a>), the Director announces the development of a proposal for one or more new <a href="#WGCharterDevelopment">Interest 
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Group or Working Group charters</a>, depending on the breadth of the topic of interest. W3C Members <a href="#ActivityCreation">review</a> 
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the proposed charters. When there is support within W3C for investing resources in the topic of interest, the Director approves 
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the group(s) and they begin their work.</li> 
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<li>There are three types of Working Group participants: <a href="#memberrep">Member representatives</a>, <a href="#invitedexpertwg">Invited 
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Experts</a>, and <a href="#Team">Team representatives</a>. Team representatives both contribute to the technical work and help 
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ensure the group's proper integration with the rest of W3C. The <a href="#WGCharter">Working Group charter</a> sets expectations 
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about each group's deliverables (e.g., <a href="#Reports">technical reports</a>, test suites, and tutorials).</li> 
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<li>Working Groups generally create specifications and guidelines that undergo cycles of revision and review as they <a href="#recadvance">advance 
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to W3C Recommendation</a> status. The W3C process for producing these technical reports includes significant review by the 
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Members and public, and requirements that the Working Group be able to show implementation and interoperability experience. At the 
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end of the process, the Advisory Committee reviews the mature technical report, and if there is support, W3C publishes it as a <a 
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href="#RecsW3C">Recommendation</a>.</li> 
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</ol> 
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<p>The Process Document promotes the goals of quality and fairness in technical decisions by encouraging <a href="#Consensus">consensus</a>, 
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requiring reviews (by both Members and public) as part of the <a href="#Reports">technical report development process</a>, and 
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through an <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal process</a> for the Advisory Committee.</p> 
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<p>The other sections of the Process Document:</p> 
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<ol> 
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<li>set forth <a href="#Policies">policies</a> for participation in W3C groups,</li> 
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<li>establish two permanent groups within W3C: the <a href="#TAG">Technical Architecture Group (TAG)</a>, to help resolve 
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Consortiumwide technical issues; and the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board (AB)</a>, to help resolve Consortiumwide nontechnical 
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issues, and to manage the <a href="#GAProcess">evolution of the W3C process</a>, and</li> 
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<li>describe other interactions between the <a href="#Members">Members</a> (as represented by the <a href="#AC">W3C Advisory 
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Committee</a>), the Team, and the general public.</li> 
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</ol> 
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<h2 id="Organization">2 Members, Advisory Committee, Team, Advisory Board, Technical Architecture Group</h2> 
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<p>W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its full potential. W3C <a href="#Members">Member</a> organizations provide resources to this 
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end, and the W3C <a href="#Team">Team</a> provides the technical leadership and organization to coordinate the effort.</p> 
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<h3 id="Members">2.1 Members</h3> 
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<p>W3C Members are primarily represented in W3C processes as follows:</p> 
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<ol> 
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<li>The <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a> is composed of one representative from each Member organization (refer to the <a href="#Memberonly">Memberonly</a> 
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list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/ACList">current Advisory Committee representatives</a> [<a href="#refcurrentac">MEM1</a>]). 
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The Advisory Committee: 
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<ul> 
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<li>reviews plans for W3C at each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory Committee meeting</a>;</li> 
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<li>reviews formal proposals from the W3C Director: <a href="#CharterReview">Charter Proposals</a>, <a href="#RecsPR">Proposed 
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Recommendations</a>, and <a href="#GAProcess">Proposed Process Documents</a>.</li> 
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<li>elects the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a> participants other than the Advisory Board Chair.</li> 
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<li>elects 5 of the 9 participants on the <a href="#TAG">Technical Architecture Group</a>.</li> 
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</ul> 
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Advisory Committee representatives have <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> powers for some processes described in this document.</li> 
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<li>Representatives of Member organizations participate in <a href="#GAGeneral">Working Groups and Interest Groups</a> and author 
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and review <a href="#Reports">technical reports</a>.</li> 
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</ol> 
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<p id="MemberSubscription">W3C membership is open to all entities, as described in "<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/join">How to 
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Join W3C</a>" [<a href="#refjoinw3c">PUB5</a>]; (refer to the public list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Member/List">current 
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W3C Members</a> [<a href="#refcurrentmem">PUB8</a>]). Organizations subscribe according to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/MemberAgreement">Membership 
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Agreement</a> [<a href="#refmemberagreement">PUB6</a>]. The <a href="#Team">Team</a> <em class="rfc2119">must</em> ensure that 
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Member participation agreements remain <a href="#Teamonly">Teamonly</a> and that no Member receives preferential treatment within 
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W3C.</p> 
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<p id="IndividualParticipation">W3C does not have a class of membership tailored to, or priced for individuals. However, an individual 
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<em class="rfc2119">may</em> join W3C as an Affiliate Member. In this case the same restrictions pertaining to <a href="#MemberRelated">related 
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Members</a> apply when the individual also <a href="#memberrep">represents</a> another W3C Member.</p> 
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<h4 id="MemberBenefits">2.1.1 Rights of Members</h4> 
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<p>Each Member organization enjoys the following rights and benefits:</p> 
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<ul> 
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<li>A seat on the <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>;</li> 
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<li>Access to <a href="#Memberonly">Memberonly</a> information;</li> 
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<li>The <a href="#Submission">Member Submission</a> process;</li> 
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<li>Use of the W3C Member logo on promotional material and to publicize the Member's participation in W3C. For more information, 
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please refer to the Member logo usage policy described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New Member Orientation</a> 
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[<a href="#refnewmember">MEM4</a>].</li> 
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</ul> 
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<p>Furthermore, representatives of Member organizations participate in W3C as follows:</p> 
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<ul> 
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<li>In <a href="#GAGeneral">Working Groups and Interest Groups</a>.</li> 
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<li>In <a href="#GAEvents">Workshops and Symposia</a>;</li> 
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<li>On the Team, as <a href="#fellows">W3C Fellows</a>.</li> 
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</ul> 
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<p>In the case (described in paragraph 5g of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/MemberAgreement">Membership 
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Agreement</a>), where a Member organization is itself a consortium, user society, or otherwise has members or sponsors, the 
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organization's paid staff and Advisory Committee representative exercise all the rights and privileges of W3C membership. In 
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addition, the Advisory Committee representative <em class="rfc2119">may</em> designate up to four (or more at the Team's 
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discretion) individuals who, though not employed by the organization, <em class="rfc2119">may</em> exercise the rights of <a href="#memberrep">Member 
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representatives</a>. These individuals <em class="rfc2119">must</em> disclose their employment affiliation when participating in 
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W3C work. Provisions for <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a> apply. Furthermore, these individuals are expected to 
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represent the broad interests of the W3C Member organization and not the parochial interests of their employers.</p> 
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<p>The rights and benefits of W3C membership are contingent upon conformance to the processes described in this document. The vast 
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majority of W3C Members faithfully follow the spirit as well as the letter of these processes. When serious and/or repeated 
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violations do occur, and repeated attempts to address these violations have not resolved the situation, the Director <em class="rfc2119">may</em> 
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take disciplinary action. Arbitration in the case of further disagreement is governed by paragraph 19 of the Membership Agreement. 
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Refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/09/discipline">Guidelines for Disciplinary Action</a> [<a href="#refdisciplinegl">MEM14</a>].</p> 
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<h4 id="MemberRelated">2.1.2 Related Members</h4> 
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<p>In the interest of ensuring the integrity of the consensus process, Member involvement in some of the processes in this document is 
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affected by related Member status. As used herein, two Members are related if:</p> 
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<ol> 
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<li>Either Member is a subsidiary of the other, or</li> 
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<li>Both Members are subsidiaries of a common entity, or</li> 
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<li>The Members have an employment contract or consulting contract that affects W3C participation.</li> 
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</ol> 
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<p>A <em>subsidiary</em> is an organization of which effective control and/or majority ownership rests with another, single 
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organization.</p> 
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<p>Related Members <em class="rfc2119">must</em> disclose these relationships according to the mechanisms described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New 
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Member Orientation</a> [<a href="#refnewmember">MEM4</a>].</p> 
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<h4 id="AC">2.1.3 Advisory Committee (AC)</h4> 
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<p>When an organization joins W3C (see "<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/join">How to Join W3C</a>" [<a href="#refjoinw3c">PUB5</a>]), 
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it <em class="rfc2119">must</em> name its Advisory Committee representative as part of the Membership Agreement. The <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New 
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Member Orientation</a> explains how to subscribe or unsubscribe to Advisory Committee mailing lists, provides information about 
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Advisory Committee meetings, explains how to name a new Advisory Committee representative, and more. Advisory Committee 
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representatives <em class="rfc2119">must</em> follow the <a href="#coi">conflict of interest policy</a> by disclosing information 
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according to the mechanisms described in the New Member Orientation. See also the additional roles of Advisory Committee 
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representatives described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p> 
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<p>Additional information for Members is available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/">Member Web site</a> [<a href="#refmemberweb">MEM6</a>].</p> 
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<h5 id="ACCommunication">2.1.3.1 Advisory Committee Mailing Lists</h5> 
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<p>The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> provide two mailing lists for use by the Advisory Committee:</p> 
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<ol> 
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<li>One for official announcements (e.g., those required by this document) from the Team to the Advisory Committee. This list is 
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405 
readonly for Advisory Committee representatives.</li> 
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<li>One for discussion among Advisory Committee representatives. Though this list is primarily for Advisory Committee 
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representatives, the Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> monitor discussion and <em class="rfc2119">should</em> participate in 
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discussion when appropriate. Ongoing detailed discussions <em class="rfc2119">should</em> be moved to other appropriate lists 
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(new or existing, such as a mailing list created for a <a href="#GAEvents">Workshop</a>).</li> 
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</ol> 
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<p>An Advisory Committee representative <em class="rfc2119">may</em> request that additional individuals from their organization be 
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subscribed to these lists. Failure to contain distribution internally <em class="rfc2119">may</em> result in suspension of 
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additional email addresses, at the discretion of the Team.</p> 
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<h5 id="ACMeetings">2.1.3.2 Advisory Committee Meetings</h5> 
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<p>The Team organizes a <a href="#ftfmeeting">facetoface meeting</a> for the Advisory Committee <span class="timeinterval">twice 
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a year</span>. The Team appoints the Chair of these meetings (generally the <a href="#defW3CChair">CEO</a>). At each Advisory 
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Committee meeting, the Team <em class="rfc2119">should</em> provide an update to the Advisory Committee about:</p> 
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<dl> 
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<dt><em>Resources</em></dt> 
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<dd> 
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<ul> 
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<li>The number of Full and Affiliate W3C Members.</li> 
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<li>An overview of the financial status of W3C.</li> 
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</ul> 
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</dd> 
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<dt><em>Allocations</em></dt> 
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<dd> 
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<ul> 
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<li>The allocation of the annual budget, including size of the Team and their approximate deployment.</li> 
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<li>A list of all activities (including but not limited to Working and Interest Groups) and brief status statement about each, 
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in particular those started or terminated since the previous Advisory Committee meeting.</li> 
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<li>The allocation of resources to pursuing <a href="#Liaisons">liaisons</a> with other organizations.</li> 
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</ul> 
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</dd> 
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</dl> 
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<p>Each Member organization <em class="rfc2119">should</em> send one <a href="#memberrep">representative</a> to each Advisory 
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Committee meeting. In exceptional circumstances (e.g., during a period of transition between representatives from an organization), 
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the meeting Chair <em class="rfc2119">may</em> allow a Member organization to send two representatives to a meeting.</p> 
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<p>The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> announce the date and location of each Advisory Committee meeting no later than at the end 
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of the previous meeting; <span class="timeinterval">one year's</span> notice is preferred. The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> 
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announce the region of each Advisory Committee meeting at least <span class="timeinterval">one year</span> in advance.</p> 
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<p>More information about <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Meeting/">Advisory Committee meetings</a> [<a href="#refacmeetings">MEM5</a>] 
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is available at the Member Web site.</p> 
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<h3 id="Team">2.2 The W3C Team</h3> 
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<p>The Team consists of the Director, CEO, W3C paid staff, unpaid interns, and W3C Fellows. <dfn id="fellows">W3C Fellows</dfn> are 
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Member employees working as part of the Team; see the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Recruitment/Fellows">W3C Fellows 
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Program</a> [<a href="#reffellows">PUB32</a>]. The Team provides technical leadership about Web technologies, organizes and 
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manages W3C activities to reach goals within practical constraints (such as resources available), and communicates with the Members 
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and the public about the Web and W3C technologies.</p> 
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<p>The Director and CEO <em class="rfc2119">may</em> delegate responsibility (generally to other individuals in the Team) for any of 
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451 
their roles described in this document.</p> 
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<p>The <dfn id="defDirector">Director</dfn> is the lead technical architect at W3C. His responsibilities are identified throughout 
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this document in relevant places Some key ones include: assessing <a href="#defConsensus" id="DirectorDecision">consensus</a> 
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within W3C for architectural choices, publication of <a href="#Reports">technical reports</a>, and chartering new Groups; 
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455 
appointing group <a href="#GeneralChairs">Chairs</a>; "tiebreaker" for <a href="#WGAppeals">appeal of a Working Group decision</a> 
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456 
and deciding on the outcome of formal objections; the Director is generally Chair of the <a href="#TAG">TAG</a>.</p> 
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<p>Team administrative information such as Team salaries, detailed budgeting, and other business decisions are <a href="#Teamonly">Teamonly</a>, 
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458 
subject to oversight by the Host institutions.</p> 
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<p><strong>Note:</strong> W3C is not currently incorporated. For legal contracts, W3C is represented by four <dfn id="hosts">"Host" 
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institutions</dfn>: Beihang University, the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics (<abbr>ERCIM</abbr>), 
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Keio University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (<abbr>MIT</abbr>). Within W3C, the Host institutions are governed by 
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462 
hosting agreements; the Hosts themselves are not W3C Members.</p> 
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<h4 id="TeamSubmission">2.2.1 Team Submissions</h4> 
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<p>Team members <em class="rfc2119">may</em> request that the Director publish information at the W3C Web site. At the Director's 
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465 
discretion, these documents are published as "Team Submissions". These documents are analogous to <a href="#Submission">Member 
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466 
Submissions</a> (e.g., in <a href="#SubmissionScope">expected scope</a>). However, there is no additional Team comment. The <a href="#DocumentStatus">document 
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status section</a> of a Team Submission indicates the level of Team consensus about the published material.</p> 
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<p>Team Submissions are <strong>not</strong> part of the <a href="#Reports">technical report development process</a>.</p> 
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<p>The list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/">published Team Submissions</a> [<a href="#refteamsubmissionlist">PUB16</a>] 
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470 
is available at the W3C Web site.</p> 
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471 
<h3 id="AB">2.3 Advisory Board (AB)</h3> 
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<p>Created in March 1998, the Advisory Board provides ongoing guidance to the Team on issues of strategy, management, legal matters, 
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473 
process, and conflict resolution. The Advisory Board also serves the Members by tracking issues raised between Advisory Committee 
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474 
meetings, soliciting Member comments on such issues, and proposing actions to resolve these issues. The Advisory Board manages the <a 
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475 
href="#GAProcess">evolution of the Process Document</a>. The Advisory Board hears appeals of <a href="#SubmissionNo">Member 
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476 
Submission requests</a> that are rejected for reasons unrelated to Web architecture; see also the <a href="#TAG">TAG</a>.</p> 
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477 
<p>The Advisory Board is <strong>not</strong> a board of directors and has no decisionmaking authority within W3C; its role is 
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478 
strictly advisory.</p> 
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479 
<p>The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> make available a mailing list for the Advisory Board to use for its communication, 
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480 
confidential to the Advisory Board and Team.</p> 
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481 
<p>The Advisory Board <em class="rfc2119">should</em> send a summary of each of its meetings to the Advisory Committee and other 
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482 
group Chairs. The Advisory Board <em class="rfc2119">should</em> also report on its activities at each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory 
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483 
Committee meeting</a>.</p> 
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484 
<p>Details about the Advisory Board (e.g., the list of Advisory Board participants, mailing list information, and summaries of 
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485 
Advisory Board meetings) are available at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/ab/">Advisory Board home page</a> [<a href="#refabhome">PUB30</a>].</p> 
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486 
<h4 id="ABParticipation">2.3.1 Advisory Board Participation</h4> 
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487 
<p>The Advisory Board consists of nine elected participants and a Chair. The Team appoints the Chair of the <a href="#AB">Advisory 
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488 
Board</a>, who is generally the <a href="#defW3CChair">CEO</a>.</p> 
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489 
<p>The remaining nine Advisory Board participants are elected by the W3C Advisory Committee following the <a href="#ABTAGelections">AB/TAG 
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490 
nomination and election process</a>.</p> 
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491 
<p>With the exception of the Chair, the terms of all Advisory Board participants are for <span class="timeinterval">two years</span>. 
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492 
Terms are staggered so that each year, either four or five terms expire. If an individual is elected to fill an incomplete term, 
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493 
that individual's term ends at the normal expiration date of that term. Regular Advisory Board terms begin on 1 July and end on 30 
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494 
June.</p> 
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495 
<h3 id="TAG">2.4 Technical Architecture Group (TAG)</h3> 
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496 
<p>Created in February 2001, the mission of the TAG is stewardship of the Web architecture. There are three aspects to this mission:</p> 
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497 
<ol> 
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498 
<li>to document and build consensus around principles of Web architecture and to interpret and clarify these principles when 
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499 
necessary;</li> 
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500 
<li>to resolve issues involving general Web architecture brought to the TAG;</li> 
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501 
<li>to help coordinate crosstechnology architecture developments inside and outside W3C.</li> 
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502 
</ol> 
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503 
<p>The TAG hears appeals of <a href="#SubmissionNo">Member Submission requests</a> that are rejected for reasons related to Web 
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504 
architecture; see also the <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>.</p> 
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505 
<p>The TAG's scope is limited to technical issues about Web architecture. The TAG <em class="rfc2119">should not</em> consider 
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506 
administrative, process, or organizational policy issues of W3C, which are generally addressed by the W3C Advisory Committee, 
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507 
Advisory Board, and Team. Please refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/07/19tag">TAG charter</a> [<a href="#reftagcharter">PUB25</a>] 
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508 
for more information about the background and scope of the TAG, and the expected qualifications of TAG participants.</p> 
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<p>The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> make available two mailing lists for the TAG:</p> 
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510 
<ul> 
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511 
<li>a public discussion (not just input) list for issues of Web architecture. The TAG will conduct its public business on this list.</li> 
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512 
<li>a <a href="#Memberonly">Memberonly</a> list for discussions within the TAG and for requests to the TAG that, for whatever 
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513 
reason, cannot be made on the public list.</li> 
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514 
</ul> 
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515 
<p>The TAG <em class="rfc2119">may</em> also request the creation of additional topicspecific, public mailing lists. For some TAG 
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516 
discussions (e.g., an appeal of a <a href="#SubmissionNo">rejected Member Submission request</a>), the TAG <em class="rfc2119">may</em> 
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517 
use a list that will be <a href="#Memberonly">Memberonly</a>.</p> 
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518 
<p>The TAG <em class="rfc2119">should</em> send a summary of each of its <a href="#GeneralMeetings">meetings</a> to the Advisory 
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519 
Committee and other group Chairs. The TAG <em class="rfc2119">should</em> also report on its activities at each <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory 
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520 
Committee meeting</a>.</p> 
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521 
<p>When the TAG votes to resolve an issue, each TAG participant (whether appointed, elected, or the Chair) has one vote; see also the 
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522 
section on <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/07/19tag#Voting">voting in the TAG charter</a> [<a href="#reftagcharter">PUB25</a>] 
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523 
and the general section on <a href="#Votes">votes</a> in this Process Document.</p> 
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524 
<p>Details about the TAG (e.g., the list of TAG participants, mailing list information, and summaries of TAG meetings) are available 
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525 
at the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/">TAG home page</a> [<a href="#reftaghome">PUB26</a>].</p> 
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526 
<h4 id="tagparticipation">2.4.1 Technical Architecture Group Participation</h4> 
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527 
<p>The TAG consists of eight elected or appointed participants and a Chair. The Team appoints the Chair of the TAG, who is generally 
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528 
the <a href="#defDirector">Director</a>.</p> 
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529 
<p>Three TAG participants are appointed by the Director. Appointees are <em class="rfc2119">not required</em> to be on the W3C Team. 
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530 
The Director <em class="rfc2119">may</em> appoint <a href="#fellows">W3C Fellows</a> to the TAG.</p> 
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531 
<p>The remaining five TAG participants are elected by the W3C Advisory Committee following the <a href="#ABTAGelections">AB/TAG 
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532 
nomination and election process</a>.</p> 
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533 
<p>With the exception of the Chair, the terms of all TAG participants are for <span class="timeinterval">two years</span>. Terms are 
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534 
staggered so that each year, either two or three elected terms, and either one or two appointed terms expire. If an individual is 
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535 
appointed or elected to fill an incomplete term, that individual's term ends at the normal expiration date of that term. Regular TAG 
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536 
terms begin on 1 February and end on 31 January.</p> 
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537 
<h3 id="ABTAGparticipation">2.5 Advisory Board and Technical Architecture Group Participation</h3> 
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538 
<p>Advisory Board and TAG participants have a special role within W3C: they are elected by the Membership and appointed by the 
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539 
Director with the expectation that they will use their best judgment to find the best solutions for the Web, not just for any 
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540 
particular network, technology, vendor, or user. Advisory Board and TAG participants are expected to participate regularly and 
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541 
fully. Advisory Board and TAG participants <em class="rfc2119">should</em> attend <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory Committee 
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542 
meetings</a>.</p> 
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543 
<p>An individual participates on the Advisory Board or TAG from the moment the individual's term begins until the term ends or the 
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544 
seat is <a href="#ABTAGvacated">vacated</a>. Although Advisory Board and TAG participants do not advocate for the commercial 
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545 
interests of their employers, their participation does carry the responsibilities associated with Member representation, Invited 
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546 
Expert status, or Team representation (as described in the section on the <a href="#ABTAGelections">AB/TAG nomination and 
141
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547 
election process</a>). See also the licensing obligations on TAG participants in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secObligations">section 
140
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548 
3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>], 
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549 
and the claim exclusion process of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secExclusion">section 4</a>.</p> 
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550 
<h4 id="ABTAGconstraints">2.5.1 Advisory Board and Technical Architecture Group Participation Constraints</h4> 
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551 
<p>Given the few seats available on the Advisory Board and the TAG, and in order to ensure that the diversity of W3C Members is 
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552 
represented:</p> 
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553 
<ul> 
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554 
<li>A Member organization is permitted at most one participant on the TAG except when having more than one participant is caused by 
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555 
a change of affiliation of an existing participant. At the completion of the next regularly scheduled election for the TAG, the 
142  556 
Member organization <em class="rfc2119">must</em> have returned to having at most one participant.</li> 
140
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557 
<li>A Member organization is permitted at most one participant on the AB.</li> 
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558 
<li>An individual <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> participate on both the TAG and the AB.</li> 
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559 
</ul> 
142  560 
<p>If, for whatever reason, these constraints are not satisfied (e.g., because an AB participant changes jobs), one participant <em class="rfc2119">must</em> 
561 
cease AB participation until the situation has been resolved. If after <span class="timeinterval">30 days</span> the situation has 

562 
not been resolved, the Chair will declare one participant's seat to be vacant. When more than one individual is involved, the <a href="#random">verifiable 

563 
random selection procedure</a> described below will be used to choose one person for continued participation.</p> 

140
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564 
<h4 id="ABTAGelections">2.5.2 Advisory Board and Technical Architecture Group Elections</h4> 
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565 
<p>The Advisory Board and a portion of the Technical Architecture Group are elected by the Advisory Committee. An election begins when 
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566 
the Team sends a Call for Nominations to the Advisory Committee. Any Call for Nominations specifies the number of available seats, 
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567 
the deadline for nominations, and the address where nominations are sent. The Director <em class="rfc2119">should</em> announce 
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568 
appointments no later than the start of a nomination period, and generally as part of the Call for Nominations.</p> 
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569 
<p>Each Member (or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a>) <em class="rfc2119">may</em> nominate one individual. A 
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570 
nomination <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be made with the consent of the nominee. In order for an individual to be nominated as a 
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571 
Member representative, the individual <em class="rfc2119">must</em> qualify for <a href="#memberrep">Member representation</a> 
141
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572 
and the Member's Advisory Committee representative <em class="rfc2119">must</em> include in the nomination the (same) <a href="#memberrepinfo">information 
140
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573 
required for a Member representative in a Working Group</a>. In order for an individual to be nominated as an Invited Expert, the 
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574 
individual <em class="rfc2119">must</em> provide the (same) <a href="#invexpertinfo">information required for an Invited Expert 
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575 
in a Working Group</a> and the nominating Advisory Committee representative <em class="rfc2119">must</em> include that 
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576 
information in the nomination. In order for an individual to be nominated as a Team representative, the nominating Advisory 
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577 
Committee representative <em class="rfc2119">must</em> first secure approval from Team management. A nominee is <em class="rfc2119">not 
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578 
required</em> to be an employee of a Member organization, and <em class="rfc2119">may</em> be a <a href="#fellows">W3C Fellow</a>. 
140
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579 
Each nomination <em class="rfc2119">should</em> include a few informative paragraphs about the nominee.</p> 
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580 
<p>If, after the deadline for nominations, the number of nominees is:</p> 
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581 
<ul> 
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582 
<li>Equal to the number of available seats, those nominees are thereby elected. This situation constitutes a tie for the purposes of 
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583 
assigning <a href="#shortterm">short terms</a>.</li> 
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584 
<li>Less than the number of available seats, Calls for Nominations are issued until a sufficient number of people have been 
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585 
nominated. Those already nominated do not need to be renominated after a renewed call.</li> 
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586 
<li>Greater than the number of available seats, the Team issues a Call for Votes that includes the names of all candidates, the 
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587 
number of available seats, the deadline for votes, and the address where votes are sent.</li> 
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588 
</ul> 
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589 
<p>When there is a vote, each Member (or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a>) <em class="rfc2119">may</em> vote 
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590 
for as many candidates as there are available seats; see the section on <a href="#ACVotes">Advisory Committee votes</a>. Once the 
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591 
deadline for votes has passed, the Team announces the results to the Advisory Committee. The candidates with the most votes are 
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592 
elected to the available seats. In case of a tie where there are more apparent winners than available seats (e.g., three candidates 
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593 
receive 10 votes each for two seats), the <a href="#random">verifiable random selection procedure</a> described below will be used 
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594 
to fill the available seats.</p> 
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595 
<p id="shortterm">The shortest term is assigned to the elected individual who received the fewest votes, the next shortest to the 
141
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596 
elected individual who received the next fewest, and so on. In the case of a tie among those eligible for a short term, the <a href="#random">verifiable 
140
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597 
random selection procedure</a> described below will be used to assign the short term.</p> 
141
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598 
<p>Refer to <a href="http://www.w3.org/2002/10/electionhowto">How to Organize an Advisory Board or TAG election</a> [<a href="#refelectionhowto">MEM15</a>] 
140
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599 
for more details.</p> 
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600 
<h5 id="random">2.5.2.1 Verifiable Random Selection Procedure</h5> 
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601 
<p>When it is necessary to use a verifiable random selection process (e.g., in an AB or TAG election, to "draw straws" in case of a 
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602 
tie or to fill a short term), W3C uses the random and verifiable procedure defined in <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2777.txt">RFC 
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603 
2777</a> [<a href="#refRFC2777">RFC2777</a>]. The procedure orders an input list of names (listed in alphabetical order by family 
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604 
name unless otherwise specified) into a "result order."</p> 
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605 
<p>W3C applies this procedure as follows:</p> 
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606 
<ol> 
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607 
<li>When N people have tied for M (less than N) seats. In this case, only the names of the N individuals who tied are provided as 
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608 
input to the procedure. The M seats are assigned in result order.</li> 
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609 
<li>After all elected individuals have been identified, when N people are eligible for M (less than N) short terms. In this case, 
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610 
only the names of those N individuals are provided as input to the procedure. The short terms are assigned in result order.</li> 
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611 
</ol> 
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612 
<h4 id="ABTAGvacated">2.5.3 Advisory Board and Technical Architecture Group Vacated Seats</h4> 
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613 
<p>An Advisory Board or TAG participant's seat is vacated when either of the following occurs:</p> 
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614 
<ul> 
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615 
<li>the participant <a href="#resignation">resigns</a>, or</li> 
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616 
<li>the Chair asks the participant to <a href="#resignation">resign</a>.</li> 
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617 
</ul> 
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618 
<p>When an Advisory Board or TAG participant changes affiliations, as long as <a href="#ABTAGconstraints">Advisory Board and TAG 
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619 
participation constraints</a> are respected, the individual <em class="rfc2119">may</em> continue to participate until the next 
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620 
regularly scheduled election for that group. Otherwise, the seat is vacated.</p> 
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621 
<p>Vacated seats are filled according to this schedule:</p> 
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622 
<ul> 
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623 
<li>When an appointed TAG seat is vacated, the Director <em class="rfc2119">may</em> reappoint someone immediately, but no later 
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624 
than the next regularly scheduled election.</li> 
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625 
<li>When an elected seat on either the AB or TAG is vacated, the seat is filled at the next regularly scheduled election for the 
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626 
group unless the group Chair requests that W3C hold an election before then (for instance, due to the group's workload). The group 
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627 
Chair <em class="rfc2119">should not</em> request an exceptional election if the next regularly scheduled election is fewer than 
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628 
three months away.</li> 
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629 
</ul> 
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630 
<h2 id="Policies">3 General Policies for W3C Groups</h2> 
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631 
<p>This section describes general policies for W3C groups regarding participation, meeting requirements, and decisionmaking. These 
141
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632 
policies apply to <span id="participant">participants</span> in the following groups: <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a>, <a href="#ABParticipation">Advisory 
140
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633 
Board</a>, <a href="#tagparticipation">TAG</a>, <a href="#wgparticipant">Working Groups</a>, and <a href="#igparticipant">Interest 
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634 
Groups</a>.</p> 
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635 
<h3 id="ParticipationCriteria">3.1 Individual Participation Criteria</h3> 
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636 
<p>There are three qualities an individual is expected to demonstrate in order to participate in W3C:</p> 
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637 
<ol> 
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638 
<li>Technical competence in one's role</li> 
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639 
<li>The ability to act fairly</li> 
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640 
<li>Social competence in one's role</li> 
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641 
</ol> 
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642 
<p>Advisory Committee representatives who nominate individuals from their organization for participation in W3C activities are 
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643 
responsible for assessing and attesting to the qualities of those nominees.</p> 
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644 
<p>See also the participation requirements described in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secDisclosure">section 6</a> 
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645 
of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p> 
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646 
<h4 id="coi">3.1.1 Conflict of Interest Policy</h4> 
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647 
<p>Individuals participating materially in W3C work <em class="rfc2119">must</em> disclose significant relationships when those 
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648 
relationships might reasonably be perceived as creating a conflict of interest with the individual's role at W3C. These disclosures 
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649 
<em class="rfc2119">must</em> be kept uptodate as the individual's affiliations change and W3C membership evolves (since, for 
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650 
example, the individual might have a relationship with an organization that joins or leaves W3C). Each section in this document that 
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651 
describes a W3C group provides more detail about the disclosure mechanisms for that group.</p> 
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652 
<p>The ability of an individual to fulfill a role within a group without risking a conflict of interest is clearly a function of the 
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653 
individual's affiliations. When these affiliations change, the individual's assignment to the role <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be 
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654 
evaluated. The role <em class="rfc2119">may</em> be reassigned according to the appropriate process. For instance, the Director <em 
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655 
class="rfc2119">may</em> appoint a new group Chair when the current Chair changes affiliations (e.g., if there is a risk of 
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656 
conflict of interest, or if there is risk that the Chair's new employer will be overrepresented within a W3C activity).</p> 
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657 
<p>The following are some scenarios where disclosure is appropriate:</p> 
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658 
<ul> 
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659 
<li>Paid consulting for an organization whose activity is relevant to W3C, or any consulting compensated with equity (shares of 
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660 
stock, stock options, or other forms of corporate equity).</li> 
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661 
<li>A decisionmaking role/responsibility (such as participating on the Board) in other organizations relevant to W3C.</li> 
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662 
<li>A position on a publicly visible advisory body, even if no decision making authority is involved.</li> 
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663 
</ul> 
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664 
<p>Individuals seeking assistance on these matters <em class="rfc2119">should</em> contact the Team.</p> 
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665 
<p>Team members are subject to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/06conflictpolicy">W3C Team conflict of interest policy</a> [<a 
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666 
href="#refcoi">PUB23</a>].</p> 
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667 
<h4 id="memberrep">3.1.2 Individuals Representing a Member Organization</h4> 
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668 
<p>Generally, individuals representing a Member in an official capacity within W3C are employees of the Member organization. However, 
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669 
an Advisory Committee representative <em class="rfc2119">may</em> designate a nonemployee to represent the Member. Nonemployee 
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670 
Member representatives <em class="rfc2119">must</em> disclose relevant affiliations to the Team and to any group in which the 
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671 
individual participates.</p> 
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672 
<p>In exceptional circumstances (e.g., situations that might jeopardize the progress of a group or create a <a href="#coi">conflict 
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673 
of interest</a>), the <a href="#defDirector">Director</a> <em class="rfc2119">may</em> decline to allow an individual 
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674 
designated by an Advisory Committee representative to participate in a group.</p> 
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675 
<p>A group charter <em class="rfc2119">may</em> limit the number of individuals representing a W3C Member (or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related 
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676 
Members</a>).</p> 
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677 
<h3 id="GeneralMeetings">3.2 Meetings</h3> 
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678 
<p>W3C groups (including the <a href="#ACMeetings">Advisory Committee</a>, <a href="#AB">Advisory Board</a>, <a href="#TAG">TAG</a>, 
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679 
and <a href="#GroupsWG">Working Groups</a>) <em class="rfc2119">should</em> observe the meeting requirements in this section.</p> 
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680 
<p>W3C distinguishes two types of meetings:</p> 
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681 
<ol> 
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682 
<li>A <dfn id="ftfmeeting">facetoface meeting</dfn> is one where most of the attendees are expected to participate in the same 
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683 
physical location.</li> 
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684 
<li>A <dfn id="distributedmeeting">distributed meeting</dfn> is one where most of the attendees are expected to participate from 
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685 
remote locations (e.g., by telephone, video conferencing, or <abbr title="Internet Relay Chat">IRC</abbr>).</li> 
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686 
</ol> 
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687 
<p>A Chair <em class="rfc2119">may</em> invite an individual with a particular expertise to attend a meeting on an exceptional basis. 
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688 
This person is a meeting guest, not a group <a href="#participant">participant</a>. Meeting guests do not have <a href="#Votes">voting 
139  689 
rights</a>. It is the responsibility of the Chair to ensure that all meeting guests respect the chartered <a href="#confidentialitylevels">level 
140
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690 
of confidentiality</a> and other group requirements.</p> 
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691 
<p>Meeting announcements <em class="rfc2119">should</em> be sent to all appropriate group mailing lists, i.e., those most relevant to 
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692 
the anticipated meeting participants.</p> 
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693 
<p>The following table lists requirements for organizing a meeting:</p> 
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694 
<table border="1"> 
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695 
<tbody> 
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696 
<tr> 
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697 
<th><br> 
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698 
</th> 
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699 
<th>Facetoface meetings</th> 
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700 
<th>Distributed meetings</th> 
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701 
</tr> 
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702 
<tr> 
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703 
<th>Meeting announcement (before)</th> 
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704 
<td><span class="timeinterval">eight weeks<sup>*</sup></span></td> 
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705 
<td><span class="timeinterval">one week<sup>*</sup></span></td> 
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706 
</tr> 
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diff
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707 
<tr> 
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708 
<th>Agenda available (before)</th> 
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709 
<td><span class="timeinterval">two weeks</span></td> 
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710 
<td><span class="timeinterval">24 hours</span> (or longer if a meeting is scheduled after a weekend or holiday)</td> 
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711 
</tr> 
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712 
<tr> 
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713 
<th>Participation confirmed (before)</th> 
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714 
<td><span class="timeinterval">three days</span></td> 
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715 
<td><span class="timeinterval">24 hours</span></td> 
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716 
</tr> 
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diff
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717 
<tr> 
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718 
<th>Action items available (after)</th> 
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719 
<td><span class="timeinterval">three days</span></td> 
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720 
<td><span class="timeinterval">24 hours</span></td> 
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721 
</tr> 
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722 
<tr> 
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723 
<th>Minutes available (after)</th> 
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724 
<td><span class="timeinterval">two weeks</span></td> 
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725 
<td><span class="timeinterval">48 hours</span></td> 
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726 
</tr> 
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727 
</tbody> 
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728 
</table> 
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729 
<p><sup>*</sup> To allow proper planning (e.g., travel arrangements), the Chair is responsible for giving sufficient advance notice 
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730 
about the date and location of a meeting. Shorter notice for a meeting is allowed provided that there are no objections from group 
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731 
participants.</p> 
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732 
<h3 id="Consensus">3.3 Consensus</h3> 
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733 
<p>Consensus is a core value of W3C. To promote consensus, the W3C process requires Chairs to ensure that groups consider all 
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734 
legitimate views and objections, and endeavor to resolve them, whether these views and objections are expressed by the active 
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735 
participants of the group or by others (e.g., another W3C group, a group in another organization, or the general public). Decisions 
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736 
<em class="rfc2119">may</em> be made during meetings (<a href="#ftfmeeting">facetoface</a> or <a href="#distributedmeeting">distributed</a>) 
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737 
as well as through email. <strong>Note:</strong> The Director, CEO, and COO have the role of assessing consensus within the 
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738 
Advisory Committee.</p> 
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739 
<p>The following terms are used in this document to describe the level of support for a decision among a set of eligible individuals:</p> 
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740 
<ol> 
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741 
<li><dfn id="defConsensus">Consensus</dfn>: A substantial number of individuals in the set support the decision and nobody in the 
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742 
set registers a <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>. Individuals in the set may abstain. Abstention is either an 
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743 
explicit expression of no opinion or silence by an individual in the set. <dfn id="defUnanimity">Unanimity</dfn> is the 
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744 
particular case of consensus where all individuals in the set support the decision (i.e., no individual in the set abstains).</li> 
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745 
<li><dfn id="defDissent">Dissent</dfn>: At least one individual in the set registers a <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objection</a>.</li> 
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746 
</ol> 
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747 
<p>By default, the set of individuals eligible to participate in a decision is the set of group participants. The Process Document 
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748 
does not require a quorum for decisions (i.e., the minimal number of eligible participants required to be present before the Chair 
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749 
can call a question). A charter <em class="rfc2119">may</em> include a quorum requirement for consensus decisions.</p> 
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750 
<p>Where unanimity is not possible, a group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> strive to make consensus decisions where there is 
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751 
significant support and few abstentions. The Process Document does not require a particular percentage of eligible participants to 
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752 
agree to a motion in order for a decision to be made. To avoid decisions where there is widespread apathy, (i.e., little support and 
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753 
many abstentions), groups <em class="rfc2119">should</em> set minimum thresholds of active support before a decision can be 
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754 
recorded. The appropriate percentage <em class="rfc2119">may</em> vary depending on the size of the group and the nature of the 
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755 
decision. A charter <em class="rfc2119">may</em> include threshold requirements for consensus decisions. For instance, a charter 
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756 
might require a supermajority of eligible participants (i.e., some established percentage above 50%) to support certain types of 
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757 
consensus decisions.</p> 
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758 
<h4 id="managingdissent">3.3.1 Managing Dissent</h4> 
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759 
<p>In some cases, even after careful consideration of all points of view, a group might find itself unable to reach consensus. The 
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760 
Chair <em class="rfc2119">may</em> record a decision where there is dissent (i.e., there is at least one <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal 
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761 
Objection</a>) so that the group may make progress (for example, to produce a deliverable in a timely manner). Dissenters cannot 
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762 
stop a group's work simply by saying that they cannot live with a decision. When the Chair believes that the Group has duly 
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763 
considered the legitimate concerns of dissenters as far as is possible and reasonable, the group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> 
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764 
move on.</p> 
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765 
<p>Groups <em class="rfc2119">should</em> favor proposals that create the weakest objections. This is preferred over proposals that 
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766 
are supported by a large majority but that cause strong objections from a few people. As part of making a decision where there is 
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767 
dissent, the Chair is expected to be aware of which participants work for the same (or <a href="#MemberRelated">related</a>) Member 
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768 
organizations and weigh their input accordingly.</p> 
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769 
<h4 id="WGArchiveMinorityViews">3.3.2 Recording and Reporting Formal Objections</h4> 
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770 
<p>In the W3C process, an individual may register a Formal Objection to a decision. A <dfn id="FormalObjection">Formal Objection</dfn> 
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771 
to a group decision is one that the reviewer requests that the Director consider as part of evaluating the related decision (e.g., 
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772 
in response to a <a href="#recadvance">request to advance</a> a technical report). <strong>Note:</strong> In this document, the 
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773 
term "Formal Objection" is used to emphasize this process implication: Formal Objections receive Director consideration. The word 
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774 
"objection" used alone has ordinary English connotations.</p> 
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775 
<p>An individual who registers a Formal Objection <em class="rfc2119">should</em> cite technical arguments and propose changes that 
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776 
would remove the Formal Objection; these proposals <em class="rfc2119">may</em> be vague or incomplete. Formal Objections that do 
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777 
not provide substantive arguments or rationale are unlikely to receive serious consideration by the Director.</p> 
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778 
<p>A record of each Formal Objection <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be <a href="#confidentialitychange">publicly available</a>. A 
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779 
Call for Review (of a document) to the Advisory Committee <em class="rfc2119">must</em> identify any Formal Objections.</p> 
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780 
<h4 id="formaladdress">3.3.3 Formally Addressing an Issue</h4> 
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781 
<p>In the context of this document, a group has formally addressed an issue when it has sent a public, substantive response to the 
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782 
reviewer who raised the issue. A substantive response is expected to include rationale for decisions (e.g., a technical explanation, 
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783 
a pointer to charter scope, or a pointer to a requirements document). The adequacy of a response is measured against what a W3C 
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784 
reviewer would generally consider to be technically sound. If a group believes that a reviewer's comments result from a 
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785 
misunderstanding, the group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> seek clarification before reaching a decision.</p> 
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786 
<p>As a courtesy, both Chairs and reviewers <em class="rfc2119">should</em> set expectations for the schedule of responses and 
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787 
acknowledgments. The group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> reply to a reviewer's initial comments in a timely manner. The group <em 
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788 
class="rfc2119">should</em> set a time limit for acknowledgment by a reviewer of the group's substantive response; a reviewer 
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789 
cannot block a group's progress. It is common for a reviewer to require a week or more to acknowledge and comment on a substantive 
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790 
response. The group's responsibility to respond to reviewers does not end once a reasonable amount of time has elapsed. However, 
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791 
reviewers <em class="rfc2119">should</em> realize that their comments will carry less weight if not sent to the group in a timely 
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792 
manner.</p> 
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793 
<p>Substantive responses <em class="rfc2119">should</em> be recorded. The group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> maintain an accurate 
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794 
summary of all substantive issues and responses to them (e.g., in the form of an issues list with links to mailing list archives).</p> 
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795 
<h4 id="WGChairReopen">3.3.4 Reopening a Decision When Presented With New Information</h4> 
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796 
<p>The Chair <em class="rfc2119">may</em> reopen a decision when presented with new information, including:</p> 
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797 
<ul> 
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798 
<li>additional technical information,</li> 
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799 
<li>comments by email from participants who were unable to attend a scheduled meeting,</li> 
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800 
<li>comments by email from meeting attendees who chose not to speak out during a meeting (e.g., so they could confer later with 
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801 
colleagues or for cultural reasons).</li> 
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802 
</ul> 
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803 
<p>The Chair <em class="rfc2119">should</em> record that a decision has been reopened, and <em class="rfc2119">must</em> do so upon 
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804 
request from a group participant.</p> 
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805 
<h3 id="Votes">3.4 Votes</h3> 
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806 
<p>A group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> only conduct a vote to resolve a <em>substantive issue</em> after the Chair has 
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807 
determined that all available means of <a href="#Consensus">reaching consensus</a> through technical discussion and compromise have 
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808 
failed, and that a vote is necessary to break a deadlock. In this case the Chair <em class="rfc2119">must</em> record (e.g., in the 
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809 
minutes of the meeting or in an archived email message):</p> 
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810 
<ul> 
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811 
<li>an explanation of the issue being voted on;</li> 
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812 
<li>the decision to conduct a vote (e.g., a simple majority vote) to resolve the issue;</li> 
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813 
<li>the outcome of the vote;</li> 
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814 
<li>any Formal Objections.</li> 
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815 
</ul> 
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816 
<p>In order to vote to resolve a substantive issue, an individual <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be a group <a href="#participant">participant</a>. 
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817 
Each organization represented in the group <em class="rfc2119">must</em> have at most one vote, even when the organization is 
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818 
represented by several participants in the group (including Invited Experts). For the purposes of voting:</p> 
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819 
<ul> 
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820 
<li>A Member or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a> is considered a single organization.</li> 
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821 
<li>The <a href="#Team">Team</a> is considered an organization.</li> 
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822 
</ul> 
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823 
<p>Unless the charter states otherwise, <a href="#invitedexpertwg">Invited Experts</a> <em class="rfc2119">may</em> vote.</p> 
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824 
<p>If a participant is unable to attend a vote, that individual <em class="rfc2119">may</em> authorize anyone at the meeting to act 
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825 
as a <dfn id="proxy">proxy</dfn>. The absent participant <em class="rfc2119">must</em> inform the Chair in writing who is acting 
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826 
as proxy, with written instructions on the use of the proxy. For a Working Group or Interest Group, see the related requirements 
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827 
regarding an individual who attends a meeting as a <a href="#mtgsubstitute">substitute</a> for a participant.</p> 
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828 
<p>A group <em class="rfc2119">may</em> vote for other purposes than to resolve a substantive issue. For instance, the Chair often 
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829 
conducts a "straw poll" vote as a means of determining whether there is consensus about a potential decision.</p> 
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830 
<p>A group <em class="rfc2119">may</em> also vote to make a process decision. For example, it is appropriate to decide by simple 
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831 
majority whether to hold a meeting in San Francisco or San Jose (there's not much difference geographically). When simple majority 
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832 
votes are used to decide minor issues, the minority are <em class="rfc2119">not required</em> to state the reasons for their 
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833 
dissent, and the group is <em class="rfc2119">not required</em> to record individual votes.</p> 
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834 
<p>A group charter <em class="rfc2119">should</em> include formal voting procedures (e.g., quorum or threshold requirements) for 
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835 
making decisions about substantive issues.</p> 
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836 
<p>Procedures for <a href="#ACVotes">Advisory Committee votes</a> are described separately.</p> 
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837 
<h3 id="WGAppeals">3.5 Appeal of a Chair's Decision</h3> 
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838 
<p>Groups resolve issues through dialog. Individuals who disagree strongly with a decision <em class="rfc2119">should</em> register 
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839 
with the Chair any <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objections</a> (e.g., to a decision made as the result of a <a href="#Votes">vote</a>).</p> 
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840 
<p>When group participants believe that their concerns are not being duly considered by the group, they <em class="rfc2119">may</em> 
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841 
ask the <a href="#defDirector">Director</a> (for representatives of a Member organization, via their Advisory Committee 
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842 
representative) to confirm or deny the decision. The participants <em class="rfc2119">should</em> also make their requests known to 
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843 
the <a href="#TeamContact">Team Contact</a>. The Team Contact <em class="rfc2119">must</em> inform the Director when a group 
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844 
participant has raised concerns about due process.</p> 
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845 
<p>Any requests to the Director to confirm a decision <em class="rfc2119">must</em> include a summary of the issue (whether technical 
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846 
or procedural), decision, and rationale for the objection. All counterarguments, rationales, and decisions <em class="rfc2119">must</em> 
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847 
be recorded.</p> 
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848 
<p>Procedures for <a href="#ACAppeal">Advisory Committee appeals</a> are described separately.</p> 
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849 
<h3 id="resignation">3.6 Resignation from a Group</h3> 
146
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850 
<p>A W3C Member or Invited Expert <em class="rfc2119">may</em> resign from a group. On written notification from an Advisory 
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851 
Committee representative or Invited Expert to the team, the Member and their representatives or the Invited Expert will be deemed to 
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852 
have resigned from the relevant group. See section 4.2. of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent 
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853 
Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>] for information about obligations remaining after resignation from certain 
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854 
groups.</p> 
140
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855 
<section id="chapterDissemination"> 
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856 
<h2 id="dissemination">4 Dissemination Policies</h2> 
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857 
<p>The Team is responsible for managing communication within W3C and with the general public (e.g., news services, press releases, 
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858 
managing the Web site and access privileges, and managing calendars). Members <em class="rfc2119">should</em> solicit review by 
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859 
the Team prior to issuing press releases about their work within W3C.</p> 
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860 
<p>The Team makes every effort to ensure the persistence and availability of the following public information:</p> 
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861 
<ul> 
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862 
<li><a href="#Reports">W3C technical reports</a> whose publication has been approved by the Director. Per the Membership 
141
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863 
Agreement, W3C technical reports (and software) are available free of charge to the general public; (refer to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyrightdocuments">W3C 
140
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864 
Document License</a> [<a href="#refdoclicense">PUB18</a>]).</li> 
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865 
<li>A <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/mission">mission statement</a> [<a href="#refmission">PUB15</a>] that explains the 
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866 
purpose and mission of W3C, the key benefits for Members, and the organizational structure of W3C.</li> 
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867 
<li>Legal documents, including the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Agreement/MemberAgreement">Membership Agreement</a> [<a 
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868 
href="#refmemberagreement">PUB6</a>]) and documentation of any legal commitments W3C has with other entities.</li> 
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869 
<li>The Process Document.</li> 
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870 
<li>Public results of W3C activities and <a href="#GAEvents">Workshops</a>.</li> 
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871 
</ul> 
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872 
<p>To keep the Members abreast of W3C meetings, Workshops, and review deadlines, the Team provides them with a regular (e.g., 
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873 
weekly) news service and maintains a <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Eventscal">calendar</a> [<a href="#refcalendar">MEM3</a>] 
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874 
of official W3C events. Members are encouraged to send schedule and event information to the Team for inclusion on this calendar.</p> 
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875 
<h3 id"confidentialitylevels"="">4.1 Confidentiality Levels</h3> 
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876 
<p>There are three principal levels of access to W3C information (on the W3C Web site, in W3C meetings, etc.): public, Memberonly, 
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877 
and Teamonly.</p> 
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878 
<p>While much information made available by W3C is public, <dfn id="Memberonly">"Memberonly" information</dfn> is available to 
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879 
authorized parties only, including representatives of Member organizations, <a href="#invitedexpertwg">Invited Experts</a>, the 
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880 
Advisory Board, the TAG, and the Team. For example, the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a> of some Working Groups may specify a 
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881 
Memberonly confidentiality level for group proceedings.</p> 
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882 
<p id="Teamonly">"Teamonly" information is available to the Team and other authorized parties.</p> 
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883 
<p>Those authorized to access Memberonly and Teamonly information:</p> 
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884 
<ul> 
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885 
<li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> treat the information as confidential within W3C,</li> 
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886 
<li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> use reasonable efforts to maintain the proper level confidentiality, and</li> 
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887 
<li><em class="rfc2119">must not</em> release this information to the general public or press.</li> 
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888 
</ul> 
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889 
<p>The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> provide mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of Memberonly information and ensure 
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890 
that authorized parties have proper access to this information. Documents <em class="rfc2119">should</em> clearly indicate 
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891 
whether they require Memberonly confidentiality. Individuals uncertain of the confidentiality level of a piece of information <em 
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892 
class="rfc2119">should</em> contact the Team.</p> 
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893 
<p>Advisory Committee representatives <em class="rfc2119">may</em> authorize Memberonly access to <a href="#memberrep">Member 
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894 
representatives</a> and other individuals employed by the Member who are considered appropriate recipients. For instance, it is 
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895 
the responsibility of the Advisory Committee representative and other employees and official representatives of the organization 
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896 
to ensure that Memberonly news announcements are distributed for internal use only within their organization. Information about 
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897 
Member mailing lists is available in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Intro">New Member Orientation</a>.</p> 
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898 
<h4 id="confidentialitychange">4.1.1 Changing Confidentiality Level</h4> 
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899 
<p>As a benefit of membership, W3C provides some Teamonly and Memberonly channels for certain types of communication. For example, 
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900 
Advisory Committee representatives can send <a href="#ACReview">reviews</a> to a Teamonly channel. However, for W3C processes 
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901 
with a significant public component, such as the technical report development process, it is also important for information that 
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902 
affects decisionmaking to be publicly available. The Team <em class="rfc2119">may</em> need to communicate Teamonly information 
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903 
to a Working Group or the public. Similarly, a Working Group whose proceedings are Memberonly <em class="rfc2119">must</em> make 
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904 
public information pertinent to the technical report development process.</p> 
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905 
<p>This document clearly indicates which information <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be available to Members or the public, even 
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906 
though that information was initially communicated on Teamonly or Memberonly channels. Only the Team and parties authorized by 
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907 
the Team change the level of confidentiality of this information. When doing so:</p> 
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908 
<ol> 
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909 
<li>The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> use a version of the information that was expressly provided by the author for the new 
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910 
confidentiality level. In Calls for Review and other similar messages, the Team <em class="rfc2119">should</em> remind 
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911 
recipients to provide such alternatives.</li> 
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912 
<li>The Team <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> attribute the version for the new confidentiality level to the author without the 
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913 
author's consent.</li> 
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914 
<li>If the author has not conveyed to the Team a version that is suitable for another confidentiality level, the Team <em class="rfc2119">may</em> 
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915 
make available a version that reasonably communicates what is required, while respecting the original level of confidentiality, 
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916 
and without attribution to the original author.</li> 
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917 
</ol> 
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918 
</section> 
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919 
<section id="ChapterGroups"> 
155
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920 
<h2 id="GAGeneral">5 Working Groups and Interest Groups</h2> 
140
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921 
<p id="GAGroups">This document defines two types of groups:</p> 
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922 
<ol> 
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923 
<li><a href="#GroupsWG">Working Groups.</a> Working Groups typically produce deliverables (e.g., <a href="#recadvance">Recommendation 
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924 
Track technical reports</a>, software, test suites, and reviews of the deliverables of other groups). There are additional 
141
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925 
participation requirements described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</li> 
140
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926 
<li><a href="#GroupsIG">Interest Groups.</a> The primary goal of an Interest Group is to bring together people who wish to 
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927 
evaluate potential Web technologies and policies. An Interest Group is a forum for the exchange of ideas.</li> 
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928 
</ol> 
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929 
<p>Interest Groups do not publish <a href="#RecsW3C">Recommendation Track technical reports</a>; see information about <a href="#WGNote">maturity 
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930 
levels for Interest Groups</a>.</p> 
155
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931 
<h3 id="ReqsAllGroups">5.1 Requirements for All Working and Interest Groups</h3> 
140
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932 
<p>Each group <em class="rfc2119">must</em> have a charter. Requirements for the charter depend on the group type. All group 
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933 
charters <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be public (even if other proceedings of the group are <a href="#Memberonly">Memberonly</a>). 
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934 
Existing charters that are not yet public <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be made public when next revised or extended (with 
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935 
attention to <a href="#confidentialitychange">changing confidentiality level</a>).</p> 
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936 
<p>Each group <em class="rfc2119">must</em> have a <dfn id="GeneralChairs">Chair</dfn> (or coChairs) to coordinate the group's 
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937 
tasks. The Director appoints (and reappoints) Chairs for all groups. The Chair is a <a href="#memberrep">Member representative</a>, 
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938 
a <a href="#Team">Team representative</a>, or an <a href="#invitedexpertwg">Invited Expert</a> (invited by the Director). The 
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939 
requirements of this document that apply to those types of participants apply to Chairs as well. The <a href="/Guide/chairroles">role 
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940 
of the Chair [MEM14]</a> is described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/">Member guide</a> [<a href="#refguide">MEM9</a>].</p> 
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941 
<p>Each group <em class="rfc2119">must</em> have a <dfn id="TeamContact">Team Contact</dfn>, who acts as the interface between the 
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942 
Chair, group participants, and the rest of the Team. The <a href="/Guide/staffcontact">role of the Team Contact</a> is described 
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943 
in the Member guide. The Chair and the Team Contact of a group <em class="rfc2119">should not</em> be the same individual.</p> 
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944 
<p>Each group <em class="rfc2119">must</em> have an archived mailing list for formal group communication (e.g., for meeting 
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945 
announcements and minutes, documentation of decisions, and <a href="#FormalObjection">Formal Objections</a> to decisions). It is 
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946 
the responsibility of the Chair and Team Contact to ensure that new participants are subscribed to all relevant mailing lists. 
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947 
Refer to the list of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Member/Mail/">group mailing lists</a> [<a href="#refmailinglists">MEM2</a>].</p> 
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948 
<p>A Chair <em class="rfc2119">may</em> form task forces (composed of group participants) to carry out assignments for the group. 
143
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949 
The scope of these assignments <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> exceed the scope of the group's charter. A group <em class="rfc2119">should</em> 
140
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950 
document the process it uses to create task forces (e.g., each task force might have an informal "charter"). Task forces do not 
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951 
publish <a href="#Reports">technical reports</a>; the Working Group <em class="rfc2119">may</em> choose to publish their results 
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952 
as part of a technical report.</p> 
155
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953 
<h3>5.2 <dfn id="GroupsWG">Working Groups</dfn> and <dfn id="GroupsIG">Interest Groups</dfn></h3> 
140
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954 
<p>Although Working Groups and Interest Groups have different purposes, they share some characteristics, and so are defined together 
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955 
in the following sections.</p> 
155
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956 
<h4>5.2.1 <dfn id="groupparticipation">Working Group and Interest Group Participation Requirements</dfn></h4> 
140
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957 
<p>There are three types of individual <dfn id="wgparticipant">participants in a Working Group</dfn>: <a href="#memberrep">Member 
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958 
representatives</a>, <a href="#invitedexpertwg">Invited Experts</a>, and <a href="#Team">Team representatives</a> (including 
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959 
the <a href="#TeamContact">Team Contact</a>).</p> 
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960 
<p>There are four types of individual <dfn id="igparticipant">participants in an Interest Group</dfn>: the same three types as for 
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961 
Working Groups plus, for an Interest Group where the only <a href="#igmailonly">participation requirement is mailing list 
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962 
subscription</a>, <dfn id="publicparticipantig">public participants</dfn>.</p> 
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963 
<p>Except where noted in this document or in a group charter, all participants share the same rights and responsibilities in a 
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964 
group; see also the <a href="#ParticipationCriteria">individual participation criteria</a>.</p> 
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965 
<p>A participant <em class="rfc2119">must</em> represent at most one organization in a Working Group or Interest Group.</p> 
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966 
<p>An individual <em class="rfc2119">may</em> become a Working or Interest Group participant at any time during the group's 
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967 
existence. See also relevant requirements in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secjoin">section 4.3</a> of the 
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968 
<a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p> 
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969 
<p>On an exceptional basis, a Working or Interest Group participant <em class="rfc2119">may</em> designate a <dfn id="mtgsubstitute">substitute</dfn> 
153
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970 
to attend a <a href="#GeneralMeetings">meeting</a> and <em class="rfc2119">should</em> inform the Chair. The substitute <em class="rfc2119">may</em> 
140
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971 
act on behalf of the participant, including for <a href="#Votes">votes</a>. For the substitute to vote, the participant <em class="rfc2119">must</em> 
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972 
inform the Chair in writing in advance. As a courtesy to the group, if the substitute is not wellversed in the group's 
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973 
discussions, the regular participant <em class="rfc2119">should</em> authorize another participant to act as <a href="#proxy">proxy</a> 
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974 
for votes.</p> 
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975 
<p>To allow rapid progress, Working Groups are intended to be small (typically fewer than 15 people) and composed of experts in the 
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976 
area defined by the charter. In principle, Interest Groups have no limit on the number of participants. When a Working Group grows 
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977 
too large to be effective, W3C <em class="rfc2119">may</em> split it into an Interest Group (a discussion forum) and a much 
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978 
smaller Working Group (a core group of highly dedicated participants).</p> 
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979 
<p>See also the licensing obligations on Working Group participants in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secObligations">section 
139  980 
3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>], 
140
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981 
and the patent claim exclusion process of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secExclusion">section 4</a>.</p> 
155
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982 
<h5>5.2.1.1 <dfn id="memberrepwg">Member Representative</dfn> in a Working Group</h5> 
140
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983 
<p>An individual is a Member representative in a Working Group if all of the following conditions are satisfied:</p> 
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984 
<ul> 
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985 
<li>the Advisory Committee representative of the Member in question has designated the individual as a Working Group participant, 
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986 
and</li> 
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987 
<li>the individual qualifies for <a href="#memberrep">Member representation</a>.</li> 
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988 
</ul> 
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989 
<p><dfn id="memberrepinfo">To designate an individual as a Member representative in a Working Group</dfn>, an Advisory Committee 
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990 
representative <em class="rfc2119">must</em> provide the Chair and Team Contact with all of the following information, in 
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991 
addition to any other information required by the <a href="#cfp">Call for Participation</a> and charter (including the 
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992 
participation requirements of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>]):</p> 
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993 
<ol> 
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994 
<li>The name of the W3C Member the individual represents and whether the individual is an employee of that Member organization;</li> 
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995 
<li>A statement that the individual accepts the participation terms set forth in the charter (with an indication of charter date 
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996 
or version);</li> 
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997 
<li>A statement that the Member will provide the necessary financial support for participation (e.g., for travel, telephone calls, 
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998 
and conferences).</li> 
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999 
</ol> 
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1000 
<p>A Member participates in a Working Group from the moment the first Member representative joins the group until either of the 
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1001 
following occurs:</p> 
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1002 
<ul> 
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1003 
<li>the group closes, or</li> 
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1004 
<li>the Member <a href="#resignation">resigns</a> from the Working Group; this is done through the Member's Advisory Committee 
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1005 
representative.</li> 
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1006 
</ul> 
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1007 
<h5>5.2.1.2 <dfn id="memberrepig">Member Representative</dfn> in an Interest Group</h5> 
140
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1008 
<p>When the participation requirements exceed <a href="#igmailonly">Interest Group mailing list subscription</a>, an individual 
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1009 
is a Member representative in an Interest Group if all of the following conditions are satisfied:</p> 
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1010 
<ul> 
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1011 
<li>the Advisory Committee representative of the Member in question has designated the individual as an Interest Group 
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1012 
participant, and</li> 
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1013 
<li>the individual qualifies for <a href="#memberrep">Member representation</a>.</li> 
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1014 
</ul> 
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1015 
<p>To designate an individual as a Member representative in an Interest Group, the Advisory Committee representative <em class="rfc2119">must</em> 
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1016 
follow the instructions in the <a href="#cfp">Call for Participation</a> and charter.</p> 
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1017 
<p>Member participation in an Interest Group ceases under the same conditions as for a Working Group.</p> 
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1018 
<h5>5.2.1.3 <dfn id="invitedexpertwg">Invited Expert in a Working Group</dfn></h5> 
140
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1019 
<p>The Chair <em class="rfc2119">may</em> invite an individual with a particular expertise to participate in a Working Group. This 
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1020 
individual <em class="rfc2119">may</em> represent an organization in the group (e.g., if acting as a liaison with another 
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1021 
organization).</p> 
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1022 
<p>An individual is an Invited Expert in a Working Group if all of the following conditions are satisfied:</p> 
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1023 
<ul> 
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1024 
<li>the Chair has designated the individual as a group participant,</li> 
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1025 
<li>the Team Contact has agreed with the Chair's choice, and</li> 
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1026 
<li>the individual has provided the <a href="#invexpertinfo">information required of an Invited Expert</a> to the Chair and 
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1027 
Team Contact.</li> 
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1028 
</ul> 
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1029 
<p>To designate an individual as an Invited Expert in a Working Group, the Chair <em class="rfc2119">must</em> inform the Team 
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1030 
Contact and provide rationale for the choice. When the Chair and the Team Contact disagree about a designation, the <a href="#defDirector">Director</a> 
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1031 
determines whether the individual will be invited to participate in the Working Group.</p> 
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1032 
<p><dfn id="invexpertinfo">To be able to participate in a Working Group as an Invited Expert</dfn>, an individual <em class="rfc2119">must</em> 
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1033 
do all of the following:</p> 
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1034 
<ul> 
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1035 
<li>identify the organization, if any, the individual represents as a participant in this group,</li> 
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1036 
<li>agree to the terms of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/collaboratorsagreement">invited expert and 
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1037 
collaborators agreement</a> [<a href="#refinvitedexpert">PUB17</a>],</li> 
141
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1038 
<li>accept the participation terms set forth in the charter (including the participation requirements of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secObligations">section 
140
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1039 
3</a> (especially 3.4) and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secDisclosure">section 6</a> (especially 
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1040 
6.10) of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>]). 
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1041 
Indicate a specific charter date or version,</li> 
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1042 
<li>disclose whether the individual is an employee of a W3C Member; see the <a href="#coi">conflict of interest policy</a>,</li> 
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1043 
<li>provide a statement of who will provide the necessary financial support for the individual's participation (e.g., for travel, 
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1044 
telephone calls, and conferences), and</li> 
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1045 
<li>if the individual's employer (including a selfemployed individual) or the organization the individual represents is not a W3C 
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1046 
Member, indicate whether that organization intends to join W3C. If the organization does not intend to join W3C, indicate 
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1047 
reasons the individual is aware of for this choice.</li> 
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1048 
</ul> 
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1049 
<p>The Chair <em class="rfc2119">should not</em> designate as an Invited Expert in a Working Group an individual who is an employee 
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1050 
of a W3C Member. The Chair <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> use Invited Expert status to circumvent participation limits imposed 
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1051 
by the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a>.</p> 
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1052 
<p>An Invited Expert participates in a Working Group from the moment the individual joins the group until any of the following 
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1053 
occurs:</p> 
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1054 
<ul> 
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1055 
<li>the group closes, or</li> 
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1056 
<li>the Chair or Director withdraws the invitation to participate, or</li> 
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1057 
<li>the individual <a href="#resignation">resigns</a>.</li> 
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1058 
</ul> 
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1059 
<h5>5.2.1.4 <dfn id="invitedexpertig">Invited Expert in an Interest Group</dfn></h5> 
140
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1060 
<p>When the participation requirements exceed <a href="#igmailonly">Interest Group mailing list subscription</a>, the 
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1061 
participation requirements for an Invited Expert in an Interest Group are the same as those for an <a href="#invitedexpertwg">Invited 
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1062 
Expert in a Working Group</a>.</p> 
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1063 
<h5>5.2.1.5 <dfn id="teamrepwg">Team Representative in a Working Group</dfn></h5> 
140
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1064 
<p>An individual is a Team representative in a Working Group when so designated by W3C management.</p> 
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1065 
<p>A Team representative participates in a Working Group from the moment the individual joins the group until any of the following 
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1066 
occurs:</p> 
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1067 
<ul> 
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1068 
<li>the group closes, or</li> 
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1069 
<li>W3C management changes Team representation by sending email to the Chair, cc'ing the group mailing list.</li> 
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1070 
</ul> 
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1071 
<p>The Team participates in a Working Group from the moment the Director announces the creation of the group until the group closes.</p> 
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1072 
<h5>5.2.1.6 <dfn id="teamrepig">Team Representative in an Interest Group</dfn></h5> 
140
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1073 
<p>When the participation requirements exceed <a href="#igmailonly">Interest Group mailing list subscription</a>, an individual 
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1074 
is a Team representative in an Interest Group when so designated by W3C management.</p> 
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1075 
<h4>5.2.2 <dfn id="WGCharterDevelopment">Working Group and Interest Group Charter Development</dfn></h4> 
140
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1076 
<p>W3C creates a charter based on interest from the Members and Team. The Team <em class="rfc2119">must</em> notify the Advisory 
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1077 
Committee when a charter for a new Working Group or Interest Group is in development. This is intended to raise awareness, even if 
154
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1078 
no formal proposal is yet available. Advisory Committee representatives <em class="rfc2119">may</em> provide feedback on the <a 
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1079 
href="#ACCommunication">Advisory Committee discussion list</a>.</p> 
140
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1080 
<p>W3C <em class="rfc2119">may</em> begin work on a Working Group or Interest Group charter at any time.</p> 
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1081 
<h4>5.2.3 <dfn id="CharterReview">Advisory Committee Review of a Working Group or Interest Group Charter</dfn></h4> 
140
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1082 
<p>The Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> solicit <a href="#ReviewAppeal">Advisory Committee review</a> of every new or 
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1083 
substantively modified Working Group or Interest Group charter. The Director is <em class="rfc2119">not required</em> to solicit 
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1084 
Advisory Committee review prior to a charter extension or for minor changes. The review period <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be 
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1085 
at least four weeks.</p> 
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1086 
<p>The Director's Call for Review of a substantively modified charter <em class="rfc2119">must</em> highlight important changes 
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1087 
(e.g., regarding deliverables or resource allocation) and include rationale for the changes.</p> 
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1088 
<h4>5.2.4 <dfn id="cfp">Call for Participation in a Working Group or Interest Group</dfn></h4> 
140
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1089 
<p>After Advisory Committee review of a Working Group or Interest Group charter, the Director <em class="rfc2119">may</em> issue a 
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1090 
Call for Participation to the Advisory Committee. Charters <em class="rfc2119">may</em> be amended based on review comments 
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1091 
before the Director issues a Call for Participation. </p> 
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1092 
<p>For a new group, this announcement officially creates the group. The announcement <em class="rfc2119">must</em> include a 
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1093 
reference to the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a>, the name(s) of the group's <a href="#GeneralChairs">Chair(s)</a>, and the 
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1094 
name of the <a href="#TeamContact">Team Contact</a>.</p> 
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1095 
<p>After a Call for Participation, any <a href="#memberrep">Member representatives</a> and <a href="#invitedexpertwg">Invited 
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1096 
Experts</a> <em class="rfc2119">must</em> be designated (or redesignated).</p> 
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1097 
<p>Advisory Committee representatives <em class="rfc2119">may</em> <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> creation or substantive 
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1098 
modification of a Working Group or Interest Group charter.</p> 
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1099 
<h4>5.2.5 <dfn id="charterextension">Working Group and Interest Group Charter Extension</dfn></h4> 
140
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1100 
<p>To extend a Working Group or Interest Group charter with no other substantive modifications, the Director announces the extension 
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1101 
to the Advisory Committee. The announcement <em class="rfc2119">must</em> indicate the new duration. The announcement <em class="rfc2119">must</em> 
140
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1102 
also include rationale for the extension, a reference to the <a href="#WGCharter">charter</a>, the name(s) of the group's <a href="#GeneralChairs">Chair(s)</a>, 
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1103 
the name of the <a href="#TeamContact">Team Contact</a>, and instructions for joining the group.</p> 
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1104 
<p>After a charter extension, Advisory Committee representatives and the Chair are <em class="rfc2119">not required</em> to 
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1105 
redesignate <a href="#memberrep">Member representatives</a> and <a href="#invitedexpertwg">Invited Experts</a>.</p> 
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1106 
<p>Advisory Committee representatives <em class="rfc2119">may</em> <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> the extension of a Working Group 
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1107 
or Interest Group charter.</p> 
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1108 
<h4>5.2.6 <dfn id="WGCharter">Working Group and Interest Group Charters</dfn></h4> 
140
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1109 
<p>A Working Group or Interest Group charter <em class="rfc2119">must</em> include all of the following information.</p> 
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1110 
<ul> 
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1111 
<li>The group's mission (e.g., develop a technology or process, review the work of other groups);</li> 
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1112 
<li>The scope of the group's work and criteria for success;</li> 
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1113 
<li>The duration of the group (typically from six months to two years);</li> 
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1114 
<li>The nature of any deliverables (technical reports, reviews of the deliverables of other groups, or software), expected 
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1115 
milestones, and the process for the group participants to approve the release of these deliverables (including public 
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1116 
intermediate results). A charter is <em class="rfc2119">not required</em> to include the schedule for a review of another 
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1117 
group's deliverables;</li> 
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1118 
<li>Any dependencies by groups within or outside of W3C on the deliverables of this group. For any dependencies, the charter <em 
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1119 
class="rfc2119">must</em> specify the mechanisms for communication about the deliverables;</li> 
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1120 
<li>Any dependencies of this group on other groups within or outside of W3C. Such dependencies include interactions with <a href="http://www.w3.org/Guide/Charter.html#horizontalreview">W3C 
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1121 
Horizontal Groups</a>;</li> 
140
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1122 
<li>The <a href="#confidentialitylevels">level of confidentiality</a> of the group's proceedings and deliverables;</li> 
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1123 
<li>Meeting mechanisms and expected frequency;</li> 
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1124 
<li>If known, the date of the first <a href="#ftfmeeting">facetoface meeting</a>. The date of the first facetoface meeting 
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1125 
of a proposed group <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> be sooner than <span class="timeinterval">eight weeks</span> after the 
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1126 
date of the proposal.</li> 
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1127 
<li>Communication mechanisms to be employed within the group, between the group and the rest of W3C, and with the general public;</li> 
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1128 
<li>An estimate of the expected time commitment from participants;</li> 
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1129 
<li>The expected time commitment and level of involvement by the Team (e.g., to track developments, write and edit technical 
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1130 
reports, develop code, or organize pilot experiments).</li> 
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1131 
<li>Intellectual property information. What are the intellectual property (including patents and copyright) considerations 
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1132 
affecting the success of the Group? In particular, is there any reason to believe that it will be difficult to meet the 
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1133 
RoyaltyFree licensing goals of section 2 of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a 
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1134 
href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>]?</li> 
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1135 
</ul> 
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1136 
<p>See also the charter requirements of <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secLicensing">section 2</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secObligations">section 
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1137 
3</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p> 
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1138 
<p id="igcharterparticipation">An Interest Group charter <em class="rfc2119">may</em> include provisions regarding participation, 
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1139 
including specifying that the <dfn id="igmailonly">only requirement for participation (by anyone) in the Interest Group is 
141
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1140 
subscription to the Interest Group mailing list</dfn>. This type of Interest Group <em class="rfc2119">may</em> have <a href="#publicparticipantig">public 
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1141 
participants</a>.</p> 
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1142 
<p>A charter <em class="rfc2119">may</em> include additional voting procedures, but those procedures <em class="rfc2119">must not</em> 
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1143 
conflict with the <a href="#Votes">voting requirements</a> of the Process Document.</p> 
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1144 
<p>A charter <em class="rfc2119">may</em> include provisions other than those required by this document. The charter <em class="rfc2119">should</em> 
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1145 
highlight whether additional provisions impose constraints beyond those of the W3C Process Document (e.g., limits on the number of 
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1146 
individuals in a Working Group who represent the same Member organization or group of <a href="#MemberRelated">related Members</a>).</p> 
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1147 
<h4>5.2.8 <dfn id="GeneralTermination">Working Group and Interest Group Closure</dfn></h4> 
140
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1148 
<p>A Working Group or Interest Group charter specifies a duration for the group. The Director, subject to <a href="#ACAppeal">appeal</a> 
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1149 
by Advisory Committee representatives, <em class="rfc2119">may</em> close a group prior to the date specified in the charter in 
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1150 
any of the following circumstances:</p> 
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1151 
<ul> 
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1152 
<li>There are insufficient resources to produce chartered deliverables or to maintain the group, according to priorities 
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1153 
established within W3C.</li> 
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1154 
<li>The group produces chartered deliverables ahead of schedule.</li> 
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1155 
</ul> 
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1156 
<p>The Director closes a Working Group or Interest Group by announcement to the Advisory Committee.</p> 
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1157 
<p>Closing a Working Group has implications with respect to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent 
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1158 
Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</p> 
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1159 
</section> 
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1160 
<h2 id="Reports">6 W3C Technical Report Development Process</h2> 
140
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1161 
<p>The W3C technical report development process is the set of steps and requirements followed by W3C <a href="#GroupsWG">Working 
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1162 
Groups</a> to standardize Web technology. The W3C technical report development process is designed to </p> 
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1163 
<ul> 
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1164 
<li>support multiple specification development methodologies</li> 
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1165 
<li>maximize <a href="#defConsensus" rel="glossary" title="Definition of Consensus"><span class="dfninstance">consensus</span></a> 
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1166 
about the content of stable technical reports</li> 
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1167 
<li>ensure high technical and editorial quality</li> 
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1168 
<li>promote consistency among specifications</li> 
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1169 
<li>facilitate royaltyfree, interoperable implementations of Web Standards, and</li> 
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1170 
<li>earn endorsement by W3C and the broader community.</li> 
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1171 
</ul> 
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1172 
<p>See also the licensing goals for W3C Recommendations in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secLicensing">section 
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1173 
2</a> of the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>]. 
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1174 
</p> 
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1175 
<h3 id="recadvance">6.1 W3C Technical Reports</h3> 
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1176 
<p>Please note that <dfn>publishing</dfn> as used in this document refers to producing a version which is listed as a W3C Technical 
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1177 
Report on its <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">Technical Reports page http://www.w3.org/TR</a>.</p> 
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1178 
<p>This chapter describes the formal requirements for publishing and maintaining a W3C Recommendation or Note.</p> 
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1179 
<p>Typically a series of Working Drafts are published, each of which refines a document under development to complete the scope of 
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1180 
work envisioned by a Working Group's charter. For a technical specification, once review suggests the Working Group has met their 
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1181 
requirements satisfactorily for a new standard, there is a Candidate Recommendation phase. This allows the entire W3C membership to 
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1182 
provide feedback on whether the specification is appropriate as a W3C Recommendation, while the Working Group formally collects 
140
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1183 
implementation experience to demonstrate that the specification works in practice. The next phase is a Proposed Recommendation, to 
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1184 
finalize the review of W3C Members. If the Director determines that W3C member review supports a specification becoming a standard, 
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1185 
W3C publishes it as a Recommendation.</p> 
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1186 
<p>Groups may also publish documents as W3C Notes, typically either to document information other than technical specifications, such 
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1187 
as use cases motivating a specification and best practices for its use, or to clarify the status of work that is abandoned. </p> 
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1188 
<p>Some W3C Notes are developed through successive Working Drafts, with an expectation that they will become Notes, while others are 
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1189 
simply published. There are few formal requirements to publish a document as a W3C Note, and they have no standing as a 
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1190 
recommendation of W3C but are simply documents preserved for historical reference.</p> 
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1191 
<p>Individual Working Groups and Interest Groups may adopt additional processes for developing publications, so long as they do not 
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1192 
conflict with the requirements in this chapter.</p> 
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1193 
<h4 id="recsandnotes">6.1.1 Recommendations and Notes</h4> 
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1194 
<p>W3C follows these steps when advancing a technical report to Recommendation.</p> 
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1195 
<ol> 
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1196 
<li>Publication of the <a href="#firstwd">First Public Working Draft</a>,</li> 
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1197 
<li>Publication of zero or more revised <a href="#revisedwd">Public Working Drafts</a>.</li> 
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1198 
<li>Publication of a <a href="#lastcall">Candidate Recommendation</a>.</li> 
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1199 
<li>Publication of a <a href="#recpr">Proposed Recommendation</a>.</li> 
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1200 
<li>Publication as a <a href="#recpublication">W3C Recommendation</a>.</li> 
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1201 
<li>Possibly, Publication as an <a href="#recedited">Edited Recommendation</a></li> 
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1202 
</ol> 
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1203 
<p> 
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1204 
<svg xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 450 60" height="5em" width="45em"> 
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1205 
<g id="ToFPWD" stroke="black" fill="black"> 
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1206 
<a xlink:href="#firstwd"><text fontsize="8" fontfamily="Times,serif" y="38" x="66" textanchor="start" stroke="none">First WD</text></a> 
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1207 
<path d="M66,40h33"></path> 
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1208 
<polygon points="98,36 108,40 98,44"></polygon> </g> 
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1209 
<g id="nodeWD"> 
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1210 
<ellipse ry="18" rx="38" cy="40" cx="147" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse> 
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1211 
<a xlink:href="#RecsWD"><text fontsize="14" fontfamily="Times,serif" y="44" x="147" textanchor="middle">WD</text></a> </g> 
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1212 
<g id="repeatWD" stroke="black"> 
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1213 
<path d="M128,24C123,14 129,4 147,4 158,4 165,8 167,14" fill="none" strokedasharray="6 1"></path> 
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1214 
<polygon points="170,14 166,24 164,13"></polygon> </g> 
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1215 
<g class="edge" id="toCR" stroke="black" fill="black"> 
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1216 
<path d="M185,40h31"></path> 
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1217 
<polygon points="211,36 221,40 211,44"></polygon> </g> 
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1218 
<g id="nodeCR"> 
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1219 
<ellipse ry="18" rx="38" cy="40" cx="260" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse> 
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1220 
<a xlink:href="#RecsCR"><text fontsize="14" fontfamily="Times,serif" y="44" x="260" textanchor="middle">CR</text></a> </g> 
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1221 
<g class="edge" id="repeatCR" stroke="black" fill="black"> 
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1222 
<path d="M242,24C238,14 244,4 260,4 271,4 277,8 279,14" strokedasharray="5 3" fill="none"></path> 
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1223 
<polygon points="282,14 277,24 275,13"></polygon> </g> 
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1224 
<g id="backToWD" stroke="#666" fill="#666"> 
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1225 
<path d="M190,47h34" strokedasharray="4 4"></path> 
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1226 
<polygon points="190,45 183,47 190,49"></polygon> </g> 
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1227 
<g class="edge" id="ToPR" stroke="black" fill="black"> 
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1228 
<path d="M298,40h27"></path> 
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1229 
<polygon points="324,36 334,40 324,44"></polygon> </g> 
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1230 
<g id="nodePR"> 
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1231 
<ellipse ry="18" rx="28" cy="40" cx="363" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse> 
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1232 
<a xlink:href="#RecsPR"><text fontsize="14" fontfamily="Times,serif" y="44" x="363" textanchor="middle">PR</text></a> </g> 
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1233 
<g id="BackToCR" stroke="#aaa" fill="#aaa"> 
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1234 
<path d="M301,47h38" strokedasharray="2 5"></path> 
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1235 
<polygon points="301,45 296,47 301,49"></polygon> </g> 
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1236 
<g id="ToRec" stroke="black" fill="black"> 
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1237 
<path d="M391,40h20"></path> 
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1238 
<polygon points="404,36 414,40 404,44"></polygon> </g> 
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1239 
<g id="nodeRec"> 
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1240 
<ellipse ry="18" rx="28" cy="40" cx="443" stroke="black" fill="none"></ellipse> 
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1241 
<a xlink:href="#RecsW3C"><text fontsize="14" fontfamily="Times,serif" y="44" x="443" textanchor="middle">REC</text></a> </g> 
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1242 
</svg> </p> 
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1243 
<p>W3C <em class="rfc2119">may</em> <a href="#trend">end work on a technical report</a> at any time.</p> 
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1244 
<p>The Director <em class="rfc2119">may</em> decline a request to advance in maturity level, requiring a Working Group to conduct 
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1245 
further work, and <em class="rfc2119">may</em> require the specification to return to a lower <a href="#maturitylevels">maturity 
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1246 
level</a>. The Director <em class="rfc2119">must</em> inform the <a href="#AC">Advisory Committee</a> and Working Group Chairs 
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1247 
when a Working Group's request for a specification to advance in maturity level is declined and the specification is returned to a 
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1248 
Working Group for further work.</p> 
155
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1249 
<h4 id="maturitylevels">6.1.2 Maturity Levels</h4> 
140
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1250 
<dl> 
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1251 
<dt id="RecsWD">Working Draft (WD)</dt> 
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1252 
<dd>A Working Draft is a document that W3C has published for review by the community, including W3C Members, the public, and other 
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1253 
technical organizations. Some, but not all, Working Drafts are meant to advance to Recommendation; see the <a href="#DocumentStatus">document 
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1254 
status section</a> of a Working Draft for the group's expectations. Any Working Draft not, or no longer, intended to advance to 
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1255 
Recommendation <em class="rfc2119">should</em> be published as a Working Group Note. Working Drafts do not necessarily represent 
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1256 
a consensus of the Working Group, and do not imply any endorsement by W3C or its members beyond agreement to work on a general 
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1257 
area of technology.</dd> 
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1258 
<dt id="RecsCR">Candidate Recommendation (CR)</dt> 
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1259 
<dd class="changed">A Candidate Recommendation is a document that satisfies the Working Group's technical requirements, and has 
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1260 
already received wide review. W3C publishes a Candidate Recommendation to 
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1261 
<ul> 
143
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1262 
<li>signal to the wider community that it is time to do a final review</li> 
140
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1263 
<li>gather <a href="#implementationexperience">implementation experience</a></li> 
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1264 
<li>begin formal review by the Advisory Committee, who <em class="rfc2119">may</em> recommend that the document be published as 
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1265 
a W3C Recommendation, returned to the Working Group for further work, or abandoned.</li> 
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1266 
<li>Provide an exclusion opportunity as per the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a 
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1267 
href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>]. A Candidate Recommendation under this process corresponds to the "Last Call Working 
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1268 
Draft" discussed in the Patent Policy.</li> 
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1269 
</ul> 
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1270 
</dd> 
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1271 
<dd><strong>Note:</strong> Candidate Recommendations are expected to be acceptable as Recommendations. Announcement of a different 
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1272 
next step <em class="rfc2119">should</em> include the reasons why the change in expectations comes at so late a stage.</dd> 
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1273 
<dt id="RecsPR">Proposed Recommendation</dt> 
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1274 
<dd>A Proposed Recommendation is a document that has been accepted by the W3C Director as of sufficient quality to become a W3C 
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1275 
Recommendation. This phase establishes a deadline for the Advisory Committee review which begins with Candidate Recommendation. 
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1276 
Substantive changes <em class="rfc2119">must</em> not be made to a Proposed Recommendation except by publishing a new Working 
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1277 
Draft or Candidate Recommendation.</dd> 
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1278 
<dt id="RecsW3C">W3C Recommendation (REC)</dt> 
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1279 
<dd>A W3C Recommendation is a specification or set of guidelines or requirements that, after extensive consensusbuilding, has 
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1280 
received the endorsement of W3C Members and the Director. W3C recommends the wide deployment of its Recommendations as standards 
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1281 
for the Web. The W3C RoyaltyFree IPR licenses granted under the Patent Policy apply to W3C Recommendations.</dd> 
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1282 
<dt id="WGNote">Working Group Note, Interest Group Note (NOTE) </dt> 
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1283 
<dd>A Working Group Note or Interest Group Note is published by a chartered Working Group or Interest Group to provide a stable 
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1284 
reference for a useful document that is not intended to be a formal standard, or to document work that was abandoned without 
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1285 
producing a Recommendation.</dd> 
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1286 
<dt id="RescindedRec">Rescinded Recommendation</dt> 
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1287 
<dd>A Rescinded Recommendation is an entire Recommendation that W3C no longer endorses. See also clause 10 of the licensing 
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1288 
requirements for W3C Recommendations in <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy#secRequirements">section 5</a> of 
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1289 
the <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/PatentPolicy">W3C Patent Policy</a> [<a href="#refpatentpolicy">PUB33</a>].</dd> 
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1290 
</dl> 
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1291 
<p>Working Groups and Interest Groups <em class="rfc2119">may</em> make available "Editor's drafts". Editor's drafts have no official 
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1292 
standing whatsoever, and do not necessarily imply consensus of a Working Group or Interest Group, nor are their contents endorsed in 
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1293 
any way by W3C.</p> 
155
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1294 
<h3 id="requirementsanddefinitions">6.2 General requirements and definitions</h3> 
140
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1295 
<p>Please note that <dfn>publishing</dfn> as used in this document refers to producing a version which is listed as a W3C Technical 
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1296 
Report on its <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">Technical Reports page http://www.w3.org/TR</a> [<a href="#rdfdoclist">PUB11</a>].</p> 
155
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1297 
<h4 id="generalrequirements">6.2.1 General requirements for Technical Reports</h4> 
140
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1298 
<p>Every document published as part of the technical report development process <em class="rfc2119 old">must</em> be a public 
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1299 
document. The <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">index of W3C technical reports</a> [<a href="#refdoclist">PUB11</a>] is available 
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1300 
at the W3C Web site. W3C strives to make archival documents indefinitely available at their original address in their original form.</p> 
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1301 
<p>Every document published as part of the technical report development process <em class="rfc2119 old">must</em> clearly indicate 
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1302 
its <a href="#maturitylevels">maturity level</a>, and <em id="DocumentStatus" class="rfc2119">must</em> include information about 
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1303 
the status of the document. This status information</p> 
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1304 
<ul> 
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1305 
<li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> be unique each time a specification is published,</li> 
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1306 
<li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> state which Working Group developed the specification, </li> 
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1307 
<li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> state how to send comments or file bugs, and where these are recorded, </li> 
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1308 
<li><em class="rfc2119">must</em> include expectations about next steps,</li> 
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1309 
<li><em class="rfc2119">should</em> explain how the technology relates to existing international standards and related work inside 
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1310 
or outside W3C, and</li> 
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